Ambitransitive alternation U

Description

V > A > (jiʔį̄+)P <> V > S, where S corresponds to the P argument
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
GET nku-jwī (2) R
(55)
nku-ta-y-ūná
CPL-begin-CPL-cry
na
ART
nkwítzą=Vʔ
child=DEM
nakwę
say
laaʔ
like.so
juti
father(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
kwentā
because.of
nu
NOM
k-ājá
POT-get(.3)
lyoʔo
spouse
‘The girl began to cry because her father told her she was going to get a husband.’
(56)
wala
where
nku-jwī
CPL-get
EMPH
kwaʔą
2PL
jiʔį̄
RN
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
‘Where did you get that?’
(57)
lóʔō
RN.with
nyáʔa=ą̄ʔ
mother=1SG
nku-jwī=ą̄ʔ
CPL-get=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘From my mother I got it.’

(58)
CONJ
lēʔ
then
nku-jwī
CPL-get
EMPH
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
‘So that was gotten.’
(59)
nku-jwī
CPL-get
tzáʔ
word
kwēyáʔ
measure
EMPH
niī
now
CONJ
tz-aa=ą
POT-go.NBASE=1PL.INCL
EMPH
niī
now
‘Permission is gotten, so let's go now.’
(60)
nku-jwī
CPL-get
na
ART
liwrū=V́
book=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
niʔ
3SG.RSP
matrū
master
skwelā
school
‘The teacher's book was gotten.’
TIE nkā-x-īką́ʔ N
(28)
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
nkā-x-īką́ʔ
CPL.CAUS-TRN-tie(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kwayū=V́
horse=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
yaka=V́
tree=DEM
‘The man tied the horse to the tree.’
(30)
lēʔ
then
nkā-x-īką́ʔ=yu
CPL.CAUS-TRN-tie=3SG.M
EMPH
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
torō=Vʔ
bull=DEM
‘... and then he tied up the bull.’
(31)
nkā-x-īką́ʔ=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-TRN-tie=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
lóʔō
RN.with
yésō
plaster
‘They bandaged him in plaster.’
(32)
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
nkā-x-īką́ʔ
CPL.CAUS-TRN-tie(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
jnēʔ=V́
dog=DEM
‘Juan tied up the dog.’
SEND nkā-tēję́ N
(41)
nkā-tēję́
CPL.CAUS-pass
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kūnáʔa=V́
female=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
liwrū=V́
book=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
niʔ
3SG.RSP
matrū
master
skwelā=V́
school=DEM
‘The girl sent the book to the teacher.’
(42)
nāxíʔi
not.be
EMPH
ta
already
tu
IRR
niī
now
tu
IRR
ntē-tēję́=ya
PRG.CAUS-pass=1PL.EXCL
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
xaaʔ
other
seʔę
place
‘It is not as if we are already sending it out to other areas.’
(43)
NEG
nkā-tēję̄
CPL.CAUS-pass.2SG
na
ART
jnē
money
nu
NOM
n-tyākwī
HAB-owe.2SG
wiʔ
DEM
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
‘You did not send me that money you owe me.’
(44)
nkā-tēję́=wą
CPL.CAUS-pass=2PL
nteē
here
‘Send them here.’
(143)
nkā-tēję́
CPL.CAUS-pass
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kee=V́
rock=DEM
tya
towards
ntoo
face
bentanā=V́
window=DEM
‘The child threw the rock through the window.’
SEARCH FOR nkwī-tyána N
(45)
nkwī-tyána
CPL-look.for
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
‘The man searched for the child.’
(46)
nkwī-tyána=ūʔ
CPL-look.for=3NSPEC
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kíʔyū=Vʔ
male=DEM
‘They (nonspecific) searched for the child.’
(47)
chā-tyána=ą̄ʔ
POT.go.BASE-look.for=1SG
jiʔį̄=yu
RN=3SG.M
laʔā
like.so
nakwę
say(.3)
‘"I am going to go to look for him", he said.’
(48)
CONJ
tyána=na
POT.look.for=1PL.INCL
nyatę̄
person
nu
NOM
k-u-jwi
POT-CAUS-die
jiʔį̄
RN
nu
NOM
DEM
nu
NOM
tyána
POT.look.for
nyāʔā
HAB.see.2SG
tula
what
ʔne=na
POT.do=1PL.INCL
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘Let's look for someone who will kill that one (snake) and who will look for, you see, what we are going to do.’
(264)
kwi-tyána=wą
IMP-look.for=2PL
tzúna
three
jlyanī
name
‘Look for three names.’
FEAR y-utzę N
(63)
y-utzę
CPL-fear
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
‘The boy feared the man.’
FRIGHTEN nkw-ē-k-utzę N
(66)
nkw-ē-k-utzę
CPL-CAUS-POT-fear
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
‘The man frightened the boy.’
DRESS nkw-ē-k-u-tūʔú (s-ateʔ) N
(68)
k-e-k-ata=ūʔ
POT-CAUS-POT-bathe=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN
niʔ
3SG.RSP
joʔō
sacred
i
and
k-e-k-u-t-ūʔú=ūʔ
POT-CAUS-POT-CAUS-TRN-be.inside=3PL
s-ateʔ
POSS-clothes(.3)
‘They are going to bathe the saint and dress him.’
WASH nkw-ē-k-ata N
(68)
k-e-k-ata=ūʔ
POT-CAUS-POT-bathe=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN
niʔ
3SG.RSP
joʔō
sacred
i
and
k-e-k-u-t-ūʔú=ūʔ
POT-CAUS-POT-CAUS-TRN-be.inside=3PL
s-ateʔ
POSS-clothes(.3)
‘They are going to bathe the saint and dress him.’
(69)
nkw-ē-k-ata
CPL-CAUS-POT-bathe
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kūnáʔa=V́
female=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
piīʔ
baby
kūnáʔa=V́
female=DEM
‘The girl washed the baby girl.’
(70)
nkw-ē-k-ata
CPL-CAUS-POT-bathe(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
piīʔ
baby
‘She bathed the baby.’
GRIND nkay-oō N
(71)
kii
tomorrow
now
k-ōó=ūʔ
POT-grind=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN
nu
NOM
DEM
now
k-aku=na
POT-eat=1PL.INCL
‘Tomorrow they are going to grind it so that we can eat.’
KNOW n-tzuʔu-ntoo N
(74)
laaʔ
like.so
l-aa
STAT-be
ntz-uʔu-ntoo
STAT-be.inside-face
EMPH
nāáʔ
1SG
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
chii=Vʔ
elder=DEM
‘And so it is that I knew that man.’
(111)
kwi-tūsúʔ=wą
IMP-grab=2PL
kwítī
medicine
kixę̄ʔ
herb
tatīyá
every
nu
NOM
n-ch-uʔu-ntoo
HAB-ITRN-be.inside-face
lákwiʔ=wą
self=2PL
‘Grab herbal medicine, everything you know yourselves.’
THINK nkā-tāá-tīʔ N
(75)
tala
always
n-tāá-tīʔ
HAB-give-living.core
jiʔį́
RN.2SG
‘She is always thinking of you.’
ASK FOR nkā-nána N
(77)
nkā-nána
CPL.CAUS-ask.for
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
jnē
money
jiʔį̄
RN
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū
male
‘The child asked the man for money.’
(78)
nkwī-nána=ūʔ
CPL-ask.for=3NSPEC
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
jnē=V́
money=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
‘They (nonspec.) asked the man for the money.’
(79)
lēʔ
then
nu
NOM
tíʔnyo
fifteen
tzúna
three
nyájā
year
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
niī
now
nakwę
say(.3)
n-tyejnā
HAB-begin
nt-ū-nána
HAB-CAUS-ask.for
tzaka
one
nyatę̄
person
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘At the age of eighteen it was that a person began asking for her (to marry).’
