Examples of Zenzontepec Chatino

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
tzo&7 sate7 yu nkasa_a!7 sate7 yu
Tzǫʔ sateʔyu nkāsāáʔ sateʔyu.
tzǫʔ
back
s-ateʔ=yu
POSS-clothes=3SG.M
nkā-s-āáʔ
CPL.CAUS-TRN-tear(.3)
s-ateʔ=yu
POSS-clothes=3SG.M
‘The back of his clothes, he tore his clothes.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(2)
na nkwi_tza!& -V! nte-sa_a!7 ji7i_& na chaja -V!
Na nkwítząá ntēsāáʔ jnā chajaá.
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
ntē-s-āáʔ
PRG.CAUS-TRN-tear(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
chaja=V́
tortilla=DEM
‘The child is tearing the tortilla.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(3)
zaa -a& ja_ ta nte-t-a_a!7 ti_ na nchuluwa ja_ ta nku-la!a_ ti!ni_
Tsaą jā ta ntētāáʔ tī na nchuluwa jā ta nkūláā tínī.
tz-aa=ą
POT-go.NBASE=1PL.INCL
CONJ
ta
already
ntē-t-āáʔ
PRG-ITRN-tear
EMPH
na
ART
nchuluwa
soursop
CONJ
ta
already
nkū-láā
CPL-get.loose(.3)
EMPH
niī
now
‘We are going to go because the soursops are cracking because they already came loose.’
TEAR the Verb form nkā-s-āáʔ
(4)
na! y-aku-a!&7 suwe -V7 la_ka!
Ná yakoǭʔ suweeʔ lāká.
NEG
y-aku=ą̄ʔ
CPL-eat=1SG
suwe=Vʔ
egg=DEM
lāká
yesterday
‘I did not eat eggs yesterday.’
EAT a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(5)
jwaa -V! nk-a_=ta_na! -yu y-aku -yu pasti!ya_
Jwāá nkātāná yu yaku yu pastíyā.
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
n-kā-tāná=yu
CPL-be-poisoned=3SG.M
y-aku=yu
CPL-eat=3SG.M
pastíyā
pill
‘Juan got poisoned because he ate pills.’
EAT a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(6)
nu chu jwaa_ le!e_ kena7a& nkwi-ti!tz_u7 y-aku -yu nku-tu!kwa_ tu7wa -yu
Nu chu Jwaā léē kenaʔa nkwītítzūʔ yaku yu nkutúkwā tuʔwa yu.
nu
NOM
chu
NOM.HUM
jwaā
Juan
léē
very
kenaʔa
many
nkwītítzūʔ
pineapple
y-aku=yu
CPL-eat=3SG.M
nku-túkwā
CPL-chafe
tuʔwa=yu
mouth=3SG.M
‘Juan ate too much pineapple and his mouth got raw (chafed).’
EAT a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(7)
nt-aku -na ji7i_&. nte-7ne=lya_la! ji7i_& ti_ke! -na
Ntaku na jį̄.
nt-aku=na
HAB-eat=1PL.INCL
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘We eat it.’
EAT a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(8)
kii nii_ ch-a!ku na chaja -V! ja_ kena7a ti_ na chaja -V! n-to_=ne_7e!
Kii niī cháku na chajaá jā kenaʔa tī na chajaá ntōnēʔé.
kii
tomorrow
niī
now
ch-áku
POT.ITRN-eat
na
ART
chaja=V́
tortilla=DEM
CONJ
kenaʔa
many
EMPH
na
ART
chaja=V́
tortilla=DEM
n-tō-nēʔé
STAT-TRN.be.inside-gather(.3)
‘Tomorrow those tortillas will be eaten, because there are many of those tortillas piled up.’
EAT an Alternation:
Intransitive alternation
(9)
jwa_ -V! na! nka-s-ata& ji7i_& na kwichi_ -V! ja_ ch-a!ku nu_wa!
Jwāá ná nkasatą jnā kwichīí jā cháku nūwá.
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
NEG
nka-s-atą
CPL.CAUS-TRN-peel(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kwichī=V́
rabbit=DEM
CONJ
ch-áku
POT.ITRN-eat
nu
NOM
DEM
‘Juan did not skin the rabbit for it to be eaten.’
EAT an Alternation:
Intransitive alternation
(10)
Nkyáku na chajlyāaʔ.
nk-y-áku
CPL-ITRN-eat
na
ART
cha-jlyā=Vʔ
tortilla-Castille=DEM
‘The bread got eaten.’
EAT an Alternation:
Intransitive alternation
(11)
y-aku chu!7 ku_na!7a -V! ji7i_& cha=jlya_ -V!
Yaku chúʔ kūnáʔaá jiʔį̄ chajlyāá.
y-aku
CPL-eat
chúʔ
3SG.F
kūnáʔa=V́
female=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
cha-jlyā=V́
tortilla-Castille=DEM
‘The girl ate the bread.’
EAT a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(12)
Ntesāʔwé nchakuūʔ.
nte-s-āʔwé
PRG.CAUS-TRN-split.in.half(.3)
nch-aku=ūʔ
PRG-eat=3PL
‘They are splitting (food) and eating.’
EAT an Alternation:
Object omission alternation
(13)
Ta nkwitiyaa kwēyáʔ kakoǫ.
ta
already
nkwi-tiyaa
CPL-arrive.there.NBASE
kwēyáʔ
time
k-aku=ą
POT-eat=1PL.INCL
‘The time has arrived that we eat.’
EAT an Alternation:
Object omission alternation
(14)
na nkwi!tza& -V! nte-k-e_=k-aku chaja ji7i_& na jne_7 -V!
Na nkwítząá ntekēkaku chaja jiʔį̄ na jnēʔé.
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
nte-k-ē-k-aku
PRG-POT-CAUS-POT-eat(.3)
chaja
tortilla
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
jnēʔ=V́
dog=DEM
‘The kids are feeding tortillas to the dogs.’
EAT an Alternation:
Causative of active verb
(15)
Nka-tuuʔ chu kíʔyūú.
nka-tuuʔ
CPL-cough
chu
NOM.HUM
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
‘The man coughed.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
V 1
(16)
Chu kíʔyūuʔ nkaʔne tyátuuʔ nu kūnáʔaaʔ.
chu
NOM.HUM
kíʔyū=Vʔ
male=DEM
nka-ʔne
CPL-do(.3)
tyá-tuuʔ
POT.begin-cough
nu
NOM
kūnáʔa=Vʔ
female=DEM
‘The man made the woman cough.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
V 1
(17)
nka_-t-a_ko!&7 ni7 ki!7u_ -V! ji7i_& na nkwi!tza& -V! lo!7o_ na ta_ kitza&7 -V!
Nkātākǫ́ʔ niʔ kíʔyūú jiʔį̄ na nkwítząá lóʔō na tā kitząʔá.
nkā-t-ākǫ́ʔ
CPL.CAUS-TRN-cover
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
lóʔō
RN.with
na
ART
tā-kitząʔ=V́
cloth-hair=DEM
‘The man covered the child with the blanket.’
CLOSE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(18)
nte-ta_ko!&7 koo ji7i_& koo_7
Ntētākǫ́ʔ koo jį̄ koōʔ.
ntē-t-ākǫ́ʔ
PRG.CAUS-TRN-cover
koo
cloud
jiʔį̄
RN
koōʔ
moon
‘The cloud is covering the moon.’
CLOSE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(19)
k-u-t-ako_&7 -a& ji7i_& na lita -V! ja_ na! nya7a xi!kwa_& ji7i_&
Kutākǫ́ʔǫ jnā litaá jā ná nyaʔa xíkwą̄ jį̄.
k-u-t-ākǫ́ʔ=ą
POT-CAUS-TRN-cover=1PL.INCL
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
lita=V́
ear.of.corn=DEM
CONJ
NEG
nyaʔa
POT.see
xíkwą̄
sunlight
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘We are going to cover up the corn so that the sun does not see it.’
CLOSE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(20)
nka-t-a_ko!&7 ntoo nku-tyu_kwa! lu-wi7
Nkātākǫ́ʔ ntoo nkutyūkwá luwiʔ.
nkā-t-ākǫ́ʔ
CPL.CAUS-TRN-cover(.3)
ntoo
eye(.3)
nku-tyūkwá
CPL-go.out(.3)
luwiʔ
then
‘He closed his eyes and walked out then.’
CLOSE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(21)
Nkātākǫ́ʔų̄ʔ nkwiyūʔ.
nkā-t-ākǫ́ʔ=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-TRN-cover=3PL
nkw-ii=ūʔ
CPL-want=3PL
‘They planned on closing it off (the place).’
CLOSE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(22)
nka-t-a_ko!&7 nu nee jo7o_ kya7a_ ke!ku_. nk-y-a_ko!&7=ntoo nu nee jo7o_ kya7a_ ke!ku_ kwenta_ nu nee nk-yaa& nu nee mpanjelisado_r nka_
Nkātākǫ́ʔ nu nee joʔō kyaʔā kékū.
nkā-t-ākǫ́ʔ
CPL.CAUS-TRN-cover(.3)
nu
NOM
nee
say(.3)
joʔō
god
kyaʔā
mountain
kékū
water.place
‘He closed off the one called the god of nature.’
CLOSE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(23)
nk-y-a_ko!&7 skwela_. na_la! matru_ skwela_
Nkyākǫ́ʔ skwelā.
nk-y-ākǫ́ʔ
CPL-ITRN-cover
skwelā
school
‘The school was closed.’
CLOSE the Verb form nka-t-ākǫ́ʔ
(24)
nk-ya_ko!&7 kitza&7 ke nu kuna_7a!& nu n-ta_a! kwi!ti_
Nkyākǫ́ʔ kitząʔ ke nu kūnáʔa nu ntāá kwítī.
nk-y-ākǫ́ʔ
CPL-ITRN-cover
kitząʔ
hair
ke
head
nu
NOM
kūnáʔa
female
nu
NOM
n-tāá
HAB-give
kwítī
medicine
‘The nurse's hair is covered up (with a cloth).’
CLOSE the Verb form nka-t-ākǫ́ʔ
(25)
nk-y-a_ko!&7 nt-ii ke!tu_ xee&7 -a_&7
Nkyākǫ́ʔ ntii kétū xeęʔę̄ʔ.
nk-y-ākǫ́ʔ
CPL-ITRN-cover
nt-ii
HAB-feel
kétū
hole
xeęʔ=ą̄ʔ
nose=1SG
‘My nose feels like it got plugged up.’
CLOSE the Verb form nka-t-ākǫ́ʔ
(26)
Nkyākǫ́ʔ na nkwítząá lóʔō na tā kitząʔá.
nk-y-ākǫ́ʔ
CPL-ITRN-cover
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
lóʔō
RN.with
na
ART
tā-kitząʔ=V́
cloth-hair=DEM
‘The child was covered up with the blanket.’
CLOSE the Verb form nka-t-ākǫ́ʔ
(27)
nka-7ne-cha!=tza7a& ji7i_& na keto&7 lo!7o_ i!ta_
Nkaʔnechátzaʔą jnā ketǫʔó lóʔō ítyā!
nka-ʔne-chá-tzaʔą
CPL-do-POT.reach-full(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
ketǫʔ=V́
pot=DEM
lóʔō
RN.with
ítā
water
‘Fill the pot with water!’
FILL a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(28)
ni7 ki!7yu_ -V! nka_-x-i_ka!&7 ji7i_& na kwayu_ -V! ji7i_& na yaka -V!
Niʔ kíʔyūú nkāxīką́ʔ jnā kwayūú jnā yakaá.
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
nkā-x-īką́ʔ
CPL.CAUS-TRN-tie(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kwayū=V́
horse=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
yaka=V́
tree=DEM
‘The man tied the horse to the tree.’
TIE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3 lóʔō+4
(29)
nk-ya_ka!&7 na kwayu_ -V! ji7i_& na_ yaka -V!
Nkyāką́ʔ na kwayūú jnā yakaá.
nk-y-āką́ʔ
CPL-ITRN-tie
na
ART
kwayū=V́
horse=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
yaka=V́
tree=DEM
‘The horse was tied to the tree.’
TIE the Verb form nkā-x-īką́ʔ
(30)
le_7 wi7 nii_ le_7 nkwi-tya=yaa_7 ti_ kosa_ nu ki_-ni_jnya! -yu le_7 nka-xi_ka!&7 -yu ti_ ji7i_& na toro_ -V7
... lēʔ nkāxīką́ʔyu tī jiʔį̄ na torōoʔ.
lēʔ
then
nkā-x-īką́ʔ=yu
CPL.CAUS-TRN-tie=3SG.M
EMPH
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
torō=Vʔ
bull=DEM
‘... and then he tied up the bull.’
TIE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3 lóʔō+4
(31)
nka_-x-i_ka!&7-u_7 ji7i_& lo!7o_ ye!so_
Nkāxīką́ʔōʔ jiʔį̄ lóʔō yésō.
nkā-x-īką́ʔ=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-TRN-tie=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
lóʔō
RN.with
yésō
plaster
‘They bandaged him in plaster.’
TIE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3 lóʔō+4
(32)
jwaa_ -V! nka_-x-i_ka!&7 ji7i_& na jne_7 -V!
Jwāá nkāxīką́ʔ jiʔį̄ na jnēʔé.
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
nkā-x-īką́ʔ
CPL.CAUS-TRN-tie(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
jnēʔ=V́
dog=DEM
‘Juan tied up the dog.’
TIE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3 lóʔō+4
(33)
wi!la_ ch-aka_&7 ti_ nu wi7. wi!la_ sukwa_ yaka ike ti_ nu wi7 ntikwi7 -a& ya nti-sukwa_ ke
Wílā chaką̄ʔ tī nuwęʔ.
wílā
not.yet
ch-aką̄ʔ
POT.ITRN-tie
EMPH
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
‘That one still had not been tied up.’
