nkā-naʔa

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/nkā-naʔa/
CPL-see

Coding frame

Simplex Verb form

Examples

(19)
Kutākǫ́ʔǫ jnā litaá jā ná nyaʔa xíkwą̄ jį̄.
k-u-t-ākǫ́ʔ=ą
POT-CAUS-TRN-cover=1PL.INCL
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
lita=V́
ear.of.corn=DEM
CONJ
NEG
nyaʔa
POT.see
xíkwą̄
sunlight
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘We are going to cover up the corn so that the sun does not see it.’
(64)
"Kwinyaʔatzoʔōwą" nakwę.
kwi-naʔa=tzoʔō=wą
IMP-see=well=2PL
nakwę
say(.3)
‘"Look here!", he said.’
(120)
Ntāáūʔ ītzáʔ ntunaą maxi ná nkānaʔaą̄ʔ jį̄ ná yujweę̄ʔ jiʔį̄ ná yalaʔą̄ʔ jį̄.
n-tāá=ūʔ
HAB-give=3PL
ītzáʔ
word
nt-una=ą
HAB-hear=1PL.INCL
maxi
CONJ
NEG
nkā-naʔa=ą̄ʔ
CPL-see=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
NEG
y-u-jwi=ą̄ʔ
CPL-CAUS-die=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
NEG
y-alaʔ=ą̄ʔ
CPL-touch=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘They talk about it and we listen, but I never saw it, I never killed it, I never touched it.’
(153)
Jwaā yanāʔā jnā wurū tī ná nteyatiʔ.
jwaā
Juan
y-a-nāʔā
CPL-go.NBASE-see.2SG
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
wurū
donkey
COND
NEG
nte-y-atiʔ
PRG-ITRN-untie
‘Juan! Go and look at the donkey to see that it is not coming untied.’
(224)
Nkānaʔa niʔ kíʔyū jnā nkwítzą kíʔyūuʔ.
nkā-naʔa
CPL-see
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū
male
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kíʔyū=Vʔ
male=DEM
‘The man saw the boy.’
(271)
Wiʔ nkwisēnaʔa jį̄yúʔ wiʔ.
wiʔ
there
nkw-isē-naʔa
CPL-AUX.turn-see(.3)
jiʔį̄=ūʔ
RN=3PL
wiʔ
DEM
‘There she turned around to look at them.’
(178)
Choo keʔekāʔá nyaʔana.
choo
rain
k-eʔe=kāʔá
POT-go.down=again
nyaʔa=na
HAB.see=1PL.INCL
‘It looks like it is going to rain again.’

Verb meanings , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# LOOK AT SEE Coding set Argument type
1 looker seeer Ø A
2 looked at entity seen entity jiʔį̄+NP P

Alternations

Alternation name Occurs Examples
C
N y
U
R This example shows an unergative use of 'see' that means 'find out' as in English and many other languages. n
(110)
‘"Now he will see", he said, "he will meet the people that live here", he said.’
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y
U
R The intransitive use means 'to look', 'to appear', as in 'the fruit looks ripe'. n
(223)
‘Juan is cleaning off the tree in order to paint it with lime, because it looked very ugly.’
C
N y
C
N y