(81)
NEG
tz-a-nána=na
POT-go.NBASE.CAUS-ask.for=1PL.INCL
EMPH
jiʔį̄
RN
nyatę̄
person
‘We will not ask the people for it (money).’
BOIL nkū-lákwi N
(83)
CONJ
tyejnā
POT.begin
kī-lákwi
POT-boil
EMPH
luwiʔ
then
tza
one
when
COND
tu
IRR
kiiʔ
fire
n-t-uʔu
STAT-TRN-be.inside
‘It is going to start boiling then, as if there were fire in it.’
(84)
tza
one
liya
time
nu
NOM
nkwi-tya-lákwi
CPL-finish-boil(.3)
niī
now
nyāʔā
HAB.see.2SG
lēʔ
then
lēʔ
then
nch-a-tákwī
PRG-go.NBASE-be.hanging(.3)
teę
still
EMPH
luwiʔ
then
‘Once it has stopped boiling, you see, it ends up still then.’
SING (nka-)y-ūlá N
(87)
nkay-ūlá-tuʔwa
CPL-sing-mouth
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
tzaka
one
jnii
song
‘The child sang a song.’
LAUGH nka-xiti N
(91)
tzáʔ
word
wiʔ
DEM
niī
now
lēʔ
then
nka-xiti
CPL-laugh
EMPH
jniʔ
offspring
kūnáʔa
female
na
ART
reē=Vʔ
king=DEM
‘That is why the king's daughter laughed.’
PLAY nka-jyā N
(99)
nāxíʔi
not.be
EMPH
loō
like.so
ki-jya=na
POT-play=1PL.INCL
EMPH
saʔne
long.ago
‘It is not the case that we played that way long ago.’
(100)
CONJ
NOM.LOC
kāchíʔ
hidden
tyeʔę
POT.be.at(.3)
lēʔ
then
NEG
ki-ʔni=ūʔ
POT-beat=3PL
kee
rock
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
nu
NOM
CONJ
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
nti-jya
HAB-play(.3)
‘Where it is hidden it will be, then they will not throw rocks at it, because children play.’
BE SAD nkay-uwe-tīʔ N
(102)
tzaka
one
kāʔá
again
nyāʔā
HAB.see.2SG
nch-uwe-tīʔ
PRG-get.ground-living.core(.3)
‘The other one, you see, he is sad.’
(163)
nch-uwe-tīʔ
PRG-get.ground-living.core(.3)
nch-ā-kitza
PRG-be-sick(.3)
‘He is sad, and he is getting sick.’
(238)
chii
elder
kusūʔ
older
nch-uwe-tīʔ
PRG-get.ground-living.core(.3)
‘The old man is sad.’
RAIN nkw-eʔe (choo) N
(179)
nkū-kúti
CPL-soften
na
ART
yuu=V́
earth=DEM
CONJ
léē
very
léē
strong
nkwi-ʔe
CPL-go.down
choo
rain
‘The earth became soft because it rained very hard.’
SHOUT AT nk-xáʔā-lóʔō N
(98)
nkā-xáʔā-lóʔō
CPL-scream-RN.with
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kūnáʔa=V́
female=DEM
‘The man screamed at the girl.’
BUILD nka-jnyā N
(103)
nka-jnyā
CPL.CAUS-make
chu
NOM.HUM
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
niʔi=V́
house=DEM
lóʔō
RN.with
lítúu
adobe
‘The man built the house with adobe.’
(105)
nu
NOM
liwrū
book
k-u-jnyā=yu
POT-CAUS-make=3SG.M
jiʔį̄
RN
kitzę
village
nu
NOM
l-aa
STAT-be
nk-y-uʔu
CPL-ITRN-be.inside
laaʔ
like.so
saʔne
long.ago
jiʔį̄
RN
to
mouth
neʔe
house
jiʔį̄
RN
to
mouth
laa
church
‘The book he is going to make for the village is like the one there was long before in the house of the church.’
(107)
nte-jnyā
PRG-make
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kūnáʔa
female
nu
NOM
k-aku
POT-eat(.3)
‘The woman was making what he was going to eat.’
(108)
k-u-jnyá
POT-CAUS-make.2SG
tzaka
one
ya
CLF.wood
rawū
plough
nakwę
say(.3)
‘"You are going to make a plow", he said.’
(109)
lóʔō
RN.with
maxtyī
machete
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
nka-jnyā=ą̄ʔ
CPL.CAUS-make=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘I did/made it with my machete.’
(115)
nt-u-jnyā=ya
HAB-CAUS-make=1PL.EXCL
jaʔwa
granary
n-ch-uʔu
HAB-ITRN-be.inside
lita
ear.of.corn
‘We built granaries where the ears of corn were put.’
(268)
k-u-jnyá
POT-CAUS-make.2SG
tzaka
one
ya
CLF.wood
nti-sukwā
HAB-be.lying.down
ke
head
‘You are going to make a yoke.’
(272)
wiʔ
there
nka-jnyā=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-make=3PL
tzaka
one
kétū
hole
yuu
earth
‘There they made a hole in the ground.’
MEET nk-y-uʔu-ntoo N
(110)
la
as.far.as
niī
now
nyaʔa=yu
POT.see=3SG.M
nakwę
say(.3)
ch-uʔu-ntoo=yu
POT.ITRN-be.inside-face=3SG.M
jiʔį̄
RN
nyatę̄
person
tāká
ADJ.be
nteē
here
nakwę
say(.3)
‘"Now he will see", he said, "he will meet the people that live here", he said.’
POUR nkā-t-ūʔú N
(38)
tz-a-t-ūʔú=ą̄ʔ
POT-go.NBASE.CAUS-TRN-be.inside=1SG
ítā
water
jiʔį̄
RN
maxi
CONJ
nāxíʔi
not.be
EMPH
kenaʔa
many
‘I will pour water on it even if not a lot.’
(39)
nkā-t-ūʔú
CPL.CAUS-TRN-be.inside
jwaā
Juan
ítā
water
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
keē
flower
‘Juan poured water on the flowers.’
HIT nkā-rá N
(117)
nkā-rá
CPL-hit
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kwénā=V́
snake=DEM
lóʔō
RN.with
na
ART
ya
CLF.wood
látī=V́
thin=DEM
‘The boy hit the snake with the stick.’
LOAD nkā-tūkwá N
(34)
tza
one
liya
time
nu
NOM
ta
already
nku-jwī
CPL-get(.3)
xile
strength
ta
already
ntey-ajā
PRG-get(.3)
xile
strength
nu
NOM
nch-atzūʔ
PRG-rot
nyaʔa
HAB.see(.3)
lēʔ
then
k-ū-tūkwá=ą
POT-CAUS-be.inside=1PL.INCL
ítā
water
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘Once it has gotten strength and is getting stronger and we see it is rotting, then we pour water on it.’
(35)
k-ū-tūkwá
POT-CAUS-be.inside(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
lúkwī=Vʔ
mezcal=DEM
when
nu
NOM
taʔa
festival
‘They will pour the mezcal during the festival.’
(37)
nkā-tūkwá
CPL.CAUS-be.inside(.3)
tejeʔ
salt
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kantū=Vʔ
broth=DEM
‘She put salt in the broth.’
(126)
nt-ū-xūʔú=ya
HAB-CAUS-get.cut=1PL.EXCL
kixę̄ʔ
herb
and
nt-ū-tūkwá=ya
HAB-CAUS-be.inside=1PL.EXCL
ntzukwāʔ
maize
‘We used to cut the weeds and we would plant the corn.’
(218)
nkā-tūkwá
CPL.CAUS-be.inside
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkutī=V́
hay=DEM
nanēʔ
stomach
na
ART
karetā=V́
cart=DEM
‘The man put (loaded) the hay into the cart.’