TIE the Verb form nkā-x-īką́ʔ
(34)
tza liya nu ta nku-jwi_ xile ta ntey-aja_ xile nu nch-atzu_7 nya7a le_7 k-u-tu_kwa! -a& i!ta_ ji7i_&
Tza liya nu ta nkujwī xile ta ta nteyajā xile nu nchatzūʔ nyaʔa lēʔ kūtūkwáą ítā jiʔį̄.
tza
one
liya
time
nu
NOM
ta
already
nku-jwī
CPL-get(.3)
xile
strength
ta
already
ntey-ajā
PRG-get(.3)
xile
strength
nu
NOM
nch-atzūʔ
PRG-rot
nyaʔa
HAB.see(.3)
lēʔ
then
k-ū-tūkwá=ą
POT-CAUS-be.inside=1PL.INCL
ítā
water
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘Once it has gotten strength and is getting stronger and we see it is rotting, then we pour water on it.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(35)
ka le_7 tyu_kwa! tu!kwa nyate_&. k-u_-tu_kwa! ji7i_& na lu!kwi_ -V7 lo_ nu ta7a
Kūtūkwá jnā lúkwīiʔ lō nu taʔa.
k-ū-tūkwá
POT-CAUS-be.inside(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
lúkwī=Vʔ
mezcal=DEM
when
nu
NOM
taʔa
festival
‘They will pour the mezcal during the festival.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(36)
Tyāʔná ka tī kwaʔą nyaʔa lyakwā nkatūkwáwą wiʔ?
tyāʔná
unfortunate
k-a
POT-be
EMPH
kwaʔą
2PL
nyaʔa
HAB.see(.3)
lyakwā
why
nkā-tūkwá=wą
CPL.CAUS-be.inside=2PL
wiʔ
there
‘Too bad for you guys, why did you plant (corn) there?’
LOAD an Alternation:
Object omission alternation
(37)
nka_-tu_kwa! teje7 ji7i_& na kantu_7
Nkātūkwá tejeʔ jnā kantūuʔ.
nkā-tūkwá
CPL.CAUS-be.inside(.3)
tejeʔ
salt
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kantū=Vʔ
broth=DEM
‘She put salt in the broth.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(38)
y-aa -a_&7 ya_kwa! lo!7o_ ti jo7o_ tza=tu_7u! -a_&7 i!ta_ ji7i_& maxi naxi!7i ti_ ke na7a&
Tzatūʔóǭʔ ítā jiʔį̄ maxi nāxíʔi tī kenaʔa.
tz-a-t-ūʔú=ą̄ʔ
POT-go.NBASE.CAUS-TRN-be.inside=1SG
ítā
water
jiʔį̄
RN
maxi
CONJ
nāxíʔi
not.be
EMPH
kenaʔa
many
‘I will pour water on it even if not a lot.’
POUR a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(39)
Nkātūʔú jwaā ítyā jnā keē.
nkā-t-ūʔú
CPL.CAUS-TRN-be.inside
jwaā
Juan
ítā
water
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
keē
flower
‘Juan poured water on the flowers.’
POUR a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(40)
nka-_ta_a! na nkwi!tza& ku_na!7a -V! ji7i_& na liwru_ -V! ji7i_& ni7 matru skwela_ -V!
Nkātāá na nkwítzą kūnáʔaá jnā liwrūú jnīʔ matrū skwelāá.
nkā-tāá
CPL-give
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kūnáʔa=V́
female=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
liwrū=V́
book=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
niʔ
3SG.RSP
matrū
master
skwelā=V́
school=DEM
‘The girl gave the book to the teacher.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(41)
nka_-te_je!& na nkwi!tza& ku_na!7a -V! ji7i_& na liwru_ -V! ji7i_& ni7 matru_ skwela_ -V!
Nkā-tēję́ na nkwítzą kūnáʔaá jnā liwrūú jį̄ niʔ matrū skwelāá.
nkā-tēję́
CPL.CAUS-pass
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kūnáʔa=V́
female=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
liwrū=V́
book=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
niʔ
3SG.RSP
matrū
master
skwelā=V́
school=DEM
‘The girl sent the book to the teacher.’
SEND a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(42)
na xi!7i ti_ ta tu nii_ tu nte_-te_je!& -ya ji7i_& xaa7 se7e&
Nāxíʔi tī ta tu niī tu ntētēję́ya jį̄ xaaʔ seʔę.
nāxíʔi
not.be
EMPH
ta
already
tu
IRR
niī
now
tu
IRR
ntē-tēję́=ya
PRG.CAUS-pass=1PL.EXCL
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
xaaʔ
other
seʔę
place
‘It is not as if we are already sending it out to other areas.’
SEND a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(43)
na! nka-te_je_& na jne_ nu n-tya_kwi_ wi7 ji7i_& -a_&7
Ná nkātēję̄ na jnē nu ntyākwī wiʔ jyą́ʔ.
NEG
nkā-tēję̄
CPL.CAUS-pass.2SG
na
ART
jnē
money
nu
NOM
n-tyākwī
HAB-owe.2SG
wiʔ
DEM
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
‘You did not send me that money you owe me.’
SEND a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(44)
nka_-te_je!& -wa& nte_
Nkātēję́wą ntē.
nkā-tēję́=wą
CPL.CAUS-pass=2PL
nteē
here
‘Send them here.’
SEND a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(45)
nkwi-tya!na ni7 ki!7yu_ -V! ji7i_& na_ nkwi!tza& ki!7yu_ -V!
Nkwītyána niʔ kíʔyūú jnā nkwítzą kíʔyūú.
nkwī-tyána
CPL-look.for
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
‘The man searched for the child.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(46)
nkwi_-tya!na -u_7 ji7i_& na nkwi!tza& ki!7yu_ -V7
Nkwītyánaūʔ jnā nkwítzą kíʔyūuʔ.
nkwī-tyána=ūʔ
CPL-look.for=3NSPEC
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kíʔyū=Vʔ
male=DEM
‘They (nonspecific) searched for the child.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(47)
le_7 nk-ya=ta=sa7a& ti_ luwi7 nakwe&. cha=tya!na -a_&7 ji7i_& -yu la7a_ nakwe&
"Chātyánaą̄ʔ jyū" laʔā nakwę.
chā-tyána=ą̄ʔ
POT.go.BASE-look.for=1SG
jiʔį̄=yu
RN=3SG.M
laʔā
like.so
nakwę
say(.3)
‘"I am going to go to look for him", he said.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(48)
Jā tyánana nyatę̄ nu nu nu kujwi jnūwá nu tyána nyāʔā tula ʔnena jiʔį̄.
CONJ
tyána=na
POT.look.for=1PL.INCL
nyatę̄
person
nu
NOM
k-u-jwi
POT-CAUS-die
jiʔį̄
RN
nu
NOM
DEM
nu
NOM
tyána
POT.look.for
nyāʔā
HAB.see.2SG
tula
what
ʔne=na
POT.do=1PL.INCL
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘Let's look for someone who will kill that one (snake) and who will look for, you see, what we are going to do.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
u-Causative alternation
(49)
wi_ nt-ujwi ti_ kwa ji7i_& nuwe&7 lo!7o_ ke_to!&
Wī ntujwi tī kwa jnuwę̄ʔ lóʔō kētǫ́.
and
nt-u-jwi
HAB-CAUS-die
EMPH
kwaa
1PL.EXCL
jiʔį̄
RN
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
lóʔō
RN.with
kētǫ́
gun
‘We killed those with guns.’
KILL an Alternation:
u-Causative alternation
(50)
na kweta kya7a_ -V7 nk-yaa& nkay-ujwi ji7i_& na kwe!na_ -V7
Na kweta kyaʔāaʔ nkyaą nkayujwi jiʔį̄ na kwénāaʔ.
na
ART
kweta
outsider
kyaʔā=Vʔ
mountain=DEM
nk-yaą
CPL-come.BASE(.3)
nkay-u-jwi
CPL-CAUS-die(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kwénā=Vʔ
snake=DEM
‘The Mixtec came to kill the snake.’
KILL an Alternation:
u-Causative alternation
(51)
nku-jwi ti_ na na kwi_chi! -V7 nakwe& le_7 le_7 tela_ wi7 nku-jwi ti_ na nyate_& -V7
Nkujwi tą̄ na kwīchíiʔ nakwę lēʔ lēʔ telā wiʔ nkujwi tą̄ nyatę̄eʔ.
nku-jwi
CPL-die
EMPH
na
ART
na
ART
kwīchí=Vʔ
jaguar=DEM
nakwę
say(.3)
lēʔ
then
lēʔ
then
telā
night
wiʔ
DEM
nku-jwi
CPL-die
EMPH
na
ART
nyatę̄=Vʔ
person=DEM
‘The jaguar died, they say, and then that night the person died.’
DIE a Coding frame:
V 1
(52)
tzaka tzaka nyate_& ja_ nu tzu_7 ntey-aja -u_7. ntey-aja nu chu n-kaa_ wiska_
Nteyaja nu chu nkaā wiskā.
ntey-aja
PRG-die
nu
NOM
chu
NOM.HUM
n-kaā
CPL-be
wiskā
churchwarden
‘Those who were churchwardens are dying.’
DIE a Coding frame:
V 1
(53)
nku-jwi ni7 ki!7yu_ -V!
Nkujwi niʔ kíʔyūú.
nku-jwi
CPL-die
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
‘The man died.’
DIE a Coding frame:
V 1
(54)
na kwe!na_ -V! nku-jwi lo!7o_ na ya la!ti_ -V!
Na kwénāá nkujwi lóʔō na ya látīí.
na
ART
kwénā=V́
snake=DEM
nku-jwi
CPL-die
lóʔō
RN.with
na
ART
ya
CLF.wood
látī=V́
thin=DEM
‘The snake died by stick.’
DIE a Coding frame:
V 1
(55)
nku-ta=y-u_na! na nkwi!tza& -V7 nakwe& laa7 juti ji7i_& kwenta_ nu k-a_ja! lyo7o
Nkutayūná na nkwítząaʔ nakwę laaʔ juti jį̄ kwentā nu kājá lyoʔo.
nku-ta-y-ūná
CPL-begin-CPL-cry
na
ART
nkwítzą=Vʔ
child=DEM
nakwę
say
laaʔ
like.so
juti
father(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
kwentā
because.of
nu
NOM
k-ājá
POT-get(.3)
lyoʔo
spouse
‘The girl began to cry because her father told her she was going to get a husband.’
GET a Coding frame:
V 1
(56)
wala nku-jwi_ ti_ kwa7a& ji7i_& nuwe&7
Wala nku-jwī tī kwaʔą jnuwę̄ʔ?
wala
where
nku-jwī
CPL-get
EMPH
kwaʔą
2PL
jiʔį̄
RN
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
‘Where did you get that?’
GET a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(57)
Lóʔō nyáʔaą̄ʔ nkujwīį́ʔ jį̄.
lóʔō
RN.with
nyáʔa=ą̄ʔ
mother=1SG
nku-jwī=ą̄ʔ
CPL-get=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘From my mother I got it.’
GET a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(58)
Jā lēʔ nkujwī tī nuwęʔ.
CONJ
lēʔ
then
nku-jwī
CPL-get
EMPH
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
‘So that was gotten.’
GET an Alternation:
Ambitransitive alternation
(59)
nku-jwi_ tza!7 kwe_ya!7 ti_ ni_ ja_ tzaa -a& ti_ ni_
Nkujwī tzáʔ kwēyáʔ tį̄ jā tzaą tiį̄.
nku-jwī
CPL-get
tzáʔ
word
kwēyáʔ
measure
EMPH
niī
now
CONJ
tz-aa=ą
POT-go.NBASE=1PL.INCL
EMPH
niī
now
‘Permission is gotten, so let's go now.’
GET an Alternation:
Ambitransitive alternation
(60)
Nkujwī na liwrūú jnīʔ matrū skwelā.
nku-jwī
CPL-get
na
ART
liwrū=V́
book=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
niʔ
3SG.RSP
matrū
master
skwelā
school
‘The teacher's book was gotten.’
GET an Alternation:
Ambitransitive alternation
(61)
Wiʔ niī lēʔ nu nkyajā tī nuwęʔ jyū.
wiʔ
there
niī
now
lēʔ
then
nu
NOM
nk-y-ajā
CPL-ITRN-get
EMPH
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
jiʔį̄=yu
RN=3SG.M
‘Then there it was that she found him.’
GET an Alternation:
Intransitive alternation
(62)
Wī nuwęʔ kīlyóūʔ nkwiyūʔ pero ná nkyajā.
and
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
k-ī-lyōó=ūʔ
POT-ITER-take.out=3NSPEC
nkw-ii=ūʔ
CPL-want=3NSPEC
pero
but
NEG
nk-y-ajā
CPL-ITRN-get(.3)
‘And it was that one that they wanted to copy, but it didn't appear./Lit: 'And it was that one they wanted to take out again, but it was not found.'’
