nkā-tūkwá

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/nka-u-tūkwá/
CPL-CAUS-be.inside
This verb is an u-causative verb derived from the basic intr. verb -tūkwá 'be inside'.

Coding frame

Complex Verb form

Examples

(34)
Tza liya nu ta nkujwī xile ta ta nteyajā xile nu nchatzūʔ nyaʔa lēʔ kūtūkwáą ítā jiʔį̄.
tza
one
liya
time
nu
NOM
ta
already
nku-jwī
CPL-get(.3)
xile
strength
ta
already
ntey-ajā
PRG-get(.3)
xile
strength
nu
NOM
nch-atzūʔ
PRG-rot
nyaʔa
HAB.see(.3)
lēʔ
then
k-ū-tūkwá=ą
POT-CAUS-be.inside=1PL.INCL
ítā
water
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘Once it has gotten strength and is getting stronger and we see it is rotting, then we pour water on it.’
(35)
Kūtūkwá jnā lúkwīiʔ lō nu taʔa.
k-ū-tūkwá
POT-CAUS-be.inside(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
lúkwī=Vʔ
mezcal=DEM
when
nu
NOM
taʔa
festival
‘They will pour the mezcal during the festival.’
(37)
Nkātūkwá tejeʔ jnā kantūuʔ.
nkā-tūkwá
CPL.CAUS-be.inside(.3)
tejeʔ
salt
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kantū=Vʔ
broth=DEM
‘She put salt in the broth.’
(126)
Ntūxūʔúya kixę̄ʔ wī ntūtūkwáya ntzukwāʔ.
nt-ū-xūʔú=ya
HAB-CAUS-get.cut=1PL.EXCL
kixę̄ʔ
herb
and
nt-ū-tūkwá=ya
HAB-CAUS-be.inside=1PL.EXCL
ntzukwāʔ
maize
‘We used to cut the weeds and we would plant the corn.’
(218)
Nkātūkwá niʔ kíʔyūú jnā nkutīí nanēʔ na karetāá.
nkā-tūkwá
CPL.CAUS-be.inside
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkutī=V́
hay=DEM
nanēʔ
stomach
na
ART
karetā=V́
cart=DEM
‘The man put (loaded) the hay into the cart.’
(219)
Nkatūkwá jiʔį̄ nanēʔ tzaka kichuwī kusǭ.
nka-tūkwá
CPL.CAUS-be.inside(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
nanēʔ
stomach
tzaka
one
kichuwī
basket
kusǭ
old
‘He put them in an old basket.’
(195)
"Tyūkwá kitzę ti wą ná akwāʔ kūlíji jwą̄ tī luwiʔ" nakwę.
tyūkwá
POT.be.inside(.3)
kitzę
village
ti=wą
home=2PL
NEG
akwāʔ
when
k-ū-líji
POT-CAUS-get.lost
jiʔį̄=wą
RN=2PL
EMPH
luwiʔ
then
nakwę
say(.3)
‘"It will be in your village, and it will never be lacking for you all then", he said.’

Verb meanings , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# LOAD POUR Coding set Argument type
1 loader pourer Ø A
2 loaded thing poured substance jiʔį̄+NP P
3 loading place pouring goal jiʔį̄+NP P

Alternations

Alternation name Occurs Examples
U
M With object omission, the verb means 'to plant corn'. This is a bit different from standard object omissions because there is a specific type of understood object (corn). n
(36)
‘Too bad for you guys, why did you plant (corn) there?’
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y
C
N This verb is the result of u-causativization. y
U
N n
C
N y
C
N y