(219)
nka-tūkwá
CPL.CAUS-be.inside(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
nanēʔ
stomach
tzaka
one
kichuwī
basket
kusǭ
old
‘He put them in an old basket.’
HIDE nka-to-kāchíʔ N
(246)
mariyā=V́
María=DEM
nka-tō-kāchíʔ
CPL.CAUS-TRN.be.inside-hidden
chaja
tortilla
jiʔį̄
RN
jwaā
Juan
‘María hid the tortillas from Juan.’
GIVE nkā-tāá N
(40)
nkā-tāá
CPL-give
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kūnáʔa=V́
female=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
liwrū=V́
book=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
niʔ
3SG.RSP
matrū
master
skwelā=V́
school=DEM
‘The girl gave the book to the teacher.’
(154)
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
NEG
y-a-toǫ-tīʔ
CPL-go.NBASE-be.standing-living.core(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
lúkwī=V́
mezcal=DEM
nu
NOM
nkā-tāá=ą̄ʔ
CPL-give=1SG
jiʔį̄=yu
RN=3SG.M
‘Juan did not like the mezcal I gave him.’
(157)
NEG
nīkwę̄
POT.say.2SG
tu
IRR
nāáʔ
1SG
n-tákwī=ą̄ʔ
STAT-be.hanging=1SG
kyaʔa
guilt
CONJ
jiʔį́
RN.2SG
tyaʔą-la-saʔą
POT.go.around-ADJ-be.attached(.3)
tza
one
liya
time
nu
NOM
tāá
POT.give(.3)
‘Don't say that it is my fault if he goes after you once he gives it to you.’
(204)
y-akwiʔ
CPL-speak
nu
NOM
kūnáʔa
female
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
i
and
nkā-tāá
CPL-give(.3)
súkwā
food
jiʔį̄
RN
nāáʔ
1SG
‘The woman spoke to me and offered me food.’
(274)
tyāá
POT.ITER.give
EMPH
ntyūsé
god
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
jiʔį́
RN.2SG
now
‘God will give that back to you now.’
TOUCH y-alaʔ N
(119)
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
y-alaʔ
CPL-touch
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kwénā=V́
snake=DEM
lóʔō
RN.with
na
ART
ya
CLF.wood
látī=V́
thin=DEM
‘The child touched the snake with the stick.’
(120)
n-tāá=ūʔ
HAB-give=3PL
ītzáʔ
word
nt-una=ą
HAB-hear=1PL.INCL
maxi
CONJ
NEG
nkā-naʔa=ą̄ʔ
CPL-see=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
NEG
y-u-jwi=ą̄ʔ
CPL-CAUS-die=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
NEG
y-alaʔ=ą̄ʔ
CPL-touch=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘They talk about it and we listen, but I never saw it, I never killed it, I never touched it.’
(121)
lēʔ
then
n-ch-uʔu-kāchíʔ
HAB-ITRN-be.inside-hidden(.3)
CONJ
nu
NOM
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
nti-laʔ
HAB-touch
kee
rock
CONJ
titǭ
several
nka-laʔa=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-get.broken=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘They (the jugs) get hidden there, because the children grab rocks and they have broken several (of the jugs).’
(122)
l-alaʔ
STAT-touch(.3)
xikǭ=chūʔ
arm=3SG.F
‘He is holding her arm.’
CUT nkā-xūʔú N
(123)
nkā-xūʔú
CPL.CAUS-get.cut
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
cha-jlyā=V́
tortilla-Castille=DEM
lóʔō
RN.with
kuchilū
knife
‘The child cut the bread with the knife.’
(125)
ta
already
nkā-xūʔú=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-get.cut=3NSPEC
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
ya
CLF.wood
nkítā
elephant.ear
EMPH
niī
now
‘They have cut the elephant's ear tree now.’
(126)
nt-ū-xūʔú=ya
HAB-CAUS-get.cut=1PL.EXCL
kixę̄ʔ
herb
and
nt-ū-tūkwá=ya
HAB-CAUS-be.inside=1PL.EXCL
ntzukwāʔ
maize
‘We used to cut the weeds and we would plant the corn.’
(129)
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
ntē-xūʔú
PRG.CAUS-get.cut
yane
neck
na
ART
kwetu=V́
chicken=DEM
CONJ
k-ākéʔ
POT-get.cooked
‘Juan is cutting the chicken's neck so that it can be cooked.’
SHOW nka-suʔū N
(135)
nka-suʔū
CPL.CAUS-show
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
tzaka
one
lakaʔ
leaf
nk-yánā
CPL-wilt
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
‘The child showed me a wilted leaf.’
(136)
nka-suʔū=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-show=3NSPEC
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
liwrū=V́
book=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
niʔ
3SG.RSP
matrū
master
skwelā
school
‘The book was shown to the teacher.’
(137)
nt-u-suʔū
HAB-CAUS-show(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
x-ītzáʔ
POSS-word
itzǫʔ
back
tyáā
water
‘She teaches him English.’
(138)
nāáʔ
1SG
k-u-suʔū=ą̄ʔ
POT-CAUS-show=1SG
táą̄
valley
jiʔį́
RN.2SG
‘I will teach you Zapotec.’
(139)
k-u-suʔū=ą̄ʔ
POT-CAUS-show=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kūnáʔa
female
jiʔį̄
RN
jniʔ
offspring
kíʔyū=ą̄ʔ
male=1SG
‘I will show the girls to my son.’
RUN nkū-túʔu-jná N
(145)
nkū-túʔu-jná
CPL-leave-flee
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
ntoo
face
yuu=V́
earth=DEM
‘The boy ran on the ground.’
(147)
nch-aa
PRG-go.NBASE
ntē-túʔu-jná
PRG-leave-flee
nkuxę
late
nch-aa
PRG-go.NBASE
‘He went running because he went late.’
COOK nkay-ū-kéʔ N
(130)
nkāy-ū-kéʔ
CPL-CAUS-get.cooked
tīké
liver
ntē
DEM
now
nakwę=ūʔ
say=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN
nyáʔa=ūʔ
mother=3PL
CONJ
k-aku=na
POT-eat=1PL.INCL
‘"Cook this liver", they told their mother, "so that we may eat."’
(249)
mariyā
María
ntey-ū-kéʔ
PRG-CAUS-get.cooked
súkwā
food
lóʔō
RN.with
na
ART
ketǫʔ=V́
pot=DEM
‘María is cooking the food in the pot.’
TEAR nkā-s-āáʔ N
(1)
tzǫʔ
back
s-ateʔ=yu
POSS-clothes=3SG.M
nkā-s-āáʔ
CPL.CAUS-TRN-tear(.3)
s-ateʔ=yu
POSS-clothes=3SG.M
‘The back of his clothes, he tore his clothes.’
(2)
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
ntē-s-āáʔ
PRG.CAUS-TRN-tear(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
chaja=V́
tortilla=DEM
‘The child is tearing the tortilla.’
EAT y-aku N
(4)
NEG
y-aku=ą̄ʔ
CPL-eat=1SG
suwe=Vʔ
egg=DEM
lāká
yesterday
‘I did not eat eggs yesterday.’
(5)
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
n-kā-tāná=yu
CPL-be-poisoned=3SG.M
y-aku=yu
CPL-eat=3SG.M
pastíyā
pill
‘Juan got poisoned because he ate pills.’
(6)
nu
NOM
chu
NOM.HUM
jwaā
Juan
léē
very
kenaʔa
many
nkwītítzūʔ
pineapple
y-aku=yu
CPL-eat=3SG.M
nku-túkwā
CPL-chafe
tuʔwa=yu
mouth=3SG.M
‘Juan ate too much pineapple and his mouth got raw (chafed).’
(7)
nt-aku=na
HAB-eat=1PL.INCL
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘We eat it.’
(11)
y-aku
CPL-eat
chúʔ
3SG.F
kūnáʔa=V́
female=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
cha-jlyā=V́
tortilla-Castille=DEM
‘The girl ate the bread.’