WANT an Alternation:
Intransitive alternation
(63)
Yutzę na nkwítzą kíʔyūú jiʔį̄ niʔ kíʔyūú.
y-utzę
CPL-fear
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
‘The boy feared the man.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(64)
"Kwinyaʔatzoʔōwą" nakwę.
kwi-naʔa=tzoʔō=wą
IMP-see=well=2PL
nakwę
say(.3)
‘"Look here!", he said.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
UTT1 V 2 jiʔį̄+3
(65)
Komō telā nyaʔa i loxę̄ʔrúʔ wisāʔ nteyutzę na nyatę̄eʔ.
komō
since
telā
night
nyaʔa
HAB.see(.3)
i
and
loxę̄ʔ=rúʔ
in.the.woods=more
wisāʔ
that.is.why
ntey-utzę
PRG-fear
na
ART
nyatę̄=Vʔ
person=DEM
‘As it was nighttime and in the forest, therefore the person was afraid.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Object omission alternation
(66)
Nkwēkutzę niʔ kíʔyūú jnā nkwítzą kíʔyūú.
nkw-ē-k-utzę
CPL-CAUS-POT-fear
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
‘The man frightened the boy.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Causative of active verb
(67)
Lyakwā ntekutzę jiʔį́ nakwę niʔ joʔō kwitzaā jiʔį̄ nyáʔa niʔ.
lyakwā
why
nt-e-k-utzę
HAB-CAUS-POT-fear(.3)
jiʔį́
RN.2SG
nakwę
say
niʔ
3SG.RSP
joʔō
god
kwitzaā
sun
jiʔį̄
RN
nyáʔa
mother
niʔ
3SG.RSP
‘"Why does it scare you?", the sun asked his mother.’
SAY an Alternation:
Causative of active verb
(68)
Kekataūʔ jnīʔ joʔō i kekutūʔúūʔ sateʔ.
k-e-k-ata=ūʔ
POT-CAUS-POT-bathe=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN
niʔ
3SG.RSP
joʔō
sacred
i
and
k-e-k-u-t-ūʔú=ūʔ
POT-CAUS-POT-CAUS-TRN-be.inside=3PL
s-ateʔ
POSS-clothes(.3)
‘They are going to bathe the saint and dress him.’
WASH a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 3
(69)
Nkwēkata na nkwítzą kūnáʔaá jnā piīʔ kūnáʔaá.
nkw-ē-k-ata
CPL-CAUS-POT-bathe
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kūnáʔa=V́
female=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
piīʔ
baby
kūnáʔa=V́
female=DEM
‘The girl washed the baby girl.’
WASH a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(70)
Nkwēkata jnā piīʔ.
nkw-ē-k-ata
CPL-CAUS-POT-bathe(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
piīʔ
baby
‘She bathed the baby.’
WASH a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(71)
Kii nī kōóūʔ jnū wá nī kakuna.
kii
tomorrow
now
k-ōó=ūʔ
POT-grind=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN
nu
NOM
DEM
now
k-aku=na
POT-eat=1PL.INCL
‘Tomorrow they are going to grind it so that we can eat.’
EAT an Alternation:
Object omission alternation
(72)
Tzalóʔō nāáʔ kichi. Tyūkwáxikǭǫ́ʔ jiʔį̄ tzūʔ lātzá jā kóō. Chāʔą̄ jiʔį̄. Kóō.
tz-aa-lóʔō
POT-go.NBASE-RN.with
nāáʔ
1SG
kichi
quern
tyūkwá-xikǭ=ą̄ʔ
POT.sit-arm=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
tzūʔ
during
lātzá
early.morning
CONJ
k-óō
POT-grind.2SG
chāʔą̄
POT.wash.2SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
k-óō
POT-grind.2SG
‘I will take the quern. I'll carry it on my shoulder in the morning because you will grind. You will wash it. You will grind.’
GRIND an Alternation:
Object omission alternation
(73)
Kuweri tzoʔō tzoʔō lēʔ kōʔó=ǫ jiʔį̄ tza tasā xīyáʔ=ri.
k-uwe=ri
POT-get.ground=only
tzoʔō
well
tzoʔō
well
lēʔ
then
k-ōʔó=ą
POT-drink=1PL.INCL
jiʔį̄
RN
tza
one
tasā
cup
xīyáʔ=ri
small=only
‘It gets ground very fine and then one drinks just a small cup.’
GRIND the Verb form nkay-oō
(74)
Laaʔ laa ntzuʔuntoo tī nāáʔ jiʔį̄ na chiiʔ.
laaʔ
like.so
l-aa
STAT-be
ntz-uʔu-ntoo
STAT-be.inside-face
EMPH
nāáʔ
1SG
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
chii=Vʔ
elder=DEM
‘And so it is that I knew that man.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(75)
Tala ntāátīʔ jiʔį́.
tala
always
n-tāá-tīʔ
HAB-give-living.core
jiʔį́
RN.2SG
‘She is always thinking of you.’
THINK a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(76)
Tala ntāátīʔ.
tala
always
n-tāá-tīʔ
HAB-give-living.core
‘He is always thinking.’
THINK an Alternation:
Object omission alternation
(77)
Nkānána nā nkwítząá jnē jnīʔ kíʔyū.
nkā-nána
CPL.CAUS-ask.for
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
jnē
money
jiʔį̄
RN
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū
male
‘The child asked the man for money.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(78)
Nkwīnyánaūʔ jnā jnēé jnā kíʔyūú.
nkwī-nána=ūʔ
CPL-ask.for=3NSPEC
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
jnē=V́
money=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
‘They (nonspec.) asked the man for the money.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(79)
Lēʔ nu tíʔnyo tzúna nyájā nuwęʔ niī nakwę ntyejnā ntūnána tzaka nyatę̄ jiʔį̄.
lēʔ
then
nu
NOM
tíʔnyo
fifteen
tzúna
three
nyájā
year
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
niī
now
nakwę
say(.3)
n-tyejnā
HAB-begin
nt-ū-nána
HAB-CAUS-ask.for
tzaka
one
nyatę̄
person
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘At the age of eighteen it was that a person began asking for her (to marry).’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(80)
Nkwiiya ʔnekwēyáʔya laaʔ laaʔ tī nu jā nt-ū-nána=ūʔ jiʔį̄=ya.
nkw-ii=ya
CPL-want=1PL.EXCL
ʔne-kwēyáʔ=ya
POT.do-measure=1PL.EXCL
laaʔ
like.so
laaʔ
like.so
EMPH
nu
NOM
CONJ
nt-ū-nána=ūʔ
HAB-CAUS-ask.for=3PL
jiʔį̄=ya
RN=1PL.EXCL
‘We wanted to try to do so, because they were asking us for it.’
WANT a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(81)
Ná tzānánana tī jiʔį̄ nyatę̄.
NEG
tz-a-nána=na
POT-go.NBASE.CAUS-ask.for=1PL.INCL
EMPH
jiʔį̄
RN
nyatę̄
person
‘We will not ask the people for it (money).’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(82)
Lēʔ nkānána nāáʔ jnā nkarajwǭoʔ.
lēʔ
then
nkā-nána
CPL.CAUS-ask.for
nāáʔ
1SG
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkarajwǭ=Vʔ
jug=DEM
‘Then I asked for the jugs.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Object omission alternation
(83)
Jā tyejnā kīlákwi tī luwiʔ tza lō tī tu kiiʔ ntuʔu.
CONJ
tyejnā
POT.begin
kī-lákwi
POT-boil
EMPH
luwiʔ
then
tza
one
when
COND
tu
IRR
kiiʔ
fire
n-t-uʔu
STAT-TRN-be.inside
‘It is going to start boiling then, as if there were fire in it.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
V 1
(84)
Tza liya nu nkwityalákwi niī nyāʔā lēʔ lēʔ nchatákwī teę tī luwiʔ.
tza
one
liya
time
nu
NOM
nkwi-tya-lákwi
CPL-finish-boil(.3)
niī
now
nyāʔā
HAB.see.2SG
lēʔ
then
lēʔ
then
nch-a-tákwī
PRG-go.NBASE-be.hanging(.3)
teę
still
EMPH
luwiʔ
then
‘Once it has stopped boiling, you see, it ends up still then.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
V 1
(85)
Nkwēkūlákwi.
nkw-ē-k-ū-lákwi
CPL-CAUS-POT-CAUS-boil(.3)
‘He boiled it.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Causative of active verb
(86)
Nkayūlátuʔwa nā nkwítzą kíʔyūú.
nkay-ūlá-tuʔwa
CPL-sing-mouth
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
‘The boy sang.’
SING an Alternation:
Object omission alternation
(87)
Nkayūlátuʔwa nā nkwítząá tzaka jnii.
nkay-ūlá-tuʔwa
CPL-sing-mouth
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
tzaka
one
jnii
song
‘The child sang a song.’
SING a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(88)
Ntonēʔéūʔ nchūláūʔ.
n-tō-nēʔé=ūʔ
STAT-TRN.be.inside-gather=3PL
nch-ūlá=ūʔ
PRG-sing=3PL
‘Gathered together, they are singing.’
SING an Alternation:
Object omission alternation
(89)
Nanēʔ nyájā tzaą kulākiyaʔą tzaą.
nanēʔ
stomach
nyájā
year
tz-aa=ą
POT-go.NBASE=1PL.INCL
k-ulā-kiyaʔ=ą
POT-sing-foot=1PL.INCL
tz-aa=ą
POT-go.NBASE=1PL.INCL
‘During the year, one goes to dance, one goes.’
SING an Alternation:
Object/instrument incorporation
(90)
Nkwēkūlákiyaʔ.
nkw-ē-k-ūlá-kiyaʔ
CPL-CAUS-POT-sing-foot(.3)
‘She got him to dance.’
SING an Alternation:
Causative of active verb
(91)
Tzáʔ wiʔ niī lēʔ nkaxiti tī jniʔ kūnáʔa na reēʔ.
tzáʔ
word
wiʔ
DEM
niī
now
lēʔ
then
nka-xiti
CPL-laugh
EMPH
jniʔ
offspring
kūnáʔa
female
na
ART
reē=Vʔ
king=DEM
‘That is why the king's daughter laughed.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
V 1
(92)
"Tukwi nu chu kekuxiti jiʔį̄ jniʔ kūnáʔaą̄ʔ" nakwę, "lēʔ yūwíʔ saʔąyu lóʔō" nakwę.
tukwi
which
nu
NOM
chu
NOM.HUM
k-e-k-u-xiti
POT-CAUS-POT-CAUS-laugh
jiʔį̄
RN
jniʔ
offspring
kūnáʔa=ą̄ʔ
female=1SG
nakwę
say(.3)
lēʔ
then
yu=wíʔ
3SG.M=DEM
saʔą=yu
be.attached=3SG.M
lóʔō
RN.with(.3)
nakwę
say(.3)
‘"Whoever makes my daughter laugh", he said, "he will marry her", he said.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Causative of active verb
(93)
Nkaxitilóʔō Jwaʔ jiʔį̄.
nka-xiti-lóʔō
CPL-laugh-RN.with
jwaʔ
Juan
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘Juan laughed at him.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Applicative
(94)
La wiʔ yatēyá luwiʔ lēʔ nkāxáʔā nakwę lákwiʔ tzéʔā wá nī jā yākwá ntixaʔa.
la
as.far.as
wiʔ
there
y-aa-tēyá
CPL-go.NBASE-be.standing
luwiʔ
then
lēʔ
then
nkā-xáʔā
CPL-scream(.3)
nakwę
say(.3)
lákwiʔ
self
tzéʔā
exactly
DEM
now
CONJ
yākwá
there
nti-xaʔa
HAB-scream(.3)
‘She went to stand there then, and then she screamed, they say, it is right there itself where she screamed.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
V 1
(95)
Ntyáxáʔā saaʔ choō jlyū tuʔwari nyaʔa tza laaʔ wiʔ nkā.
n-tyá-xáʔā
HAB-begin-scream
saaʔ
parrot
choō
friend
jlyū
large
tuʔwa=ri
mouth=only
nyaʔa
HAB.see(.3)
tza
one
laaʔ
like.so
wiʔ
there
nkā
before
‘The parrots would begin to cry, friend, and thick they looked when gathered together there before (when they lifted off to fly).’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
V 1
(96)
Wī chu lyāʔ jnyá ntixaʔakāʔáūʔ jnā.
and
chu
NOM.HUM
lyāʔ
use
jnyá
work
nti-xaʔa=kāʔá=ūʔ
HAB-scream=also=3PL
jiʔį̄=na
RN=1PL.INCL
‘And the authorities call on us also.’
SCREAM the Verb form nk-xáʔā
(97)
Kixaʔaą̄ʔ jyū chaąyu tya nteē nakwę jā kunayu.
ki-xaʔa=ą̄ʔ
POT-scream=1SG
jiʔį̄=yu
RN=3SG.M
chaą=yu
POT.come.BASE=3SG.M
tya
towards
nteē
here
nakwę
say(.3)
CONJ
k-una=yu
POT-hear=3SG.M
‘I am going to call him so that he comes here and listens.’
SCREAM the Verb form nk-xáʔā
(98)
Nkāxáʔālóʔō niʔ kíʔyūú jnā nkwítzą kūnáʔaá.
nkā-xáʔā-lóʔō
CPL-scream-RN.with
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kūnáʔa=V́
female=DEM
‘The man screamed at the girl.’
SCREAM an Alternation:
Applicative
(99)
Nāxíʔi tī loō kijyana tī saʔne.
nāxíʔi
not.be
EMPH
loō
like.so
ki-jya=na
POT-play=1PL.INCL
EMPH
saʔne
long.ago
‘It is not the case that we played that way long ago.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
V 1
(100)
Jā xī kāchíʔ tyeʔę lēʔ ná kiʔniūʔ kee jiʔį̄ nu jā na nkwítzą ntijya.
