Alternation ‘Causative’ (Uncoded)

A valency increasing alternation, whereby a monovalent verb becomes divalent and a divalent verb becomes trivalent, through the adjoining of two predicates, the governing matrix verb - fare 'make' (the factitive/coercive causative)/lasciare 'let' (the permissive causative) - and a dependent infinitive (Shibatani & Pardeshi 2002, int. al.). The two verbs form a complex predicate, functioning as one unit, with ensuing restructuring of their original argument structure. If the adjoined infinitive is monovalent, its original subject (cucchiaio 'spoon' in (i)) becomes the object of the complex predicate far(e)/lasciar(e) cadere (postverbal if nominal, as in (ia), preverbal if pronominal, as in (ib)). If the adjoined infinitive is divalent, or trivalent, its original object and indirect objects (dolce 'cake' in (ii), a Giovanna in (iii)) function, respectively, as the direct object and indirect object of the complex predicate (far(e)/lasciar(e) mangiare 'make/let eat' in (ii), far(e)/lasciar(e) inviare 'make/let send' in (iii)). The original subject is expressed, instead, as either an indirect object, headed by a 'to', or as an agentive phrase, headed by da 'by', reflecting a difference in control, low in the former form, high in the latter. With the permissive, lasciare 'let', however, only the a-phrase is possible if the dependent infinitive is a stative verb, never the da-phrase (iv). Interestingly, the degree of acceptability of the da-phrase appears to reflect the aspectual characteristics of the verb, since it is possible with accomplishments and achievements (ii), odd/marginally acceptable with active accomplishments (e.g., mangiare 'eat' ) (iii) and impossible with statives (iv): (i) a. Marco fece/lasciò cadere il cucchiaio. Mark made/let fall the spoon; b. Marco lo fece/lasciò cadere. Mark it made/let fall; 'Mark made/let it fall.'; (ii) Marco fece/lasciò inviare il libro a Giovanna da Anna. Mark made/let send the book to Jane by Anne; 'Mark made/let Jane send the book to Anne.'; (iii) Marco fece/lasciò mangiare il dolce a suo padre/da suo; padre. Mark made/let eat the cake to his father/by his father; 'Mark made/let his father eat the cake.'; (iv) Marco lasciò vedere il quadro a Luca/*da Luca. Mark let.PST.3SG see the painting to Luke/*by Luke; 'Mark let Luke see the painting.'; When the dependent infinitive is a reflexive verb, in the factitive construction the verb occurs without si, as in (iv): (iv) Marco fece/lasciò radere (*radersi) Giovanni . Mark made/let shave (*shave himself) John; 'Mark made/let John shave.'

Verb Meaning Verb form Basic coding frame Derived coding frame Occurs Comment # Ex.