(165)
NEG
n-tyō-tīʔ=ya
HAB-?-living.core=1PL.EXCL
wala
where
ntē-túʔu
PRG-leave
tejeʔ
salt
nu
NOM
nt-aku=ya
HAB-eat=1PL.EXCL
now
‘We don't know where the salt we eat now comes from.’
SAY nakwę N
(64)
kwi-naʔa=tzoʔō=wą
IMP-see=well=2PL
nakwę
say(.3)
‘"Look here!", he said.’
(130)
nkāy-ū-kéʔ
CPL-CAUS-get.cooked
tīké
liver
ntē
DEM
now
nakwę=ūʔ
say=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN
nyáʔa=ūʔ
mother=3PL
CONJ
k-aku=na
POT-eat=1PL.INCL
‘"Cook this liver", they told their mother, "so that we may eat."’
(141)
tz-a-nēʔé=jnáʔ=ą̄ʔ
POT-go.NBASE-throw=blast=1SG
jiʔį́
RN.2SG
ntoo
face
kiiʔ
fire
nyāʔā
HAB.see.2SG
chu
NOM.HUM
xīyáʔ=ri
small=only
tikwą
ugly
nti-kwiʔ-jnyáʔā
HAB-speak-bad
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
nakwę
say
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kwetāʔ=Vʔ
fox=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kweeʔ=Vʔ
crab=DEM
‘"I am going to throw you in the fire, you'll see, you little one, because you insult me", said the fox to the crab.’
(157)
NEG
nīkwę̄
POT.say.2SG
tu
IRR
nāáʔ
1SG
n-tákwī=ą̄ʔ
STAT-be.hanging=1SG
kyaʔa
guilt
CONJ
jiʔį́
RN.2SG
tyaʔą-la-saʔą
POT.go.around-ADJ-be.attached(.3)
tza
one
liya
time
nu
NOM
tāá
POT.give(.3)
‘Don't say that it is my fault if he goes after you once he gives it to you.’
(197)
lēʔ
then
y-akwiʔ=ūʔ
CPL-speak=3PL
lóʔō
RN.with
na
ART
kweta
outsider
kyaʔā=Vʔ
mountain=DEM
laaʔ
like.so
ntē-tāką́ʔ
PRG-experience
kwaa
1PL.EXCL
yākwá
there
nakwę
say(.3)
‘Then they spoke to the Mixtecs, "that is what is happening to us there", they said.’
(198)
and
lyakwā
why
tz-aa-lóʔō=ą
POT-go.NBASE-RN.with=1PL.INCL
kitē
pine
nakwę
say(.3)
kūnáʔa
female
‘"And why are we going to take pine?", said the woman.’
(199)
ki-nikwę
POT-tell
tyūú
Pedro
jiʔį̄
RN
jwaā
Juan
tz-aa
POT-go.NBASE
tya
towards
kitzę
village
jlyū
large
‘Pedro is going to tell Juan to go to the city.’
(270)
NEG
k-utzę=wą
POT-fear=2PL
nakwę
say(.3)
‘"Do not be frightened", he said.’
COUGH nka-tuuʔ N
(15)
nka-tuuʔ
CPL-cough
chu
NOM.HUM
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
‘The man coughed.’
(16)
chu
NOM.HUM
kíʔyū=Vʔ
male=DEM
nka-ʔne
CPL-do(.3)
tyá-tuuʔ
POT.begin-cough
nu
NOM
kūnáʔa=Vʔ
female=DEM
‘The man made the woman cough.’
CLOSE nka-t-ākǫ́ʔ N
(17)
nkā-t-ākǫ́ʔ
CPL.CAUS-TRN-cover
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
lóʔō
RN.with
na
ART
tā-kitząʔ=V́
cloth-hair=DEM
‘The man covered the child with the blanket.’
(18)
ntē-t-ākǫ́ʔ
PRG.CAUS-TRN-cover
koo
cloud
jiʔį̄
RN
koōʔ
moon
‘The cloud is covering the moon.’
(19)
k-u-t-ākǫ́ʔ=ą
POT-CAUS-TRN-cover=1PL.INCL
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
lita=V́
ear.of.corn=DEM
CONJ
NEG
nyaʔa
POT.see
xíkwą̄
sunlight
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘We are going to cover up the corn so that the sun does not see it.’
(20)
nkā-t-ākǫ́ʔ
CPL.CAUS-TRN-cover(.3)
ntoo
eye(.3)
nku-tyūkwá
CPL-go.out(.3)
luwiʔ
then
‘He closed his eyes and walked out then.’
(22)
nkā-t-ākǫ́ʔ
CPL.CAUS-TRN-cover(.3)
nu
NOM
nee
say(.3)
joʔō
god
kyaʔā
mountain
kékū
water.place
‘He closed off the one called the god of nature.’
(261)
nu
NOM
nkā-t-ākǫ́ʔ=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-TRN-cover=3PL
laaʔ
like.so
nu
NOM
CONJ
tyāʔ
still
n-tūkwá
STAT-be.inside
to
mouth
kétū
hole
‘Although they closed it off, the hole still exists.’
LOOK AT nkā-naʔa R
(19)
k-u-t-ākǫ́ʔ=ą
POT-CAUS-TRN-cover=1PL.INCL
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
lita=V́
ear.of.corn=DEM
CONJ
NEG
nyaʔa
POT.see
xíkwą̄
sunlight
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘We are going to cover up the corn so that the sun does not see it.’
(64)
kwi-naʔa=tzoʔō=wą
IMP-see=well=2PL
nakwę
say(.3)
‘"Look here!", he said.’
(120)
n-tāá=ūʔ
HAB-give=3PL
ītzáʔ
word
nt-una=ą
HAB-hear=1PL.INCL
maxi
CONJ
NEG
nkā-naʔa=ą̄ʔ
CPL-see=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
NEG
y-u-jwi=ą̄ʔ
CPL-CAUS-die=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
NEG
y-alaʔ=ą̄ʔ
CPL-touch=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘They talk about it and we listen, but I never saw it, I never killed it, I never touched it.’
(153)
jwaā
Juan
y-a-nāʔā
CPL-go.NBASE-see.2SG
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
wurū
donkey
COND
NEG
nte-y-atiʔ
PRG-ITRN-untie
‘Juan! Go and look at the donkey to see that it is not coming untied.’
(224)
nkā-naʔa
CPL-see
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū
male
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kíʔyū=Vʔ
male=DEM
‘The man saw the boy.’
(271)
wiʔ
there
nkw-isē-naʔa
CPL-AUX.turn-see(.3)
jiʔį̄=ūʔ
RN=3PL
wiʔ
DEM
‘There she turned around to look at them.’

(223)
jwaā
Juan
ntē-wíī
PRG.CAUS-clean.off(.3)
tzǫʔ
back
na
ART
yaka
tree
CONJ
k-u-jlyā
POT-CAUS-spread
choʔo
lime
CONJ
léē
very
tikwą
ugly
nyaʔa
HAB.see(.3)
‘Juan is cleaning off the tree in order to paint it with lime, because it looked very ugly.’
FILL nka-ʔne-chá-tzaʔą N
(27)
nka-ʔne-chá-tzaʔą
CPL-do-POT.reach-full(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
ketǫʔ=V́
pot=DEM
lóʔō
RN.with
ítā
water
‘Fill the pot with water!’
JUMP nkw-é-kwaą̄ N
(210)
CONJ
nu
NOM
nt-e-kwaą̄
HAB-AUX-high
niʔ
3SG.RSP
nt-e-kwaą̄
HAB-AUX-high
niʔ
3SG.RSP
nt-e-kwaą̄
HAB-AUX-high
niʔ
3SG.RSP
nkw-eʔe-teʔę
CPL-go.down-be.at
niʔ
3SG.RSP
tyākwę́
path
‘And he jumped and jumped and jumped and fell down to the path.’