CONJ
NOM.LOC
kāchíʔ
hidden
tyeʔę
POT.be.at(.3)
lēʔ
then
NEG
ki-ʔni=ūʔ
POT-beat=3PL
kee
rock
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
nu
NOM
CONJ
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
nti-jya
HAB-play(.3)
‘Where it is hidden it will be, then they will not throw rocks at it, because children play.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(101)
Kijyaą lóʔōyu nyaʔa walari tzatákwēę.
ki-jya=ą
POT-play=1PL.INCL
lóʔō=yu
RN.with=3SG.M
nyaʔa
POT.see
wala=ri
where=only
tz-a-tákwī=ą
POT-go.NBASE-be.hanging=1PL.INCL
‘We are going to mess with him and see where we end up.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Applicative
(102)
Tzakāʔá nyāʔą̄ nchuwetīʔ.
tzaka
one
kāʔá
again
nyāʔā
HAB.see.2SG
nch-uwe-tīʔ
PRG-get.ground-living.core(.3)
‘The other one, you see, he is sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
V 1
(103)
Nkajnyā chu kíʔyūú jnā niʔií lóʔō lítúu.
nka-jnyā
CPL.CAUS-make
chu
NOM.HUM
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
niʔi=V́
house=DEM
lóʔō
RN.with
lítúu
adobe
‘The man built the house with adobe.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(104)
Nkyāáʔ na niʔií lóʔō kiī.
nk-yāáʔ
CPL-be.made
na
ART
niʔi=V́
house=DEM
lóʔō
RN.with
kiī
grass
‘The house was built with grass.’
BUILD the Verb form nka-jnyā
(105)
Nu liwrū kujnyāyu jiʔį̄ kitzę nu laa nkyuʔu laaʔ saʔne jiʔį̄ to neʔe jiʔį̄ to laa.
nu
NOM
liwrū
book
k-u-jnyā=yu
POT-CAUS-make=3SG.M
jiʔį̄
RN
kitzę
village
nu
NOM
l-aa
STAT-be
nk-y-uʔu
CPL-ITRN-be.inside
laaʔ
like.so
saʔne
long.ago
jiʔį̄
RN
to
mouth
neʔe
house
jiʔį̄
RN
to
mouth
laa
church
‘The book he is going to make for the village is like the one there was long before in the house of the church.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(106)
Tzáʔ jlyā nkajnyā jį̄. Tatīyá tī ų́ʔwá tzáʔ jlyā nkajnyāúʔ jų́ʔ.
tzáʔ
word
jlyā
Castille
nka-jnyā
CPL.CAUS-make(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
tatīyá
every
EMPH
ų́ʔ
3PL
DEM
tzáʔ
word
jlyā
Castille
nka-jnyā=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-make=3PL
jiʔį̄=ūʔ
RN=3PL
‘He made himself mestizo (non-Chatino). They all turned mestizo.’
BUILD the Verb form nka-jnyā
(107)
Ntejnyā niʔ kūnáʔa nu kaku.
nte-jnyā
PRG-make
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kūnáʔa
female
nu
NOM
k-aku
POT-eat(.3)
‘The woman was making what he was going to eat.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(108)
"Kujnyá tzaka ya rawū" nakwę.
k-u-jnyá
POT-CAUS-make.2SG
tzaka
one
ya
CLF.wood
rawū
plough
nakwę
say(.3)
‘"You are going to make a plow", he said.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(109)
Lóʔō maxtyī jyą́ʔ nka-jnyāą́ʔ jį̄.
lóʔō
RN.with
maxtyī
machete
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
nka-jnyā=ą̄ʔ
CPL.CAUS-make=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘I did/made it with my machete.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(110)
La niī nyaʔayu nakwę chuʔuntooyu jiʔį̄ nyatę̄ tāká ntē nakwę.
la
as.far.as
niī
now
nyaʔa=yu
POT.see=3SG.M
nakwę
say(.3)
ch-uʔu-ntoo=yu
POT.ITRN-be.inside-face=3SG.M
jiʔį̄
RN
nyatę̄
person
tāká
ADJ.be
nteē
here
nakwę
say(.3)
‘"Now he will see", he said, "he will meet the people that live here", he said.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Object omission alternation
(111)
Kwitūsúʔwą kwítī kixę̄ʔ tatīyá nu nchuʔuntoo lákwiʔwą.
kwi-tūsúʔ=wą
IMP-grab=2PL
kwítī
medicine
kixę̄ʔ
herb
tatīyá
every
nu
NOM
n-ch-uʔu-ntoo
HAB-ITRN-be.inside-face
lákwiʔ=wą
self=2PL
‘Grab herbal medicine, everything you know yourselves.’
MEET a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(112)
Nāxíʔi tu tijyuʔ tākáą nteēri tāká nkwítzą ntujwiʔ jį̄.
nāxíʔi
not.be
tu
IRR
tijyuʔ
far
tāká=ą
ADJ.be=1PL.INCL
nteē=ri
here=only
tāká
ADJ.be
nkwítzą
child
nt-ujwiʔ
HAB-sell
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘We don't live far, right here lives a kid who sells them.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
V 1 (LOC2)
(113)
Wī tī nuwęʔ wī chiīʔ wala=rā nk-ā=tāká wiʔ?
and
EMPH
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
and
chiīʔ
young.one
wala=rā
where=now
nk-ā-tāká
CPL-be-ADJ.be(.3)
wiʔ
DEM
‘And him, young one, where did he live?’
LIVE a Coding frame:
V 1 (LOC2)
(114)
Luwiʔ nkātāká nāáʔ ta tāká nyatę̄ ntē luwiʔ.
luwiʔ
then
nk-ā-tāká
CPL-be-ADJ.be
nāáʔ
1SG
ta
already
tāká
ADJ.be
nyatę̄
person
nteē
here
luwiʔ
then
‘At that time I was born. There were already people here at that time.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
V 1 (LOC2)
(115)
Ntujnyāya jaʔwa nchuʔu lita.
nt-u-jnyā=ya
HAB-CAUS-make=1PL.EXCL
jaʔwa
granary
n-ch-uʔu
HAB-ITRN-be.inside
lita
ear.of.corn
‘We built granaries where the ears of corn were put.’
POUR a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(116)
Ch-uʔu ntzukwāʔ jiʔį̄ jwaā=V́ la kii.
ch-uʔu
POT.ITRN-be.inside
ntzukwāʔ
maize
jiʔį̄
RN
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
la
as.far.as
kii
tomorrow
‘Tomorrow Juan's corn will be planted.’
POUR the Verb form nkā-t-ūʔú
(117)
Nkārá na nkwítząá jnā kwénāá lóʔō na ya látīí.
nkā-rá
CPL-hit
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kwénā=V́
snake=DEM
lóʔō
RN.with
na
ART
ya
CLF.wood
látī=V́
thin=DEM
‘The boy hit the snake with the stick.’
HIT a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(118)
Ntekēkutzę xāláą̄ʔ jyą́ʔ nu ntēráyakaūʔ jyą́ʔ.
nte-k-ē-k-utzę
PRG-POT-CAUS-POT-fear
x-ālá=ą̄ʔ
POSS-dream=1SG
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
nu
NOM
ntē-rá-yaka=ūʔ
PRG-hit-wood=3PL
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
‘My dreams about people hitting me with a stick are frightening me.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Causative of active verb
(119)
Na nkwítząá yalaʔ jnā kwénāá lóʔō na ya látīí.
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
y-alaʔ
CPL-touch
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kwénā=V́
snake=DEM
lóʔō
RN.with
na
ART
ya
CLF.wood
látī=V́
thin=DEM
‘The child touched the snake with the stick.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(120)
Ntāáūʔ ītzáʔ ntunaą maxi ná nkānaʔaą̄ʔ jį̄ ná yujweę̄ʔ jiʔį̄ ná yalaʔą̄ʔ jį̄.
n-tāá=ūʔ
HAB-give=3PL
ītzáʔ
word
nt-una=ą
HAB-hear=1PL.INCL
maxi
CONJ
NEG
nkā-naʔa=ą̄ʔ
CPL-see=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
NEG
y-u-jwi=ą̄ʔ
CPL-CAUS-die=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
NEG
y-alaʔ=ą̄ʔ
CPL-touch=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘They talk about it and we listen, but I never saw it, I never killed it, I never touched it.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
u-Causative alternation
(121)
Lēʔ nchuʔukāchíʔ jā nu na nkwítzą ntilaʔ kee jā titǭ nkalaʔaūʔ jiʔį̄.
lēʔ
then
n-ch-uʔu-kāchíʔ
HAB-ITRN-be.inside-hidden(.3)
CONJ
nu
NOM
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
nti-laʔ
HAB-touch
kee
rock
CONJ
titǭ
several
nka-laʔa=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-get.broken=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘They (the jugs) get hidden there, because the children grab rocks and they have broken several (of the jugs).’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(122)
Lalaʔ xikǭchúʔ.
l-alaʔ
STAT-touch(.3)
xikǭ=chūʔ
arm=3SG.F
‘He is holding her arm.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(123)
Nkāxūʔú na nkwítząá jnā chajlyāá lóʔō kuchilū.
nkā-xūʔú
CPL.CAUS-get.cut
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
cha-jlyā=V́
tortilla-Castille=DEM
lóʔō
RN.with
kuchilū
knife
‘The child cut the bread with the knife.’
CUT a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(124)
Nkūxūʔú na cha-jlyāá lóʔō na kuchilūú.
nkū-xūʔú
CPL-get.cut
na
ART
cha-jlyā=V́
tortilla-Castille=DEM
lóʔō
RN.with
na
ART
kuchilū=V́
knife=DEM
‘The bread was cut with the knife.’
CUT the Verb form nkā-xūʔú
(125)
Ta nkāxūʔúūʔ jnā ya nkítā tī niī.
ta
already
nkā-xūʔú=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-get.cut=3NSPEC
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
ya
CLF.wood
nkítā
elephant.ear
EMPH
niī
now
‘They have cut the elephant's ear tree now.’
CUT a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(126)
Ntūxūʔúya kixę̄ʔ wī ntūtūkwáya ntzukwāʔ.
nt-ū-xūʔú=ya
HAB-CAUS-get.cut=1PL.EXCL
kixę̄ʔ
herb
and
nt-ū-tūkwá=ya
HAB-CAUS-be.inside=1PL.EXCL
ntzukwāʔ
maize
‘We used to cut the weeds and we would plant the corn.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(127)
Nkūxūʔú nu kíʔyū lóʔō ximaxtyī.
nkū-xūʔú
CPL-get.cut
nu
NOM
kíʔyū
male
lóʔō
RN.with
xi-maxtyī
POSS-machete
‘The man cut himself with his machete (by accident).’
CUT the Verb form nkā-xūʔú
(128)
Nkūxūʔú túkwa seʔę yaāʔ.
nkū-xūʔú
CPL-get.cut
túkwa
two
seʔę
place
yaāʔ
hand(.3)
‘He got cut in two places on his hand.’
CUT the Verb form nkā-xūʔú
(129)
Jwāá ntēxūʔú yane na kwetuú jā kākéʔ.
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
ntē-xūʔú
PRG.CAUS-get.cut
yane
neck
na
ART
kwetu=V́
chicken=DEM
CONJ
k-ākéʔ
POT-get.cooked
‘Juan is cutting the chicken's neck so that it can be cooked.’
CUT a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(130)
"Nkāyūkéʔ tīké ntē nī" nakwęūʔ jį̄ nyáʔaūʔ "jā kakuna."
nkāy-ū-kéʔ
CPL-CAUS-get.cooked
tīké
liver
ntē
DEM
now
nakwę=ūʔ
say=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN
nyáʔa=ūʔ
mother=3PL
CONJ
k-aku=na
POT-eat=1PL.INCL
‘"Cook this liver", they told their mother, "so that we may eat."’
EAT an Alternation:
Object omission alternation
(131)
Ntikwiʔtzáʔ ų́ʔwá jnā yuu nu nkāláą̄ wá.
nti-kwiʔ-tzáʔ
HAB-speak-word
ų́ʔ
3PL
DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
yuu
earth
nu
NOM
nkā-láā=ą
CPL.CAUS-get.loose=1PL.INCL
DEM
‘They are reclaiming the land that we took (from them).’
TAKE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(132)
Kulaą̄ʔ jiʔį̄=yu.
k-u-laa=ą̄ʔ
POT-CAUS-get.loose=1SG
jiʔį̄=yu
RN=3SG.M
‘I will take (her) from him.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(133)
Nuwęʔ ntulaa jnyáūʔ laʔā nikwę.
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
nt-u-laa
HAB-CAUS-get.loose
jnyá=ūʔ
work=3PL
laʔā
like.so
nikwę
POT.say(.3)
‘This one takes away their job we say.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(134)
Jwāá ná jaʔą̄ kusatą lita.
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
NEG
jaʔą̄
want
k-u-s-atą
POT-CAUS-TRN-peel
lita
ear.of.corn
‘Juan does not want to shuck the corn.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(135)
Nkasuʔū na nkwítząá tzaka lakaʔ nkyánā jyą́ʔ.
nka-suʔū
CPL.CAUS-show
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
tzaka
one
lakaʔ
leaf
nk-yánā
CPL-wilt
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
‘The child showed me a wilted leaf.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(136)
Nkasuʔūúʔ jnā liwrūú jnīʔ matrū skwelā.
nka-suʔū=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-show=3NSPEC
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
liwrū=V́
book=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
niʔ
3SG.RSP
matrū
master
skwelā
school
‘The book was shown to the teacher.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(137)
Ntusuʔū jiʔį̄ xītzáʔ itzǫʔ tyā.
nt-u-suʔū
HAB-CAUS-show(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
x-ītzáʔ
POSS-word
itzǫʔ
back
tyáā
water
‘She teaches him English.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(138)
Nāáʔ kusuʔōǫ́ʔ táā jiʔį́.
nāáʔ
1SG
k-u-suʔū=ą̄ʔ
POT-CAUS-show=1SG
táą̄
valley
jiʔį́
RN.2SG
‘I will teach you Zapotec.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(139)
Kusuʔōǫ́ʔ jnā nkwítzą kūnáʔa jnīʔ kíʔyōǫ́ʔ.
k-u-suʔū=ą̄ʔ
POT-CAUS-show=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kūnáʔa
female
jiʔį̄
RN
jniʔ
offspring
kíʔyū=ą̄ʔ
male=1SG
‘I will show the girls to my son.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(140)
"Jā na kūʔwíí nkaʔne lō jiʔį́" nakwę lēʔ nkānēʔéūʔ jnuwę̄ʔ naneʔē.
