nkā-nēʔé

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/nka-u-nēʔé/
CPL-CAUS-throw
There is no basic verb (anymore, or that I have found) containing solely the root without the
u-causative prefix. However, the root -nēʔé is found elsewhere as a bound root in compounds, most notably the verb -to-nēʔé 'to be gathered', which is a positional verb. In that verb the -to-element is probably a reduced form of t-uʔu or tukwa 'be inside', so it appears that the -nēʔé adds the 'gathered' meaning in that case. Any semantic relation between 'gather' and 'throw' is not very clear to me.

Coding frame

Complex Verb form

Examples

(140)
"Jā na kūʔwíí nkaʔne lō jiʔį́" nakwę lēʔ nkānēʔéūʔ jnuwę̄ʔ naneʔē.
CONJ
na
ART
kūʔwí=V́
drunk=DEM
nka-ʔne
CPL-do
loō
like.so
jiʔį́
RN.2SG
nakwę
say(.3)
lēʔ
then
nkā-nēʔé=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-throw=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
nanēʔ
stomach
‘"That drunk there did this to you", he said, and they threw him in the jail.’
(142)
Laaʔ tī tu walari kukwą̄ kee kūnēʔé jį̄.
laaʔ
like.so
COND
tu
IRR
wala=ri
where=only
k-ukwą̄
POT-grab
kee
rock
k-ū-nēʔé
POT-CAUS-throw
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘They can grab rocks and throw them wherever.’
(141)
Tzanēʔéjnáʔą̄ʔ jį́ nto kiiʔ nyāʔā chu xīyáʔri tikwą ntikwiʔjnyáʔā jyą́ʔ nakwę niʔ kwetāʔaʔ jnā kweeʔeʔ.
tz-a-nēʔé=jnáʔ=ą̄ʔ
POT-go.NBASE-throw=blast=1SG
jiʔį́
RN.2SG
ntoo
face
kiiʔ
fire
nyāʔā
HAB.see.2SG
chu
NOM.HUM
xīyáʔ=ri
small=only
tikwą
ugly
nti-kwiʔ-jnyáʔā
HAB-speak-bad
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
nakwę
say
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kwetāʔ=Vʔ
fox=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kweeʔ=Vʔ
crab=DEM
‘"I am going to throw you in the fire, you'll see, you little one, because you insult me", said the fox to the crab.’
(252)
Chúʔ kūnáʔa ntijyalóʔō jnā walǭ nkānēʔé jį̄.
chúʔ
3SG.F
kūnáʔa
female
nti-jya-lóʔō
HAB-play-RN.with(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
walǭ
ball
nkā-nēʔé
CPL.CAUS-throw
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘The woman playing with the ball threw it.’

Verb meaning , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# THROW Coding set Argument type
1 thrower Ø A
2 thrown thing jiʔį̄+NP P
3 throwing goal jiʔį̄+NP P

Alternations

Alternation name Occurs Examples
C
N y
U
N n
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y
U
N n
C
N y
C
N This has the u-causative prefix, but does not alternate with an intransitive counterpart. y
C
N y