nka-suʔū

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/nka-u-suʔū/
CPL-CAUS-show
Exx. 135, 136, 139 (all SHOW) and ex. 138 (TEACH) have T before R. Ex. 137 (TEACH) appears to have R before T, but that may be ambiguous because the RN
jiʔį̄ may be flagging the T, with the R completely unexpressed. Alternatively, the jiʔį̄ may be flagging the zero-marked 3SG R and the T is unflagged. I think the former is correct, and therefore the example would not be exceptional. In cases where one NP is considerably longer, there is heavy NP shift to the end of the sentence, but that would not be the case here.

Coding frame

Complex Verb form

Examples

(135)
Nkasuʔū na nkwítząá tzaka lakaʔ nkyánā jyą́ʔ.
nka-suʔū
CPL.CAUS-show
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
tzaka
one
lakaʔ
leaf
nk-yánā
CPL-wilt
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
‘The child showed me a wilted leaf.’
(136)
Nkasuʔūúʔ jnā liwrūú jnīʔ matrū skwelā.
nka-suʔū=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-show=3NSPEC
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
liwrū=V́
book=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
niʔ
3SG.RSP
matrū
master
skwelā
school
‘The book was shown to the teacher.’
(137)
Ntusuʔū jiʔį̄ xītzáʔ itzǫʔ tyā.
nt-u-suʔū
HAB-CAUS-show(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
x-ītzáʔ
POSS-word
itzǫʔ
back
tyáā
water
‘She teaches him English.’
(138)
Nāáʔ kusuʔōǫ́ʔ táā jiʔį́.
nāáʔ
1SG
k-u-suʔū=ą̄ʔ
POT-CAUS-show=1SG
táą̄
valley
jiʔį́
RN.2SG
‘I will teach you Zapotec.’
(139)
Kusuʔōǫ́ʔ jnā nkwítzą kūnáʔa jnīʔ kíʔyōǫ́ʔ.
k-u-suʔū=ą̄ʔ
POT-CAUS-show=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kūnáʔa
female
jiʔį̄
RN
jniʔ
offspring
kíʔyū=ą̄ʔ
male=1SG
‘I will show the girls to my son.’

Verb meanings , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# SHOW TEACH Coding set Argument type
1 shower teacher Ø A
2 shown thing taught content jiʔį̄+NP P
3 showing addressee teachee jiʔį̄+NP P

Alternations

Alternation name Occurs Examples
U
R This means 'to teach' in general. n
(251)
‘The teacher did not teach the children yesterday.’
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y
C
N This verb has the u-causative prefix, but it does not alternate with an intransitive. y
U
N n
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y