CONJ
na
ART
kūʔwí=V́
drunk=DEM
nka-ʔne
CPL-do
loō
like.so
jiʔį́
RN.2SG
nakwę
say(.3)
lēʔ
then
nkā-nēʔé=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-throw=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
nanēʔ
stomach
‘"That drunk there did this to you", he said, and they threw him in the jail.’
THROW a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(141)
Tzanēʔéjnáʔą̄ʔ jį́ nto kiiʔ nyāʔā chu xīyáʔri tikwą ntikwiʔjnyáʔā jyą́ʔ nakwę niʔ kwetāʔaʔ jnā kweeʔeʔ.
tz-a-nēʔé=jnáʔ=ą̄ʔ
POT-go.NBASE-throw=blast=1SG
jiʔį́
RN.2SG
ntoo
face
kiiʔ
fire
nyāʔā
HAB.see.2SG
chu
NOM.HUM
xīyáʔ=ri
small=only
tikwą
ugly
nti-kwiʔ-jnyáʔā
HAB-speak-bad
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
nakwę
say
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kwetāʔ=Vʔ
fox=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kweeʔ=Vʔ
crab=DEM
‘"I am going to throw you in the fire, you'll see, you little one, because you insult me", said the fox to the crab.’
SAY a Coding frame:
UTT1 V 2 jiʔį̄+3
(142)
Laaʔ tī tu walari kukwą̄ kee kūnēʔé jį̄.
laaʔ
like.so
COND
tu
IRR
wala=ri
where=only
k-ukwą̄
POT-grab
kee
rock
k-ū-nēʔé
POT-CAUS-throw
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘They can grab rocks and throw them wherever.’
THROW a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(143)
Nkātēję́ na nkwítząá jnā keé tya nto bentanāá.
nkā-tēję́
CPL.CAUS-pass
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kee=V́
rock=DEM
tya
towards
ntoo
face
bentanā=V́
window=DEM
‘The child threw the rock through the window.’
SEND a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(144)
Naʔā nchuwintoo jwaā jā tiʔi ntooyu.
naʔā
not.anymore
n-ch-uwi-ntoo
HAB-ITRN-flash-eye
jwaā
Juan
CONJ
tiʔi
in.pain
ntoo=yu
eye=3SG.M
‘Juan does not blink anymore because his eye hurts.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
V 1
(145)
Nkūtúʔujná na nkwítząá nto yuú.
nkū-túʔu-jná
CPL-leave-flee
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
ntoo
face
yuu=V́
earth=DEM
‘The boy ran on the ground.’
RUN a Coding frame:
V 1
(146)
Nkwēkūtúʔujná jiʔį̄ na nkwítzą=V́.
nkw-ē-k-ū-túʔu-jná
CPL-CAUS-POT-CAUS-leave-flee(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
‘He made the child run.’
RUN an Alternation:
Causative of active verb
(147)
Nchaa ntētúʔujná nkuxę nchaa.
nch-aa
PRG-go.NBASE
ntē-túʔu-jná
PRG-leave-flee
nkuxę
late
nch-aa
PRG-go.NBASE
‘He went running because he went late.’
RUN a Coding frame:
V 1
(148)
Ná ʔnē tī laaʔ nu tyōǭ chuʔuxīīʔ tī yaka wala ntoǫ mītą́ʔ.
NEG
ʔnē
do.2SG
EMPH
laaʔ
like.so
nu
NOM
tyōǭ
POT.be.standing
ch-uʔu-xīīʔ
POT.ITRN-be.inside-side.2SG
EMPH
yaka
wood
wala
where
n-toǫ
STAT-be.standing
mītą́ʔ
house.post
‘Do not do that, that standing there and hugging the logs where the support posts are.’
HUG a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(149)
Tzoʔō k-a ch-uʔu-xiiʔ=ą̄ʔ jiʔį̄ nt-ii=ą̄ʔ.
tzoʔō
good
k-a
POT-be
ch-uʔu-xiiʔ=ą̄ʔ
POT.ITRN-be.inside-side=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
nt-ii=ą̄ʔ
HAB-feel=1SG
‘I think it would be good to hug her.’
WANT a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(150)
Nchuʔuxiiʔ jį̄chúʔ ntaku tuʔwachūʔ.
n-ch-uʔu-xiiʔ
HAB-ITRN-be.inside-side
jiʔį̄=chūʔ
RN=3SG.F
nt-aku
HAB-eat(.3)
tuʔwa=chūʔ
mouth=3SG.F
‘He hugs her and kisses her lips.’
HUG a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(151)
Ntūrūkwáxiiʔ jį̄chúʔ.
nt-ū-tūkwá-xiiʔ
HAB-CAUS-be.inside-side(.3)
jiʔį̄=chūʔ
RN=3SG.F
‘He hugs her.’
HUG a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(152)
Lyakwā nijyąlasaʔąūʔ jyą́ʔ?
lyakwā
why
nijyą-la-saʔą=ūʔ
come.NBASE-ADJ-be.attached=3PL
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
‘Why are they following me?’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(153)
Jwaā yanāʔā jnā wurū tī ná nteyatiʔ.
jwaā
Juan
y-a-nāʔā
CPL-go.NBASE-see.2SG
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
wurū
donkey
COND
NEG
nte-y-atiʔ
PRG-ITRN-untie
‘Juan! Go and look at the donkey to see that it is not coming untied.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(154)
Jwāá ná yatoǫtīʔ jnā lúkwīí nu nkātáą̄ʔ jiʔį̄yu.
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
NEG
y-a-toǫ-tīʔ
CPL-go.NBASE-be.standing-living.core(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
lúkwī=V́
mezcal=DEM
nu
NOM
nkā-tāá=ą̄ʔ
CPL-give=1SG
jiʔį̄=yu
RN=3SG.M
‘Juan did not like the mezcal I gave him.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(155)
Ná nchatoǫtīʔyu jā tikwą ntikwiʔ nyatę̄ jiʔį̄yu xī nchakā jūntáá.
NEG
nch-a-toǫ-tīʔ=yu
PRG-go.NBASE-be.standing-living.core=3SG.M
CONJ
tikwą
ugly
nti-kwiʔ
HAB-speak
nyatę̄
person
jiʔį̄=yu
RN=3SG.M
NOM.LOC
nch-akā
PRG-be
jūntá=V́
meeting=DEM
‘He does not like it because the people were talking bad to him where they were having the meeting.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(156)
Yatutīʔ jnū ntzeę tunu.
y-a-toǫ-tīʔ
CPL-go.NBASE-be.standing-living.core(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
nu
NOM
ntzeę
citrus
tunu
great
‘She liked the oranges.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(157)
Ná nīkwę̄ tu nāáʔ ntákwēę̄ʔ kyaʔa jā jiʔį́ tyaʔą-la-saʔą tza liya nu tāá.
NEG
nīkwę̄
POT.say.2SG
tu
IRR
nāáʔ
1SG
n-tákwī=ą̄ʔ
STAT-be.hanging=1SG
kyaʔa
guilt
CONJ
jiʔį́
RN.2SG
tyaʔą-la-saʔą
POT.go.around-ADJ-be.attached(.3)
tza
one
liya
time
nu
NOM
tāá
POT.give(.3)
‘Don't say that it is my fault if he goes after you once he gives it to you.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
UTT1 V 2 jiʔį̄+3
(158)
Tyā-tyūkwá=ą jiʔį̄=yu jā tyāʔná=yu.
tyā-tyūkwá=ą
POT.finish-go.out=1PL.INCL
jiʔį̄=yu
RN=3SG.M
CONJ
tyāʔná=yu
unfortunate=3SG.M
‘We will accompany him because he is humble.’
HELP a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(159)
Jā nu nu tyātyūkwá tī na chii laʔā tī nu tza jnyāʔá lēʔ nu joʔō laa nī nakwę.
CONJ
nu
NOM
nu
NOM
tyā-tyūkwá
POT.finish-go.out(.3)
EMPH
na
ART
chii
elder
laʔā
like.so
EMPH
nu
NOM
tza
word
jnyāʔá
true
lēʔ
then
nu
NOM
joʔō
sacred
l-aa
STAT-be
now
nakwę
say(.3)
‘That this elder helps us if it is true that he is a saint, he said.’
HELP a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(160)
Ntetyātyūkwáūʔ jiʔį̄ līʔyáūʔ jiʔį̄ nchākitza.
nte-tyā-tyūkwá=ūʔ
PRG-finish-go.out=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN
l-īʔyá=ūʔ
STAT-transport=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN
nch-ā-kitza
PRG-be-sick
‘They are accompanying and carrying the one who is sick.’
HELP a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(161)
Tī tu tyātyūkwā jyą́ʔ nyāʔā kisoǭʔ jį́.
COND
tu
IRR
tyā-tyūkwā
POT.finish-go.out.2SG
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
nyāʔā
POT.see.2SG
k-isu=ą̄ʔ
POT-pay=1SG
jiʔį́
RN.2SG
‘If you help me, I will pay you.’
HELP a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(162)
Jā n-tzaʔą=yu ná tzoʔō ntz-uʔu tza rúʔ nte-tāką́ʔ=yu lō tī tu nch-ā-kitza túkwi rúʔ kitza nte-ʔne.
CONJ
n-tzaʔą=yu
STAT-be.attached=3SG.M
NEG
tzoʔō
good
ntz-uʔu
STAT-be.inside
tza
one
rúʔ
more
nte-tāką́ʔ=yu
PRG-experience=3SG.M
loō
like.so
COND
tu
IRR
nch-ā-kitza
PRG-be-sick(.3)
túkwi
which
rúʔ
more
kitza
illness
nte-ʔne
PRG-do(.3)
‘Because his animal spirit is not well that is why this is happening to him, if he is sick with whatever illness.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
V 1
(163)
Nchuwetīʔ nchākitza.
nch-uwe-tīʔ
PRG-get.ground-living.core(.3)
nch-ā-kitza
PRG-be-sick(.3)
‘He is sad, and he is getting sick.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
V 1
(164)
"Tzaana" nakwęūʔ.
tz-aa=na
POT-go.NBASE=1PL.INCL
nakwę=ūʔ
say=3PL
‘"Let's go", they said.’
SAY a Coding frame:
V 1 (LOC2)
(165)
Ná ntyōtíʔya wala ntētúʔu tejeʔ nu ntakuya nī.
NEG
n-tyō-tīʔ=ya
HAB-?-living.core=1PL.EXCL
wala
where
ntē-túʔu
PRG-leave
tejeʔ
salt
nu
NOM
nt-aku=ya
HAB-eat=1PL.EXCL
now
‘We don't know where the salt we eat now comes from.’
EAT a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(166)
Tyúʔu na kiiʔí jnā ketǫʔó jā ta nkūkéʔ na súkwā.
tyúʔu
POT.leave
na
ART
kiiʔ=V́
fire=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
ketǫʔ=V́
pot=DEM
CONJ
ta
already
nkū-kéʔ
CPL-get.cooked
na
ART
súkwā
food
‘The fire is going to be taken from the pot because the food is done cooking.’
COOK a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(167)
Kutza nkaʔne jyą́ʔ nkū-túʔu lyātá ná tula ʔne=ą̄ʔ chaa=ą̄ʔ jā k-aja=ą̄ʔ xī tāká=ą̄ʔ.
kutza
difficult
nka-ʔne
CPL-do
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
nkū-túʔu
CPL-leave
lyātá
ditch
NEG
tula
what
ʔne=ą̄ʔ
POT.do=1SG
chaa=ą̄ʔ
POT.go.BASE=1SG
CONJ
k-aja=ą̄ʔ
POT-die=1SG
NOM.LOC
tāká=ą̄ʔ
ADJ.be=1SG
‘It was difficult for me to make my ditch (for the ditch to come out), but there is nothing for me to do. I better just go, so I may die in my own land (where I live).’
DIE a Coding frame:
V 1
(168)
Tiʔi tīkéą̄ʔ.
tiʔi
in.pain
tīké=ą̄ʔ
chest=1SG
‘My heart hurts.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
V 1
(169)
Tiʔi tatīyá tzáą̄ lō nu nchatasaʔąą̄ʔ.
tiʔi
in.pain
tatīyá
every
tzáą̄
day
when
nu
NOM
n-chata-saʔą=ą̄ʔ
HAB-get.up-be.attached=1SG
‘I'm in pain every day when I get up.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
V 1
(170)
Tiʔi tzaka lari sukwaʔ keę̄ʔ.
tiʔi
in.pain
tzaka
one
la=ri
as.far.as=only
sukwaʔ
shell
ke=ą̄ʔ
head=1SG
‘My whole head hurts.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
V 1
(171)
Tiʔi nanēʔą́ʔ lō nu ntyayakoǭʔ chaja.
tiʔi
in.pain
nanēʔ=ą̄ʔ
stomach=1SG
when
nu
NOM
n-tya-y-aku=ą̄ʔ
HAB-finish-CPL-eat=1SG
chaja
tortilla
‘My stomach hurts after I eat.’
