A pattern where the verb is transitive, A is animate, high in Potency and coreferent with P, which is signaled by the reflexive morpheme si, that is an argument of the verb, as shown by the applicability of the substitution test, whereby si can be replaced either by the tonic form sé stesso 'oneself' as in (iia) or by a clitic complement pronoun, lo, in (iib): (i) il ladro si nascose dietro una siepe. The thief REFL hid behind a hedge; 'The thief hid himself behind a hedge.'; (ii)a. il ladro nascose sé stesso; 'The thief hid himself behind a hedge.'; (ii)b. il ladro lo nascose; The thief him hid; 'The thief hid him.'; The distinction among different types of reflexive patterns is to be seen as a gradient, with overlapping of categories at their periphery, in their non-canonical realizations. It is not always easy, in fact, to detect the function of the reflexive morpheme si, owing to the complex interplay between syntactic and semantic features, resulting also from different diachronic paths (Cennamo 1995, 2011d).
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