(212)
ntē-k-é-kwaą̄
PRG-POT-AUX-high
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
ntoo
face
yuu=V́
earth=DEM
‘The child is jumping on the ground.’
BE DRY witi N
(213)
léē
very
ta
already
witi
dry
nt-ii
HAB-feel
tuʔwa=ą̄ʔ
mouth=1SG
‘My mouth feels very dried out.’
(214)
COND
NEG
k-eʔe
POT-go.down
choo
rain
CONJ
ki-witi
POT-dry
nu
NOM
nku-chata=na
CPL-replant=1PL.INCL
‘If it doesn't rain, the crop (what we planted) will dry out.’
(215)
nte-witi=ri
PRG-dry=only
nt-ii
HAB-feel
EMPH
tyáą=ą̄ʔ
throat=1SG
‘My throat dries up on me a lot.’
SHAVE (self) nka-téēʔ N
(217)
yu=wá
3SG.M=DEM
nka-téēʔ=yu
CPL.CAUS-get.shaved=3SG.M
jiʔį̄=yu
RN=3SG.M
‘He shaved himself.’
SMELL y-ukwęʔ N
(262)
na
ART
jnēʔ=V́
dog=DEM
nt-ukwęʔ
HAB-smell(.3)
NOM.LOC
nch-aa
PRG-go.NBASE
na
ART
kwinaʔ=V́
deer=DEM
‘The dog smells where the deer is going.’
ROLL nku-lā-misę̄ N
(220)
k-e-t-uʔu
POT-AUX.down-TRN-be.inside
yuu
earth
ki-la-misę̄
POT-get.loose-roll
‘If the land caves in, we would go rolling.’
(221)
nku-lā-misę̄
CPL-get.loose-roll
s-ūʔwá
POSS-load
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
when
nu
NOM
y-a-k-īʔyá=yu
CPL-go.NBASE-POT-transport=3SG.M
lita
ear.of.corn
‘Juan's load rolled when he went to haul corn.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
(292)
kūtá
hunter
n-kaā
CPL-be
kusūʔ
older
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
‘My ancestors were hunters.’
WANT nkw-ii N
(21)
nkā-t-ākǫ́ʔ=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-TRN-cover=3PL
nkw-ii=ūʔ
CPL-want=3PL
‘They planned on closing it off (the place).’
(62)
and
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
k-ī-lyōó=ūʔ
POT-ITER-take.out=3NSPEC
nkw-ii=ūʔ
CPL-want=3NSPEC
pero
but
NEG
nk-y-ajā
CPL-ITRN-get(.3)
‘And it was that one that they wanted to copy, but it didn't appear./Lit: 'And it was that one they wanted to take out again, but it was not found.'’
(80)
nkw-ii=ya
CPL-want=1PL.EXCL
ʔne-kwēyáʔ=ya
POT.do-measure=1PL.EXCL
laaʔ
like.so
laaʔ
like.so
EMPH
nu
NOM
CONJ
nt-ū-nána=ūʔ
HAB-CAUS-ask.for=3PL
jiʔį̄=ya
RN=1PL.EXCL
‘We wanted to try to do so, because they were asking us for it.’
(227)
NEG
nt-ii
HAB-want
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
cha-jlyā
tortilla-Castille
‘He does not want that bread.’
(278)
tala
for.sure
nt-ii
HAB-want(.3)
tzéʔā
exactly
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
ítā=V́
water=DEM
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
‘Juan, he for sure wants the water.’
KILL nkay-u-jwi N
(48)
CONJ
tyána=na
POT.look.for=1PL.INCL
nyatę̄
person
nu
NOM
k-u-jwi
POT-CAUS-die
jiʔį̄
RN
nu
NOM
DEM
nu
NOM
tyána
POT.look.for
nyāʔā
HAB.see.2SG
tula
what
ʔne=na
POT.do=1PL.INCL
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘Let's look for someone who will kill that one (snake) and who will look for, you see, what we are going to do.’
(49)
and
nt-u-jwi
HAB-CAUS-die
EMPH
kwaa
1PL.EXCL
jiʔį̄
RN
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
lóʔō
RN.with
kētǫ́
gun
‘We killed those with guns.’
(50)
na
ART
kweta
outsider
kyaʔā=Vʔ
mountain=DEM
nk-yaą
CPL-come.BASE(.3)
nkay-u-jwi
CPL-CAUS-die(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kwénā=Vʔ
snake=DEM
‘The Mixtec came to kill the snake.’
(120)
n-tāá=ūʔ
HAB-give=3PL
ītzáʔ
word
nt-una=ą
HAB-hear=1PL.INCL
maxi
CONJ
NEG
nkā-naʔa=ą̄ʔ
CPL-see=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
NEG
y-u-jwi=ą̄ʔ
CPL-CAUS-die=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
NEG
y-alaʔ=ą̄ʔ
CPL-touch=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘They talk about it and we listen, but I never saw it, I never killed it, I never touched it.’
DIE nku-jwi (1) N
(51)
nku-jwi
CPL-die
EMPH
na
ART
na
ART
kwīchí=Vʔ
jaguar=DEM
nakwę
say(.3)
lēʔ
then
lēʔ
then
telā
night
wiʔ
DEM
nku-jwi
CPL-die
EMPH
na
ART
nyatę̄=Vʔ
person=DEM
‘The jaguar died, they say, and then that night the person died.’
(52)
ntey-aja
PRG-die
nu
NOM
chu
NOM.HUM
n-kaā
CPL-be
wiskā
churchwarden
‘Those who were churchwardens are dying.’
(53)
nku-jwi
CPL-die
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
‘The man died.’
(54)
na
ART
kwénā=V́
snake=DEM
nku-jwi
CPL-die
lóʔō
RN.with
na
ART
ya
CLF.wood
látī=V́
thin=DEM
‘The snake died by stick.’
(167)
kutza
difficult
nka-ʔne
CPL-do
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
nkū-túʔu
CPL-leave
lyātá
ditch
NEG
tula
what
ʔne=ą̄ʔ
POT.do=1SG
chaa=ą̄ʔ
POT.go.BASE=1SG
CONJ
k-aja=ą̄ʔ
POT-die=1SG
NOM.LOC
tāká=ą̄ʔ
ADJ.be=1SG
‘It was difficult for me to make my ditch (for the ditch to come out), but there is nothing for me to do. I better just go, so I may die in my own land (where I live).’
CRY y-ūná N
(55)
nku-ta-y-ūná
CPL-begin-CPL-cry
na
ART
nkwítzą=Vʔ
child=DEM
nakwę
say
laaʔ
like.so
juti
father(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
kwentā
because.of
nu
NOM
k-ājá
POT-get(.3)
lyoʔo
spouse
‘The girl began to cry because her father told her she was going to get a husband.’
(266)
nch-ūná
PRG-cry(.3)
‘He is crying.’
BURN nk-y-akę̄ N
(239)
nk-y-akę̄
CPL-ITRN-burn
na
ART
niʔi
house
‘The house burned.’
LIVE n-kā-tāká N
(112)
nāxíʔi
not.be
tu
IRR
tijyuʔ
far
tāká=ą
ADJ.be=1PL.INCL
nteē=ri
here=only
tāká
ADJ.be
nkwítzą
child
nt-ujwiʔ
HAB-sell
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘We don't live far, right here lives a kid who sells them.’
(113)
and
EMPH
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
and
chiīʔ
young.one
wala=rā
where=now
nk-ā-tāká
CPL-be-ADJ.be(.3)
wiʔ
DEM
‘And him, young one, where did he live?’
(114)
luwiʔ
then
nk-ā-tāká
CPL-be-ADJ.be
nāáʔ
1SG
ta
already
tāká
ADJ.be
nyatę̄
person
nteē
here
luwiʔ
then
‘At that time I was born. There were already people here at that time.’