EAT a Coding frame:
V 1
(172)
Léē tiʔi nanēʔą́ʔ lō nu nchuteʔą̄ʔ.
léē
very
tiʔi
in.pain
nanēʔ=ą̄ʔ
stomach=1SG
when
nu
NOM
n-ch-uteʔ=ą̄ʔ
HAB-ITRN-be.hungry=1SG
‘My stomach hurts a lot when I am hungry.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
V 1
(173)
Lō nu ntiʔyā tiʔēę́ʔ tiʔi ntii tīkéę̄ʔ.
when
nu
NOM
nt-iʔyā
HAB-transport
tiʔī=ą̄ʔ
breath=1SG
tiʔi
in.pain
nt-ii
HAB-feel
tīké=ą̄ʔ
chest=1SG
‘When I breathe, my chest hurts.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
V 1
(174)
Tala nchuteʔyu nkutiyaąyu.
tala
for.sure
n-ch-uteʔ=yu
HAB-ITRN-be.hungry=3SG.M
nku-tiyaą=yu
CPL-arrive.here.NBASE=3SG.M
‘He was already hungry when he arrived.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
V 1
(175)
Yalasaʔą kíʔyūú jį̄ kūnáʔa=V́.
y-a-la-saʔą
CPL-go.NBASE-ADJ-be.attached
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
kūnáʔa=V́
female=DEM
‘The man followed the woman.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(176)
Nkwityātyūkwá niʔ kíʔyūú jį̄ chúʔ kūnáʔaá.
nkwi-tyā-tyūkwá
CPL-finish-go.out
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
chúʔ
3SG.F
kūnáʔa=V́
female=DEM
‘The man helped the woman.’
HELP a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(177)
Nkutyejnā ntiʔe choo kunu suwe ʔne lēʔ nkutyejnā ntulaʔaūʔ jnā keeʔ lōʔ kwitīʔyú.
nku-tyejnā
CPL-begin
nti-ʔe
HAB-go.down
choo
rain
kunu
a.little
suwe
small
ʔne
HAB.do
lēʔ
then
nku-tyejnā
CPL-begin
nt-u-laʔa=ūʔ
HAB-CAUS-get.broken=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kee=Vʔ
rock=DEM
lóʔō
RN.with
kwitīʔyú
lightning
‘Then it started to sprinkle a little bit, and they began to break the rock with lightning.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(178)
Choo keʔekāʔá nyaʔana.
choo
rain
k-eʔe=kāʔá
POT-go.down=again
nyaʔa=na
HAB.see=1PL.INCL
‘It looks like it is going to rain again.’
RAIN the Verb form nkw-eʔe (choo)
(179)
Nkūkúti na yuú jā léē léē nkwiʔe choo.
nkū-kúti
CPL-soften
na
ART
yuu=V́
earth=DEM
CONJ
léē
very
léē
strong
nkwi-ʔe
CPL-go.down
choo
rain
‘The earth became soft because it rained very hard.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
V
(180)
Lēʔ lóʔō na yaka nu ntuʔu yaāʔ ntekutzęyu jnā lyūkēʔę́ ntyákwikāʔá nu wiʔ.
lēʔ
then
lóʔō
RN.with
na
ART
yaka
wood
nu
NOM
n-t-uʔu
STAT-TRN-be.inside
yaāʔ
hand(.3)
nt-e-k-utzę=yu
HAB-CAUS-POT-fear=3SG.M
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
lyūkēʔę́
fly
n-tyákwi=kāʔá
HAB-fly=also
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
‘Then, with the stick that he had in his hand, he was scaring the flies that flew also, that one.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Causative of active verb
(181)
Nkaʔneūʔ katiʔi xikǭ.
nka-ʔne=ūʔ
CPL-do=3PL
k-a-tiʔi
POT-be-in.pain
xikǭ
arm(.3)
‘They made his arm hurt.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
V 1
(182)
Nkwēsaʔą chu kíʔyūú nto yuú.
nkw-ē-saʔą
CPL-AUX.down-be.attached
chu
NOM.HUM
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
ntoo
face
yuu=V́
earth=DEM
‘The man sat down on the ground.’
SIT DOWN a Coding frame:
V 1 (LOC2)
(183)
Nkwētyukwā chu kíʔyūú.
nkw-ē-tyukwā
CPL-AUX.down-be.sitting
chu
NOM.HUM
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
‘The man sat down.’
SIT DOWN a Coding frame:
V 1 (LOC2)
(184)
Nkwētyukwā nto písūú.
nkw-ē-tyukwā
CPL-AUX.down-be.sitting
ntoo
face
písū=V́
floor=DEM
‘He sat down on the floor.’
SIT DOWN a Coding frame:
V 1 (LOC2)
(185)
Ntē kesaʔąya tāáya kwentū.
nteē
here
k-e-saʔą=ya
POT-AUX.down-be.attached=1PL.EXCL
tāá=ya
POT.give=1PL.EXCL
kwentū
story
‘Here we will sit, and we are going to give a story.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
V 1 (LOC2)
(186)
Ntákwī nchaaūʔ wiʔ nī lēʔ nu nkwētyūkwá nu ntikwiʔya chíjyą̄ʔ.
n-tákwī
STAT-be.hanging
nch-aa=ūʔ
PRG-go.NBASE=3PL
wiʔ
there
now
lēʔ
then
nu
NOM
nkw-ē-tyūkwá
CPL-AUX.down-be.sitting
nu
NOM
nti-kwiʔ=ya
HAB-speak=1PL.EXCL
chíjyą̄ʔ
cardinal
‘When they were going and passing there, what we call a cardinal sat down.’
GO a Coding frame:
V 1 (LOC2)
(187)
Na nyatę̄ nyāʔā nkawanāų́ʔ jnā jnā soʔni jnā soʔni jiʔį̄ų́ʔ.
na
ART
nyatę̄
person
nyāʔā
POT.see.2SG
nka-wanā=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-steal=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
soʔni
conch
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
soʔni
conch
jiʔį̄=ūʔ
RN=3PL
‘Those people, you see, they stole the, the shell, their shell.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(188)
Ná nkawanā jwāá jnā chajaá.
NEG
nka-wanā
CPL.CAUS-steal
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
chaja=V́
tortilla=DEM
‘Juan did not steal the tortillas.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(189)
Nkawanāų́ʔ liwrū jnī matrū skwelā.
nka-wanā=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-steal=3PL
liwrū
book
jiʔį̄
RN
niʔ
3SG.RSP
matrū
master
skwelā
school
‘They (nonspec.) stole the book from the teacher (the teacher's book).’
STEAL a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(190)
Nkawanā na nkwítzą kūnáʔaá jnā liwrūú jnīʔ matrū skwelāá.
nka-wanā
CPL.CAUS-steal
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kūnáʔa=V́
female=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
liwrū=V́
book=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
niʔ
3SG.RSP
matrū
master
skwelā=V́
school=DEM
‘The girl stole the book from the teacher.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(191)
Nteyūkwą́ą̄ʔ nchulaʔą̄ʔ.
nte-yūkwą́=ą̄ʔ
PRG-tremble=1SG
nch-ulaʔ=ą̄ʔ
PRG-be.cold=1SG
‘I'm shaking from cold.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
V 1
(192)
Ntyáyulaʔ na nkwítząá ntzuʔu nto tyáā tatīyá tzáą̄.
n-tyá-y-ulaʔ
HAB-begin-CPL-be.cold
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
ntz-uʔu
STAT-be.inside
ntoo
face
tyáā
water
tatīyá
every
tzáą̄
day
‘The children always get cold from being in the water every day.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
V 1
(193)
Nchósaʔą na wīchíí nto yakaá tatīyá tzáą̄.
n-chó-saʔą
HAB-AUX-be.attached
na
ART
wīchí=V́
cat=DEM
ntoo
face
yaka=V́
tree=DEM
tatīyá
every
tzáą̄
day
‘The cat climbs up into that tree every day.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
V 1 (LOC2)
(194)
Nkyósaʔą nkwítzą itzǫʔ mesā.
nk-yó-saʔą
CPL-AUX-be.attached
nkwítzą
child
itzǫʔ
back
mesā
table
‘The child climbed up on the table.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
V 1 (LOC2)
(195)
"Tyūkwá kitzę ti wą ná akwāʔ kūlíji jwą̄ tī luwiʔ" nakwę.
tyūkwá
POT.be.inside(.3)
kitzę
village
ti=wą
home=2PL
NEG
akwāʔ
when
k-ū-líji
POT-CAUS-get.lost
jiʔį̄=wą
RN=2PL
EMPH
luwiʔ
then
nakwę
say(.3)
‘"It will be in your village, and it will never be lacking for you all then", he said.’
LOAD the Verb form nkā-tūkwá
(196)
I niī reē nyāʔā ntyukwā niʔ loō nto síyā ntūkwá niʔ lóʔō niʔ lóʔō xikūnáʔa niʔ.
i
and
niī
now
reē
king
nyāʔā
HAB.see.2SG
n-tyukwā
STAT-be.sitting
niʔ
3SG.RSP
loō
like.so
ntoo
face
síyā
chair
n-tūkwá
STAT-be.inside
niʔ
3SG.RSP
lóʔō
RN.with
niʔ
3SG.RSP
lóʔō
RN.with
xi-kūnáʔa
POSS-female
niʔ
3SG.RSP
‘And the king was sitting there, he was sitting on his chair with her, with his woman.’
SIT a Coding frame:
V 1 (LOC2)
(197)
Lēʔ yakwiʔūʔ lóʔō na kweta kyaʔāaʔ "laaʔ ntētāką́ʔ kwaa yākwá" nakwę.
lēʔ
then
y-akwiʔ=ūʔ
CPL-speak=3PL
lóʔō
RN.with
na
ART
kweta
outsider
kyaʔā=Vʔ
mountain=DEM
laaʔ
like.so
ntē-tāką́ʔ
PRG-experience
kwaa
1PL.EXCL
yākwá
there
nakwę
say(.3)
‘Then they spoke to the Mixtecs, "that is what is happening to us there", they said.’
SAY a Coding frame:
UTT1 V 2 jiʔį̄+3
(198)
"Wī lyakwā tzalóʔōǫ kitē" nakwę kūnáʔa.
and
lyakwā
why
tz-aa-lóʔō=ą
POT-go.NBASE-RN.with=1PL.INCL
kitē
pine
nakwę
say(.3)
kūnáʔa
female
‘"And why are we going to take pine?", said the woman.’
SAY an Alternation:
Applicative
(199)
Kinikwę tyūú jiʔį̄ jwaā tzaa tya kitzę jlyū.
ki-nikwę
POT-tell
tyūú
Pedro
jiʔį̄
RN
jwaā
Juan
tz-aa
POT-go.NBASE
tya
towards
kitzę
village
jlyū
large
‘Pedro is going to tell Juan to go to the city.’
SAY a Coding frame:
UTT1 V 2 jiʔį̄+3
(200)
Tzoʔō ntakǫʔ ʔneyu ntekwā niī jā ntikwiʔyu jnā.
tzoʔō
good
ntakǫʔ
very
ʔne=yu
HAB.do=3SG.M
ntekwā
DEM
niī
now
CONJ
nti-kwiʔ=yu
HAB-speak=3SG.M
jiʔį̄=na
RN=1PL.INCL
‘He does very well because he talks to us.’
TALK a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 3
(201)
Nchakwiʔ na lóʔō niʔ maxi xītzáʔrina.
nch-akwiʔ
PRG-speak
na
1PL.INCL
lóʔō
RN.with
niʔ
3SG.RSP
maxi
CONJ
x-ītzáʔ=ri=na
POSS-word=only=1PL.INCL
‘We are talking with the lord even if only in our language.’
TALK the Verb form y-akwiʔ
(202)
Lēʔ nkaseteʔękāʔáya nchaaya.
lēʔ
then
nka-se-teʔę=kāʔá=ya
CPL-turn-be.at=again=1PL.EXCL
nch-aa=ya
PRG-go.NBASE=1PL.EXCL
‘Then we turned around and left.’
GO a Coding frame:
V 1 (LOC2)
(203)
Lēʔ tyāʔ yakwiʔ nu kūnáʔa jlyālá jį̄ na nkwítząaʔ lēʔ nakwę laaʔ "i wala tz-āā tī nī?"
lēʔ
then
tyāʔ
still
y-akwiʔ
CPL-speak
nu
NOM
kūnáʔa
female
jlyālá
mean
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą=Vʔ
child=DEM
lēʔ
then
nakwę
say(.3)
laaʔ
like.so
i
and
wala
where
tz-āā
POT-go.NBASE.2SG
EMPH
now
‘And the mean woman still spoke to the child, and she said to him, "And where are you going now?"’
SAY a Coding frame:
V 1 (LOC2)
(204)
Yakwiʔ nu kūnáʔa jyą́ʔ i nkātāá súkwā jį̄náʔ.
y-akwiʔ
CPL-speak
nu
NOM
kūnáʔa
female
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
i
and
nkā-tāá
CPL-give(.3)
súkwā
food
jiʔį̄
RN
nāáʔ
1SG
‘The woman spoke to me and offered me food.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(205)
Nkyalóʔō na nkwítzą kūnáʔaá jnā liwrūú jnīʔ matrū skwelāá.
nk-yaa-lóʔō
CPL-come.BASE-RN.with
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kūnáʔa=V́
female=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
liwrū=V́
book=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
niʔ
3SG.RSP
matrū
master
skwelā=V́
school=DEM
‘The child brought the book to the teacher.’
GO an Alternation:
Applicative
(206)
La kii tz-a-lóʔō=kāʔá=ą̄ʔ jį̄.
la
as.far.as
kii
tomorrow
tz-aa-lóʔō=kāʔá=ą̄ʔ
POT-go.NBASE-RN.with=again=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘Tomorrow I will take him again.’
GO an Alternation:
Applicative
(207)
Nka-lúū.
nka-lúū
CPL.CAUS-get.dug(.3)
‘They dug it.’
