nkw-ē-k-utzę

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/nkwi-ē-k-utzę/
CPL-CAUS-POT-fear
This is causativized form of 'be afraid'/'fear'.
FRIGHTEN does not get causativized itself in some sort of double causative.

Coding frame

Complex Verb form

Examples

(66)
Nkwēkutzę niʔ kíʔyūú jnā nkwítzą kíʔyūú.
nkw-ē-k-utzę
CPL-CAUS-POT-fear
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
‘The man frightened the boy.’
(67)
Lyakwā ntekutzę jiʔį́ nakwę niʔ joʔō kwitzaā jiʔį̄ nyáʔa niʔ.
lyakwā
why
nt-e-k-utzę
HAB-CAUS-POT-fear(.3)
jiʔį́
RN.2SG
nakwę
say
niʔ
3SG.RSP
joʔō
god
kwitzaā
sun
jiʔį̄
RN
nyáʔa
mother
niʔ
3SG.RSP
‘"Why does it scare you?", the sun asked his mother.’
(118)
Ntekēkutzę xāláą̄ʔ jyą́ʔ nu ntēráyakaūʔ jyą́ʔ.
nte-k-ē-k-utzę
PRG-POT-CAUS-POT-fear
x-ālá=ą̄ʔ
POSS-dream=1SG
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
nu
NOM
ntē-rá-yaka=ūʔ
PRG-hit-wood=3PL
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
‘My dreams about people hitting me with a stick are frightening me.’
(180)
Lēʔ lóʔō na yaka nu ntuʔu yaāʔ ntekutzęyu jnā lyūkēʔę́ ntyákwikāʔá nu wiʔ.
lēʔ
then
lóʔō
RN.with
na
ART
yaka
wood
nu
NOM
n-t-uʔu
STAT-TRN-be.inside
yaāʔ
hand(.3)
nt-e-k-utzę=yu
HAB-CAUS-POT-fear=3SG.M
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
lyūkēʔę́
fly
n-tyákwi=kāʔá
HAB-fly=also
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
‘Then, with the stick that he had in his hand, he was scaring the flies that flew also, that one.’

Verb meaning , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# FRIGHTEN Coding set Argument type
1 frightener Ø A
2 frightenee jiʔį̄+NP P

Alternations

Alternation name Occurs Examples
U
N n
C
N This verb is the causative of -utzę. y
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y
U
N n
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y