BEAT nka-ʔni N
(100)
CONJ
NOM.LOC
kāchíʔ
hidden
tyeʔę
POT.be.at(.3)
lēʔ
then
NEG
ki-ʔni=ūʔ
POT-beat=3PL
kee
rock
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
nu
NOM
CONJ
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
nti-jya
HAB-play(.3)
‘Where it is hidden it will be, then they will not throw rocks at it, because children play.’
(242)
lee
DEM
lee=rā
DEM=now
nti-ʔni=ūʔ
HAB-beat=3PL
lometā
bottle
jiʔį̄=ūʔ
RN=3PL
to
mouth
kiʔna
bed
kwaą̄
high
‘Like this they would hit their bottles on the edge of the loft.’
HEAR y-una (2) N
(120)
n-tāá=ūʔ
HAB-give=3PL
ītzáʔ
word
nt-una=ą
HAB-hear=1PL.INCL
maxi
CONJ
NEG
nkā-naʔa=ą̄ʔ
CPL-see=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
NEG
y-u-jwi=ą̄ʔ
CPL-CAUS-die=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
NEG
y-alaʔ=ą̄ʔ
CPL-touch=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘They talk about it and we listen, but I never saw it, I never killed it, I never touched it.’
(285)
saʔne
long.ago
y-una=ą̄ʔ
CPL-hear=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘Long ago I heard it.’
BREAK nka-laʔa N
(121)
lēʔ
then
n-ch-uʔu-kāchíʔ
HAB-ITRN-be.inside-hidden(.3)
CONJ
nu
NOM
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
nti-laʔ
HAB-touch
kee
rock
CONJ
titǭ
several
nka-laʔa=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-get.broken=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘They (the jugs) get hidden there, because the children grab rocks and they have broken several (of the jugs).’
(177)
nku-tyejnā
CPL-begin
nti-ʔe
HAB-go.down
choo
rain
kunu
a.little
suwe
small
ʔne
HAB.do
lēʔ
then
nku-tyejnā
CPL-begin
nt-u-laʔa=ūʔ
HAB-CAUS-get.broken=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kee=Vʔ
rock=DEM
lóʔō
RN.with
kwitīʔyú
lightning
‘Then it started to sprinkle a little bit, and they began to break the rock with lightning.’
TAKE nkā-láā N
(131)
nti-kwiʔ-tzáʔ
HAB-speak-word
ų́ʔ
3PL
DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
yuu
earth
nu
NOM
nkā-láā=ą
CPL.CAUS-get.loose=1PL.INCL
DEM
‘They are reclaiming the land that we took (from them).’
(132)
k-u-laa=ą̄ʔ
POT-CAUS-get.loose=1SG
jiʔį̄=yu
RN=3SG.M
‘I will take (her) from him.’
(133)
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
nt-u-laa
HAB-CAUS-get.loose
jnyá=ūʔ
work=3PL
laʔā
like.so
nikwę
POT.say(.3)
‘This one takes away their job we say.’
PEEL nka-s-atą N
(9)
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
NEG
nka-s-atą
CPL.CAUS-TRN-peel(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
kwichī=V́
rabbit=DEM
CONJ
ch-áku
POT.ITRN-eat
nu
NOM
DEM
‘Juan did not skin the rabbit for it to be eaten.’
(134)
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
NEG
jaʔą̄
want
k-u-s-atą
POT-CAUS-TRN-peel
lita
ear.of.corn
‘Juan does not want to shuck the corn.’
THROW nkā-nēʔé N
(140)
CONJ
na
ART
kūʔwí=V́
drunk=DEM
nka-ʔne
CPL-do
loō
like.so
jiʔį́
RN.2SG
nakwę
say(.3)
lēʔ
then
nkā-nēʔé=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-throw=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
nanēʔ
stomach
‘"That drunk there did this to you", he said, and they threw him in the jail.’
(142)
laaʔ
like.so
COND
tu
IRR
wala=ri
where=only
k-ukwą̄
POT-grab
kee
rock
k-ū-nēʔé
POT-CAUS-throw
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘They can grab rocks and throw them wherever.’
BLINK nk-y-uwi-ntoo N
(144)
naʔā
not.anymore
n-ch-uwi-ntoo
HAB-ITRN-flash-eye
jwaā
Juan
CONJ
tiʔi
in.pain
ntoo=yu
eye=3SG.M
‘Juan does not blink anymore because his eye hurts.’
HUG nk-y-uʔu-xiiʔ N
(148)
NEG
ʔnē
do.2SG
EMPH
laaʔ
like.so
nu
NOM
tyōǭ
POT.be.standing
ch-uʔu-xīīʔ
POT.ITRN-be.inside-side.2SG
EMPH
yaka
wood
wala
where
n-toǫ
STAT-be.standing
mītą́ʔ
house.post
‘Do not do that, that standing there and hugging the logs where the support posts are.’
(149)
tzoʔō
good
k-a
POT-be
ch-uʔu-xiiʔ=ą̄ʔ
POT.ITRN-be.inside-side=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
nt-ii=ą̄ʔ
HAB-feel=1SG
‘I think it would be good to hug her.’
(150)
n-ch-uʔu-xiiʔ
HAB-ITRN-be.inside-side
jiʔį̄=chūʔ
RN=3SG.F
nt-aku
HAB-eat(.3)
tuʔwa=chūʔ
mouth=3SG.F
‘He hugs her and kisses her lips.’
HUG nkā-tūkwá-xiiʔ N
(151)
nt-ū-tūkwá-xiiʔ
HAB-CAUS-be.inside-side(.3)
jiʔį̄=chūʔ
RN=3SG.F
‘He hugs her.’
LIKE y-a-toǫ-tīʔ N
(154)
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
NEG
y-a-toǫ-tīʔ
CPL-go.NBASE-be.standing-living.core(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
lúkwī=V́
mezcal=DEM
nu
NOM
nkā-tāá=ą̄ʔ
CPL-give=1SG
jiʔį̄=yu
RN=3SG.M
‘Juan did not like the mezcal I gave him.’
(155)
NEG
nch-a-toǫ-tīʔ=yu
PRG-go.NBASE-be.standing-living.core=3SG.M
CONJ
tikwą
ugly
nti-kwiʔ
HAB-speak
nyatę̄
person
jiʔį̄=yu
RN=3SG.M
NOM.LOC
nch-akā
PRG-be
jūntá=V́
meeting=DEM
‘He does not like it because the people were talking bad to him where they were having the meeting.’
(156)
y-a-toǫ-tīʔ
CPL-go.NBASE-be.standing-living.core(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
nu
NOM
ntzeę
citrus
tunu
great
‘She liked the oranges.’
FOLLOW y-a-la-saʔą N
(152)
lyakwā
why
nijyą-la-saʔą=ūʔ
come.NBASE-ADJ-be.attached=3PL
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
‘Why are they following me?’
(157)
NEG
nīkwę̄
POT.say.2SG
tu
IRR
nāáʔ
1SG
n-tákwī=ą̄ʔ
STAT-be.hanging=1SG
kyaʔa
guilt
CONJ
jiʔį́
RN.2SG
tyaʔą-la-saʔą
POT.go.around-ADJ-be.attached(.3)
tza
one
liya
time
nu
NOM
tāá
POT.give(.3)
‘Don't say that it is my fault if he goes after you once he gives it to you.’
(175)
y-a-la-saʔą
CPL-go.NBASE-ADJ-be.attached
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
kūnáʔa=V́
female=DEM
‘The man followed the woman.’
HELP nkwi-tyā-tyūkwá N
(158)
tyā-tyūkwá=ą
POT.finish-go.out=1PL.INCL
jiʔį̄=yu
RN=3SG.M
CONJ
tyāʔná=yu
unfortunate=3SG.M
‘We will accompany him because he is humble.’