DIG a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(208)
Tāká kixę̄ʔ tāká kee tāká xī nkālúū tyā yuu.
tāká
ADJ.be
kixę̄ʔ
herb
tāká
ADJ.be
kee
rock
tāká
ADJ.be
NOM.LOC
nkā-lúū
CPL.CAUS-get.dug
tyáā
water
yuu
earth
‘There are weeds, there are rocks, there are places where the water has eroded the ground.’
DIG a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(209)
Jwaā yalúū koǫ kakuna lāká.
jwaā
Juan
y-a-lúū
CPL-go.NBASE.CAUS-get.dug
koǫ
tuber
k-aku=na
POT-eat=1PL.INCL
lāká
yesterday
‘Juan went to dig up tubers, so we could eat yesterday.’
DIG a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(210)
Jā nu ntekwaą̄ niʔ ntekwaą̄ niʔ ntekwaą̄ niʔ nkweʔeteʔę niʔ tyākwę́.
CONJ
nu
NOM
nt-e-kwaą̄
HAB-AUX-high
niʔ
3SG.RSP
nt-e-kwaą̄
HAB-AUX-high
niʔ
3SG.RSP
nt-e-kwaą̄
HAB-AUX-high
niʔ
3SG.RSP
nkw-eʔe-teʔę
CPL-go.down-be.at
niʔ
3SG.RSP
tyākwę́
path
‘And he jumped and jumped and jumped and fell down to the path.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
V 1
(211)
Nkwēkūtákwą̄úʔ jnā nkwítząá.
nkw-ē-k-ū-tá-kwaą̄=ūʔ
CPL-CAUS-POT-CAUS-AUX-high=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
‘They made the child jump.’
JUMP an Alternation:
Causative of active verb
(212)
Ntekékwą̄ na nkwítząá nto yuú.
ntē-k-é-kwaą̄
PRG-POT-AUX-high
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
ntoo
face
yuu=V́
earth=DEM
‘The child is jumping on the ground.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
V 1
(213)
Léē ta witi ntii tuʔwaāʔ.
léē
very
ta
already
witi
dry
nt-ii
HAB-feel
tuʔwa=ą̄ʔ
mouth=1SG
‘My mouth feels very dried out.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
V 1
(214)
Tī ná keʔe choo jā kiwiti nu nku-chata=na.
COND
NEG
k-eʔe
POT-go.down
choo
rain
CONJ
ki-witi
POT-dry
nu
NOM
nku-chata=na
CPL-replant=1PL.INCL
‘If it doesn't rain, the crop (what we planted) will dry out.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
V 1
(215)
Ntewitiri ntii tī tyá=āʔ.
nte-witi=ri
PRG-dry=only
nt-ii
HAB-feel
EMPH
tyáą=ą̄ʔ
throat=1SG
‘My throat dries up on me a lot.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
V 1
(216)
Ntēxíti sateʔ.
ntē-x-íti
PRG.CAUS-TRN-dry(.3)
s-ateʔ
POSS-clothes(.3)
‘He is drying his clothes (in the sun).’
BE DRY an Alternation:
u-Causative alternation
(217)
Yūwá nkatéēʔyu jyū.
yu=wá
3SG.M=DEM
nka-téēʔ=yu
CPL.CAUS-get.shaved=3SG.M
jiʔį̄=yu
RN=3SG.M
‘He shaved himself.’
SHAVE (self) a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(218)
Nkātūkwá niʔ kíʔyūú jnā nkutīí nanēʔ na karetāá.
nkā-tūkwá
CPL.CAUS-be.inside
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkutī=V́
hay=DEM
nanēʔ
stomach
na
ART
karetā=V́
cart=DEM
‘The man put (loaded) the hay into the cart.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(219)
Nkatūkwá jiʔį̄ nanēʔ tzaka kichuwī kusǭ.
nka-tūkwá
CPL.CAUS-be.inside(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
nanēʔ
stomach
tzaka
one
kichuwī
basket
kusǭ
old
‘He put them in an old basket.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(220)
Ketuʔu yuu kilamisę̄.
k-e-t-uʔu
POT-AUX.down-TRN-be.inside
yuu
earth
ki-la-misę̄
POT-get.loose-roll
‘If the land caves in, we would go rolling.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
V 1
(221)
Nkulāmisę̄ sūʔwá jwāá lō nu yakīʔyáyu lita.
nku-lā-misę̄
CPL-get.loose-roll
s-ūʔwá
POSS-load
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
when
nu
NOM
y-a-k-īʔyá=yu
CPL-go.NBASE-POT-transport=3SG.M
lita
ear.of.corn
‘Juan's load rolled when he went to haul corn.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
V 1
(222)
Nkwēlātísę.
nkw-ē-lā-t-ísę
CPL-CAUS-get.loose-TRN-roll
‘He rolled it.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Causative of active verb
(223)
Jwaā ntēwíī tzǫʔ na yaka jā kujlyā choʔo jā léē tikwą nyaʔa.
jwaā
Juan
ntē-wíī
PRG.CAUS-clean.off(.3)
tzǫʔ
back
na
ART
yaka
tree
CONJ
k-u-jlyā
POT-CAUS-spread
choʔo
lime
CONJ
léē
very
tikwą
ugly
nyaʔa
HAB.see(.3)
‘Juan is cleaning off the tree in order to paint it with lime, because it looked very ugly.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Ambitransitive alternation
(224)
Nkānaʔa niʔ kíʔyū jnā nkwítzą kíʔyūuʔ.
nkā-naʔa
CPL-see
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū
male
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kíʔyū=Vʔ
male=DEM
‘The man saw the boy.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(225)
Nee nyāʔā tyāʔ n-toǫ nyaʔne jiʔį̄=ya tza túkwa nuwęʔ tī nu n-tāá.
nee
say(.3)
nyāʔā
HAB.see.2SG
tyāʔ
still
n-toǫ
STAT-be.standing
nyaʔne
animal
jiʔį̄=ya
RN=1PL.EXCL
tza
one
túkwa
two
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
EMPH
nu
NOM
n-tāá
HAB-give(.3)
‘He says, you see, we still have animals, one or two of them, and this is what provides for us.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Object omission alternation
(226)
Chiīʔ tī ntii nuʔu kīkwīʔ jnyá.
chiīʔ
young.one
COND
nt-ii
HAB-want
nuʔu
2SG
kī-kwīʔ
POT-speak.2SG
jnyá
work
‘Young one, if you want to, govern.’
WANT the Verb form nkw-ii
(227)
Ná ntii jnā chajlyā.
NEG
nt-ii
HAB-want
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
cha-jlyā
tortilla-Castille
‘He does not want that bread.’
WANT a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(228)
Nkyatzāʔą́ na xikaʔá lóʔō na ítāá.
nk-ya-tzāʔą́
CPL-go.BASE-full
na
ART
xikaʔ=V́
gourd=DEM
lóʔō
RN.with
na
ART
ítā=V́
water=DEM
‘The cup was filled with water.’
FILL the Verb form nka-ʔne-chá-tzaʔą
(229)
Tī kwēyáʔ estē ntuʔu ntāʔwé niī jā nu jnyaʔa tiʔiri ntii kétū yaką nchatasaʔą tī na na saaʔ tzoʔō.
EMPH
kwēyáʔ
time
estē
this
n-t-uʔu
STAT-TRN-be.inside
ntāʔwé
sapote
niī
now
CONJ
nu
NOM
jnyaʔa
true
tiʔi=ri
in.pain=only
nt-ii
HAB-feel
kétū
hole
yaką
ear
n-chata-saʔą
HAB-get.up-be.attached
EMPH
na
ART
na
ART
saaʔ
parrot
tzoʔō
good
‘At the time that black sapotes were in season (on the tree ready for harvest) our ears would hurt when the mute parrots would all take off at once (it was loud).’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
V 1
(230)
Nkātūʔú jį̄ xī nkutuʔu.
nkā-t-ūʔú
CPL.CAUS-TRN-be.inside(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
NOM.LOC
nku-t-uʔu
CPL-TRN-be.inside(.3)
‘He plugged it in where it was (plugged) in.’
POUR an Alternation:
Active/inactive alternation
(231)
Niī nu ná nyaʔa jiʔį̄na ná kikwiʔ jnā maxi kākwári nkuteję̄.
niī
now
nu
NOM
NEG
nyaʔa
HAB.see(.3)
jiʔį̄=na
RN=1PL.INCL
NEG
ki-kwiʔ
POT-speak(.3)
jiʔį̄=na
RN=1PL.INCL
maxi
CONJ
kākwá=ri
close.by=only
nku-teję̄
CPL-pass(.3)
‘Now they don't see us, they don't speak to us, even when they pass close by.’
TALK a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 3
(232)
Tala tutzęyu tatīyá telā.
tala
always
t-utzę=yu
ADJ-fear=3SG.M
tatīyá
every
telā
night
‘He is always afraid every night.’
FEAR the Verb form y-utzę
(233)
Nkaʔnetikatzǭ mariyā jnā ítā jā katana.
nka-ʔne-ti-katzǭ
CPL-do-ADJ-heat
mariyā
María
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
ítā
water
CONJ
k-ata=na
POT-bathe=1PL.INCL
‘Maria heated the water so we could bathe.’
WASH the Verb form nkw-ē-k-ata
(234)
Léē tzoʔō laa tzakarāyu kula tyāʔ ntyuʔu tánēʔ serlī nu laa nkaā saʔne tzéʔā.
léē
very
tzoʔō
good
l-aa
STAT-be
tzaka=rā=yu
one=now=3SG.M
kula
elder
tyāʔ
still
n-ty-uʔu
HAB-TRN-be.inside(.3)
tánēʔ
cloth
serlī
pants
nu
NOM
l-aa
STAT-be
n-kaā
CPL-be
saʔne
long.ago
tzéʔā
exactly
‘It is beautiful, he is the only old one that still dresses in the cloth pants as in the old days.’
DRESS the Verb form nkw-ē-k-u-tūʔú (s-ateʔ)
(235)
Ntuteęya yusę la to kelā lóʔō tzǫʔya.
nt-u-teę=ya
HAB-CAUS-get.carried=1PL.EXCL
yusę
sand
la
as.far.as
to
mouth
kelā
river
lóʔō
RN.with
tzǫʔ=ya
back=1PL.EXCL
‘We carried sand from the river with our backs.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(236)
Niʔ kíʔyū nka-teę tza manzanā nanēʔ kweję.
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū
male
nka-teę
CPL.CAUS-get.carried
tza
one
mantzanā
apple
nanēʔ
stomach
kweję
bag
‘The man carried the apple in the bag.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(237)
La kii ntāátīʔę́ʔ tyúʔoōʔ̨ tzūʔ jlyā.
la
as.far.as
kii
tomorrow
n-tāá-tīʔ=ą̄ʔ
HAB-give-living.core=1SG
tyúʔu=ą̄ʔ
POT.leave=1SG
tzūʔ
towards
jlyā
early
‘I think I'm leaving early tomorrow.’
THINK the Verb form nkā-tāá-tīʔ
(238)
Chii kusūʔ nch-uwe-tīʔ.
chii
elder
kusūʔ
older
nch-uwe-tīʔ
PRG-get.ground-living.core(.3)
‘The old man is sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
V 1
(239)
Nkyekę̄ na niʔi.
nk-y-akę̄
CPL-ITRN-burn
na
ART
niʔi
house
‘The house burned.’
BURN a Coding frame:
V 1
(240)
Ntētákę̄ na kiiʔ.
nte-t-ákę̄
PRG-TRN-burn
na
ART
kiiʔ
fire
‘The fire is burning.’
BURN an Alternation:
Active/inactive alternation
(241)
Lēʔ wiʔ ntutakę̄ya jį̄.
lēʔ
then
wiʔ
there
nt-u-t-akę̄=ya
HAB-CAUS-TRN-burn=1PL.EXCL
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘Then, we would burn it there.’
BURN an Alternation:
Equipollent causative/intransitive alternation
(242)
Lee leerā ntiʔniūʔ lometā jų́ʔ to kiʔna kwaą̄.
lee
DEM
lee=rā
DEM=now
nti-ʔni=ūʔ
HAB-beat=3PL
lometā
bottle
jiʔį̄=ūʔ
RN=3PL
to
mouth
kiʔna
bed
kwaą̄
high
‘Like this they would hit their bottles on the edge of the loft.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(243)
Chu kíʔyū nkaʔnikiyaʔ jnā walǭ nchaa xaaʔ seʔę.
chu
NOM.HUM
kíʔyū
male
nka-ʔni-kiyaʔ
CPL-beat-foot(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
walǭ
ball
nch-aa
PRG-go.NBASE(.3)
xaaʔ
other
seʔę
place
‘The man kicked the ball and it went somewhere else.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Object/instrument incorporation
(244)
Nkaʔniyaka jwaā jnā wurū.
nka-ʔni-yaka
CPL-beat-wood
jwaā
Juan
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
wurū
donkey
‘Juan prodded the donkey with a stick.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Object/instrument incorporation
(245)
Ná yunaą̄ʔ peru nteʔekwęę̄ʔ nt-iį̄ʔ.
NEG
y-una=ą̄ʔ
CPL-hear=1SG
peru
but
nt-eʔe-kwę=ą̄ʔ
HAB-go.down-sound=1SG
nt-ii=ą̄ʔ
HAB-feel=1SG
‘I didn't understand, but I think I now understand.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Object omission alternation
(246)
Mariyāá nkatōkāchíʔ chaja jį̄ jwaā.
mariyā=V́
María=DEM
nka-tō-kāchíʔ
CPL.CAUS-TRN.be.inside-hidden
chaja
tortilla
jiʔį̄
RN
jwaā
Juan
‘María hid the tortillas from Juan.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(247)
Ntzuʔukāchíʔ nu kíʔyū.
ntz-uʔu-kāchíʔ
STAT-be.inside-hidden
nu
NOM
kíʔyū
male
‘The man is hidden.’