(159)
CONJ
nu
NOM
nu
NOM
tyā-tyūkwá
POT.finish-go.out(.3)
EMPH
na
ART
chii
elder
laʔā
like.so
EMPH
nu
NOM
tza
word
jnyāʔá
true
lēʔ
then
nu
NOM
joʔō
sacred
l-aa
STAT-be
now
nakwę
say(.3)
‘That this elder helps us if it is true that he is a saint, he said.’
(160)
nte-tyā-tyūkwá=ūʔ
PRG-finish-go.out=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN
l-īʔyá=ūʔ
STAT-transport=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN
nch-ā-kitza
PRG-be-sick
‘They are accompanying and carrying the one who is sick.’
(161)
COND
tu
IRR
tyā-tyūkwā
POT.finish-go.out.2SG
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
nyāʔā
POT.see.2SG
k-isu=ą̄ʔ
POT-pay=1SG
jiʔį́
RN.2SG
‘If you help me, I will pay you.’
(176)
nkwi-tyā-tyūkwá
CPL-finish-go.out
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
chúʔ
3SG.F
kūnáʔa=V́
female=DEM
‘The man helped the woman.’
BE ILL n-kā-kitza N
(160)
nte-tyā-tyūkwá=ūʔ
PRG-finish-go.out=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN
l-īʔyá=ūʔ
STAT-transport=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN
nch-ā-kitza
PRG-be-sick
‘They are accompanying and carrying the one who is sick.’
(162)
CONJ
n-tzaʔą=yu
STAT-be.attached=3SG.M
NEG
tzoʔō
good
ntz-uʔu
STAT-be.inside
tza
one
rúʔ
more
nte-tāką́ʔ=yu
PRG-experience=3SG.M
loō
like.so
COND
tu
IRR
nch-ā-kitza
PRG-be-sick(.3)
túkwi
which
rúʔ
more
kitza
illness
nte-ʔne
PRG-do(.3)
‘Because his animal spirit is not well that is why this is happening to him, if he is sick with whatever illness.’
(163)
nch-uwe-tīʔ
PRG-get.ground-living.core(.3)
nch-ā-kitza
PRG-be-sick(.3)
‘He is sad, and he is getting sick.’
FEEL PAIN tiʔi N
(168)
tiʔi
in.pain
tīké=ą̄ʔ
chest=1SG
‘My heart hurts.’
(169)
tiʔi
in.pain
tatīyá
every
tzáą̄
day
when
nu
NOM
n-chata-saʔą=ą̄ʔ
HAB-get.up-be.attached=1SG
‘I'm in pain every day when I get up.’
(170)
tiʔi
in.pain
tzaka
one
la=ri
as.far.as=only
sukwaʔ
shell
ke=ą̄ʔ
head=1SG
‘My whole head hurts.’
(171)
tiʔi
in.pain
nanēʔ=ą̄ʔ
stomach=1SG
when
nu
NOM
n-tya-y-aku=ą̄ʔ
HAB-finish-CPL-eat=1SG
chaja
tortilla
‘My stomach hurts after I eat.’
(172)
léē
very
tiʔi
in.pain
nanēʔ=ą̄ʔ
stomach=1SG
when
nu
NOM
n-ch-uteʔ=ą̄ʔ
HAB-ITRN-be.hungry=1SG
‘My stomach hurts a lot when I am hungry.’
(181)
nka-ʔne=ūʔ
CPL-do=3PL
k-a-tiʔi
POT-be-in.pain
xikǭ
arm(.3)
‘They made his arm hurt.’
FEEL PAIN tiʔi nkw-ii N
(173)
when
nu
NOM
nt-iʔyā
HAB-transport
tiʔī=ą̄ʔ
breath=1SG
tiʔi
in.pain
nt-ii
HAB-feel
tīké=ą̄ʔ
chest=1SG
‘When I breathe, my chest hurts.’
(229)
EMPH
kwēyáʔ
time
estē
this
n-t-uʔu
STAT-TRN-be.inside
ntāʔwé
sapote
niī
now
CONJ
nu
NOM
jnyaʔa
true
tiʔi=ri
in.pain=only
nt-ii
HAB-feel
kétū
hole
yaką
ear
n-chata-saʔą
HAB-get.up-be.attached
EMPH
na
ART
na
ART
saaʔ
parrot
tzoʔō
good
‘At the time that black sapotes were in season (on the tree ready for harvest) our ears would hurt when the mute parrots would all take off at once (it was loud).’
BE HUNGRY nk-y-uteʔ N
(172)
léē
very
tiʔi
in.pain
nanēʔ=ą̄ʔ
stomach=1SG
when
nu
NOM
n-ch-uteʔ=ą̄ʔ
HAB-ITRN-be.hungry=1SG
‘My stomach hurts a lot when I am hungry.’
(174)
tala
for.sure
n-ch-uteʔ=yu
HAB-ITRN-be.hungry=3SG.M
nku-tiyaą=yu
CPL-arrive.here.NBASE=3SG.M
‘He was already hungry when he arrived.’
SIT DOWN nkw-ē-saʔą N
(182)
nkw-ē-saʔą
CPL-AUX.down-be.attached
chu
NOM.HUM
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
ntoo
face
yuu=V́
earth=DEM
‘The man sat down on the ground.’
(185)
nteē
here
k-e-saʔą=ya
POT-AUX.down-be.attached=1PL.EXCL
tāá=ya
POT.give=1PL.EXCL
kwentū
story
‘Here we will sit, and we are going to give a story.’
SIT DOWN nkw-ē-tyukwā N
(183)
nkw-ē-tyukwā
CPL-AUX.down-be.sitting
chu
NOM.HUM
kíʔyū=V́
male=DEM
‘The man sat down.’
(184)
nkw-ē-tyukwā
CPL-AUX.down-be.sitting
ntoo
face
písū=V́
floor=DEM
‘He sat down on the floor.’
(186)
n-tákwī
STAT-be.hanging
nch-aa=ūʔ
PRG-go.NBASE=3PL
wiʔ
there
now
lēʔ
then
nu
NOM
nkw-ē-tyūkwá
CPL-AUX.down-be.sitting
nu
NOM
nti-kwiʔ=ya
HAB-speak=1PL.EXCL
chíjyą̄ʔ
cardinal
‘When they were going and passing there, what we call a cardinal sat down.’
STEAL nka-wanā N
(187)
na
ART
nyatę̄
person
nyāʔā
POT.see.2SG
nka-wanā=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-steal=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
soʔni
conch
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
soʔni
conch
jiʔį̄=ūʔ
RN=3PL
‘Those people, you see, they stole the, the shell, their shell.’
(188)
NEG
nka-wanā
CPL.CAUS-steal
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
chaja=V́
tortilla=DEM
‘Juan did not steal the tortillas.’
(189)
nka-wanā=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-steal=3PL
liwrū
book
jiʔį̄
RN
niʔ
3SG.RSP
matrū
master
skwelā
school
‘They (nonspec.) stole the book from the teacher (the teacher's book).’
(190)
nka-wanā
CPL.CAUS-steal
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kūnáʔa=V́
female=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
liwrū=V́
book=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
niʔ
3SG.RSP
matrū
master
skwelā=V́
school=DEM
‘The girl stole the book from the teacher.’
FEEL COLD nkay-ulaʔ N
(191)
nte-yūkwą́=ą̄ʔ
PRG-tremble=1SG
nch-ulaʔ=ą̄ʔ
PRG-be.cold=1SG
‘I'm shaking from cold.’
(192)
n-tyá-y-ulaʔ
HAB-begin-CPL-be.cold
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
ntz-uʔu
STAT-be.inside
ntoo
face
tyáā
water
tatīyá
every
tzáą̄
day
‘The children always get cold from being in the water every day.’