HIDE the Verb form nka-to-kāchíʔ
(248)
Nkulaʔa na yaka.
nku-laʔa
CPL-get.broken
na
ART
yaka
wood
‘The stick broke.’
BREAK the Verb form nka-laʔa
(249)
Mariyā nteyūkéʔ súkwā lóʔō na ketǫʔó.
mariyā
María
ntey-ū-kéʔ
PRG-CAUS-get.cooked
súkwā
food
lóʔō
RN.with
na
ART
ketǫʔ=V́
pot=DEM
‘María is cooking the food in the pot.’
COOK a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(250)
Nteyatą.
nte-y-atą
PRG-ITRN-peel(.3)
‘It is getting peeled.’
PEEL the Verb form nka-s-atą
(251)
Na matrū skwelā ná nkasuʔū jnā nkwítzą lāká.
na
ART
matrū
master
skwelā
school
NEG
nka-suʔū
CPL.CAUS-show(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
lāká
yesterday
‘The teacher did not teach the children yesterday.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Object omission alternation
(252)
Chúʔ kūnáʔa ntijyalóʔō jnā walǭ nkānēʔé jį̄.
chúʔ
3SG.F
kūnáʔa
female
nti-jya-lóʔō
HAB-play-RN.with(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
walǭ
ball
nkā-nēʔé
CPL.CAUS-throw
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘The woman playing with the ball threw it.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Applicative
(253)
Kūjnálóʔō na jiʔį̄.
k-ū-jná-lóʔō=na
POT-CAUS-flee-RN.with=1PL.INCL
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘We are going to take him away.’
RUN an Alternation:
Applicative
(254)
Nkūtúʔu kweʔę jiʔį̄ na pelótā.
nkū-túʔu
CPL-leave
kweʔę
air
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
pelótā
ball
‘The air came out of the ball (the ball was punctured).’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(255)
Nkūtúʔu na nkwítząá kitzę.
nkū-túʔu
CPL-leave
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
kitzę
village
‘The child left the village.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(256)
Tz-aa to neʔe jį̄.
tz-aa
POT-go.NBASE(.3)
to
mouth
neʔe
house
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘He will go to his house.’
GO a Coding frame:
V 1 (LOC2)
(257)
Wī nkyaa tī kwa jnuwę̄ʔ.
and
nk-yaa
CPL-go.BASE
EMPH
kwaa
1PL.EXCL
jiʔį̄
RN
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
‘And we went to that.’
GO a Coding frame:
V 1 (LOC2)
(258)
Kwaʔą kikwiʔwą lo kiʔyā.
kwaʔą
2PL
ki-kwiʔ=wą
POT-speak=2PL
lo
in
kiʔyā
market
‘You will speak at the market.’
TALK an Alternation:
Object omission alternation
(259)
Chúʔwá tiyaʔ ntikwiʔchūʔ.
chúʔ=wá
3SG.F=DEM
tiyaʔ
slowly
nti-kwiʔ=chūʔ
HAB-speak=3SG.F
‘She speaks slowly.’
TALK an Alternation:
Object omission alternation
(260)
Nkū-lúū.
nku-lúū
CPL-get.dug
‘It got dug.’
DIG the Verb form nkā-lúū
(261)
Nu nkātākǫ́ʔūʔ laaʔ nu jā tyāʔ ntūkwá tya kétū.
nu
NOM
nkā-t-ākǫ́ʔ=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-TRN-cover=3PL
laaʔ
like.so
nu
NOM
CONJ
tyāʔ
still
n-tūkwá
STAT-be.inside
to
mouth
kétū
hole
‘Although they closed it off, the hole still exists.’
CLOSE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(262)
Na jnēʔé ntukwęʔ xī nchaa na kwinaʔá.
na
ART
jnēʔ=V́
dog=DEM
nt-ukwęʔ
HAB-smell(.3)
NOM.LOC
nch-aa
PRG-go.NBASE
na
ART
kwinaʔ=V́
deer=DEM
‘The dog smells where the deer is going.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(263)
Nkwēkūlítiʔ jwāá jnā jnēʔé.
nkw-ē-k-ū-lítiʔ
CPL-CAUS-POT-CAUS-sink(.3)
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
jnēʔ=V́
dog=DEM
‘Juan will drown the dog.’
SINK an Alternation:
Causative of active verb
(264)
kwi-tya!na -wa& tzu!na jlyani_.
Kwityánawą tzúna jlyanī.
kwi-tyána=wą
IMP-look.for=2PL
tzúna
three
jlyanī
name
‘Look for three names.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(265)
Kulītíʔ jwaā jnā yakaá.
k-u-lītíʔ
POT-CAUS-sink
jwaā
Juan
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
yaka=V́
wood=DEM
‘Juan will sink the wood.’
SINK an Alternation:
u-Causative alternation
(266)
Nchūná.
nch-ūná
PRG-cry(.3)
‘He is crying.’
CRY a Coding frame:
V 1
(267)
Jwāá nkyukwą̄ jnā keʔnā.
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
nk-y-ukwą̄
CPL-ITRN-grab(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
keʔnā
plate
‘Juan received the plate.’
GET a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(268)
Kujnyá tzaka ya ntisukwā ke.
k-u-jnyá
POT-CAUS-make.2SG
tzaka
one
ya
CLF.wood
nti-sukwā
HAB-be.lying.down
ke
head
‘You are going to make a yoke.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(269)
Jwaā nkayukwą̄ jį̄ keʔnā.
jwaā
Juan
nkay-ukwą̄
CPL-grab
jiʔį̄
RN
keʔnā
plate
‘Juan grabbed the plate.’
GET an Alternation:
Intransitive alternation
(270)
"Ná kutzęwą" nakwę.
NEG
k-utzę=wą
POT-fear=2PL
nakwę
say(.3)
‘"Do not be frightened", he said.’
SAY an Alternation:
Object omission alternation
(271)
Wiʔ nkwisēnaʔa jį̄yúʔ wiʔ.
wiʔ
there
nkw-isē-naʔa
CPL-AUX.turn-see(.3)
jiʔį̄=ūʔ
RN=3PL
wiʔ
DEM
‘There she turned around to look at them.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(272)
Wiʔ nkajnyāúʔ tzaka kétū yuu.
wiʔ
there
nka-jnyā=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-make=3PL
tzaka
one
kétū
hole
yuu
earth
‘There they made a hole in the ground.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(273)
Ná kūtzę̄.
NEG
k-ūtzę̄
POT-fear.2SG
‘Don't be afraid.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Object omission alternation
(274)
Tyāá tī ntyūsé nuwę̄ʔ jiʔį́ nī.
tyāá
POT.ITER.give
EMPH
ntyūsé
god
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
jiʔį́
RN.2SG
now
‘God will give that back to you now.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 jiʔį̄+3
(275)
Lēʔ nkūtúʔuūʔ nchaaūʔ.
lēʔ
then
nkū-túʔu=ūʔ
CPL-leave=3PL
nch-aa=ūʔ
PRG-go.NBASE=3PL
‘Then they left and they went away.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(276)
Ná tukwi yakwiʔ jyā.
NEG
tukwi
which
y-akwiʔ
CPL-speak(.3)
jiʔį̄=ya
RN=1PL.EXCL
‘No one spoke to us.’
TALK a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 3
(277)
Tyeeʔ.
tyeeʔ
POT.get.shaved(.3)
‘It will get shaved.’
SHAVE (self) the Verb form nka-téēʔ
(278)
Tala ntii tzéʔā jį̄ na ítāá jwāá.
tala
for.sure
nt-ii
HAB-want(.3)
tzéʔā
exactly
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
ítā=V́
water=DEM
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
‘Juan, he for sure wants the water.’
WANT a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(279)
Nkwēkūná jwāá jį̄ tyáʔā nkaláā nu ntijya niʔi.
nkw-ē-k-ūná
CPL-CAUS-POT-cry
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
tyáʔā
companion(.3)
nka-láā
CPL.CAUS-get.loose(.3)
nu
NOM
nti-jya
HAB-play(.3)
niʔi
thing
‘Juan made his sister cry because he took away her toy.’
CRY an Alternation:
Causative of active verb
(280)
Kekutūʔúūʔ jnā kamisā jį̄ chúʔ.
k-e-k-u-t-ūʔú=ūʔ
POT-CAUS-POT-CAUS-TRN-be.inside=3NSPEC
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kamisā
shirt
jiʔį̄=chūʔ
RN=3SG.F
‘They are going to dress her in that shirt.’
POUR an Alternation:
Causative of active verb
(281)
Nāxíʔi laaʔ nu kekūná ūʔ tī jį̄ nyatę̄.
nāxíʔi
not.be
laaʔ
like.so
nu
NOM
k-e-k-ūná=ūʔ
POT-CAUS-POT-cry=3NSPEC
EMPH
jiʔį̄
RN
nyatę̄
person
‘It is not the case that they make the people cry.’
CRY an Alternation:
Causative of active verb
(282)
Na kwaaʔaʔ nyāʔā ta yaku jiʔį̄ xikūnáʔa ūʔ xī ntoǫ lóʔō kichi jį̄ nchoō.
na
ART
kwaaʔ=Vʔ
bear=DEM
nyāʔā
POT.see.2SG
ta
already
y-aku
CPL-eat(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
xi-kūnáʔa=ūʔ
POSS-female=3NSPEC
NOM.LOC
n-toǫ
STAT-be.standing
lóʔō
RN.with
kichi
quern
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
nch-oō
PRG-grind
‘The bear, you see, already ate his wife where she was standing with her quern grinding.’
EAT an Alternation:
Object omission alternation
(283)
Nkwēkuxáʔā pīyúʔú jį̄ jwanāá yaa kékū.
nkw-ē-k-u-xáʔā
CPL-CAUS-POT-CAUS-scream
pīyúʔ=V́
baby.girl=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
jwanā=V́
Juana=DEM
y-aa
CPL-go.NBASE(.3)
kékū
water.place
‘The baby girl made Juana scream when they went to the water source.’
SCREAM an Alternation:
Causative of active verb
(284)
Nkwēkujyā na matrū skwelā jnā nkwítząá.
nkw-ē-k-u-jyā
CPL-CAUS-POT-CAUS-play
na
ART
matrū
master
skwelā
school
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
‘The teacher set the kids to playing.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Causative of active verb
(285)
Saʔne yunaą̄ʔ jiʔį̄.
saʔne
long.ago
y-una=ą̄ʔ
CPL-hear=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘Long ago I heard it.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(286)
Ntuwanā na kíʔyū wá.
nt-u-wanā
HAB-CAUS-steal
na
ART
kíʔyū
male
DEM
‘That man steals.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Object omission alternation
(287)
Nkalōónaa ūʔ jiʔį̄ kinī wiʔ naa sensóklē.
nka-lōó-naa=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-take.out-name=3NSPEC
jiʔį̄
RN
kinī
bird
wiʔ
DEM
naa
name
sensóklē
mockingbird
‘They named that bird mockingbird.’
NAME a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 3
(288)
Jā saʔne nchakwiʔ nāáʔ tzáʔ wá nī.
CONJ
saʔne
long.ago
nch-akwiʔ
PRG-speak
nāáʔ
1SG
tzáʔ
thing
DEM
now
‘I have been talking about this for a long time now.’
TALK a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 3
(289)
Ntekēkukwęʔ pīyúʔú jiʔį̄ nā keē tikwą lyaʔāá jiʔį̄ jwanāá.
nte-k-ē-k-ukwęʔ
PRG-POT-CAUS-POT-smell
pīyúʔ=V́
baby.girl=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
keē
flower
tikwą
ugly
lyaʔā=V́
smelling=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
jwanā=V́
Juana=DEM
‘The little girl is making Juana smell the foul smelling flower.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Causative of active verb
(290)
Kelātísę jwaā jiʔį̄ na keé.
k-e-lā-t-ísę
POT-CAUS-get.loose-TRN-roll
jwaā
Juan
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kee=V́
rock=DEM
‘Juan is going to roll the stones.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Causative of active verb
(291)
Ntēlítiʔ jwāá nto nanaʔá.
ntē-lítiʔ
PRG-sink
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
ntoo
face
nanaʔ=V́
mud=DEM
‘Juan is sinking in the mud.’
SINK a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(292)
Kūtá nkaā kusūʔ jyą́ʔ.
kūtá
hunter
n-kaā
CPL-be
kusūʔ
older
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
‘My ancestors were hunters.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
N/A
(293)
Ntuteę na jiʔį̄ lóʔō itzǫʔ na.
nt-u-teę=na
HAB-CAUS-get.carried=1PL.INCL
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
lóʔō
RN.with
itzǫʔ=na
back=1PL.INCL
‘We carry it with (on) our backs.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2 (lóʔō+3)
(294)
Tatīyá nyaʔne nu ntii tzaa tzayoʔō ítā ntoo nanaʔ wī niī lēʔ nu ntīlítiʔ ūʔ jiʔį̄.
tatīyá
every
nyaʔne
animal
nu
NOM
nt-ii
HAB-want
tz-aa
POT-go.NBASE(.3)
tz-a-y-oʔō
POT-go.NBASE-CPL-drink(.3)
ítā
water
ntoo
face
nanaʔ
mud
and
niī
now
lēʔ
then
nu
NOM
ntī-lítiʔ=ūʔ
HAB-sink=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘Every animal that wanted to go and go drink water from the mud, then they would sink there.’
SINK a Coding frame:
V 1 jiʔį̄+2
(295)
Nkwētuteʔ jį.
nkw-ē-t-uteʔ
CPL-CAUS-TRN-be.hungry(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘She made him hungry.’
BE HUNGRY an Alternation:
Causative of active verb