CLIMB nk-yó-saʔą N
(193)
n-chó-saʔą
HAB-AUX-be.attached
na
ART
wīchí=V́
cat=DEM
ntoo
face
yaka=V́
tree=DEM
tatīyá
every
tzáą̄
day
‘The cat climbs up into that tree every day.’
(194)
nk-yó-saʔą
CPL-AUX-be.attached
nkwítzą
child
itzǫʔ
back
mesā
table
‘The child climbed up on the table.’
SIT n-tyukwā N
(196)
i
and
niī
now
reē
king
nyāʔā
HAB.see.2SG
n-tyukwā
STAT-be.sitting
niʔ
3SG.RSP
loō
like.so
ntoo
face
síyā
chair
n-tūkwá
STAT-be.inside
niʔ
3SG.RSP
lóʔō
RN.with
niʔ
3SG.RSP
lóʔō
RN.with
xi-kūnáʔa
POSS-female
niʔ
3SG.RSP
‘And the king was sitting there, he was sitting on his chair with her, with his woman.’
BRING y-aa-lóʔō N
(72)
tz-aa-lóʔō
POT-go.NBASE-RN.with
nāáʔ
1SG
kichi
quern
tyūkwá-xikǭ=ą̄ʔ
POT.sit-arm=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
tzūʔ
during
lātzá
early.morning
CONJ
k-óō
POT-grind.2SG
chāʔą̄
POT.wash.2SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
k-óō
POT-grind.2SG
‘I will take the quern. I'll carry it on my shoulder in the morning because you will grind. You will wash it. You will grind.’
(198)
and
lyakwā
why
tz-aa-lóʔō=ą
POT-go.NBASE-RN.with=1PL.INCL
kitē
pine
nakwę
say(.3)
kūnáʔa
female
‘"And why are we going to take pine?", said the woman.’
(205)
nk-yaa-lóʔō
CPL-come.BASE-RN.with
na
ART
nkwítzą
child
kūnáʔa=V́
female=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
liwrū=V́
book=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
niʔ
3SG.RSP
matrū
master
skwelā=V́
school=DEM
‘The child brought the book to the teacher.’
(206)
la
as.far.as
kii
tomorrow
tz-aa-lóʔō=kāʔá=ą̄ʔ
POT-go.NBASE-RN.with=again=1SG
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘Tomorrow I will take him again.’
DIG nkā-lúū N
(207)
nka-lúū
CPL.CAUS-get.dug(.3)
‘They dug it.’
(208)
tāká
ADJ.be
kixę̄ʔ
herb
tāká
ADJ.be
kee
rock
tāká
ADJ.be
NOM.LOC
nkā-lúū
CPL.CAUS-get.dug
tyáā
water
yuu
earth
‘There are weeds, there are rocks, there are places where the water has eroded the ground.’
(209)
jwaā
Juan
y-a-lúū
CPL-go.NBASE.CAUS-get.dug
koǫ
tuber
k-aku=na
POT-eat=1PL.INCL
lāká
yesterday
‘Juan went to dig up tubers, so we could eat yesterday.’
SINK nkū-lítiʔ N
(291)
ntē-lítiʔ
PRG-sink
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
ntoo
face
nanaʔ=V́
mud=DEM
‘Juan is sinking in the mud.’
(294)
tatīyá
every
nyaʔne
animal
nu
NOM
nt-ii
HAB-want
tz-aa
POT-go.NBASE(.3)
tz-a-y-oʔō
POT-go.NBASE-CPL-drink(.3)
ítā
water
ntoo
face
nanaʔ
mud
and
niī
now
lēʔ
then
nu
NOM
ntī-lítiʔ=ūʔ
HAB-sink=3PL
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘Every animal that wanted to go and go drink water from the mud, then they would sink there.’
CARRY nka-teę N
(235)
nt-u-teę=ya
HAB-CAUS-get.carried=1PL.EXCL
yusę
sand
la
as.far.as
to
mouth
kelā
river
lóʔō
RN.with
tzǫʔ=ya
back=1PL.EXCL
‘We carried sand from the river with our backs.’
(236)
niʔ
3SG.RSP
kíʔyū
male
nka-teę
CPL.CAUS-get.carried
tza
one
mantzanā
apple
nanēʔ
stomach
kweję
bag
‘The man carried the apple in the bag.’
(293)
nt-u-teę=na
HAB-CAUS-get.carried=1PL.INCL
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
lóʔō
RN.with
itzǫʔ=na
back=1PL.INCL
‘We carry it with (on) our backs.’
GO y-aa N
(164)
tz-aa=na
POT-go.NBASE=1PL.INCL
nakwę=ūʔ
say=3PL
‘"Let's go", they said.’
(167)
kutza
difficult
nka-ʔne
CPL-do
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
nkū-túʔu
CPL-leave
lyātá
ditch
NEG
tula
what
ʔne=ą̄ʔ
POT.do=1SG
chaa=ą̄ʔ
POT.go.BASE=1SG
CONJ
k-aja=ą̄ʔ
POT-die=1SG
NOM.LOC
tāká=ą̄ʔ
ADJ.be=1SG
‘It was difficult for me to make my ditch (for the ditch to come out), but there is nothing for me to do. I better just go, so I may die in my own land (where I live).’
(186)
n-tákwī
STAT-be.hanging
nch-aa=ūʔ
PRG-go.NBASE=3PL
wiʔ
there
now
lēʔ
then
nu
NOM
nkw-ē-tyūkwá
CPL-AUX.down-be.sitting
nu
NOM
nti-kwiʔ=ya
HAB-speak=1PL.EXCL
chíjyą̄ʔ
cardinal
‘When they were going and passing there, what we call a cardinal sat down.’
(199)
ki-nikwę
POT-tell
tyūú
Pedro
jiʔį̄
RN
jwaā
Juan
tz-aa
POT-go.NBASE
tya
towards
kitzę
village
jlyū
large
‘Pedro is going to tell Juan to go to the city.’
(202)
lēʔ
then
nka-se-teʔę=kāʔá=ya
CPL-turn-be.at=again=1PL.EXCL
nch-aa=ya
PRG-go.NBASE=1PL.EXCL
‘Then we turned around and left.’
(203)
lēʔ
then
tyāʔ
still
y-akwiʔ
CPL-speak
nu
NOM
kūnáʔa
female
jlyālá
mean
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą=Vʔ
child=DEM
lēʔ
then
nakwę
say(.3)
laaʔ
like.so
i
and
wala
where
tz-āā
POT-go.NBASE.2SG
EMPH
now
‘And the mean woman still spoke to the child, and she said to him, "And where are you going now?"’
(256)
tz-aa
POT-go.NBASE(.3)
to
mouth
neʔe
house
jiʔį̄
RN(.3)
‘He will go to his house.’
(257)
and
nk-yaa
CPL-go.BASE
EMPH
kwaa
1PL.EXCL
jiʔį̄
RN
nu
NOM
wiʔ
DEM
‘And we went to that.’
(275)
lēʔ
then
nkū-túʔu=ūʔ
CPL-leave=3PL
nch-aa=ūʔ
PRG-go.NBASE=3PL
‘Then they left and they went away.’
GET nk-y-ukwą̄ N
(267)
jwaā=V́
Juan=DEM
nk-y-ukwą̄
CPL-ITRN-grab(.3)
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
keʔnā
plate
‘Juan received the plate.’
SCREAM nk-xáʔā N
(94)
la
as.far.as
wiʔ
there
y-aa-tēyá
CPL-go.NBASE-be.standing
luwiʔ
then
lēʔ
then
nkā-xáʔā
CPL-scream(.3)
nakwę
say(.3)
lákwiʔ
self
tzéʔā
exactly
DEM
now
CONJ
yākwá
there
nti-xaʔa
HAB-scream(.3)
‘She went to stand there then, and then she screamed, they say, it is right there itself where she screamed.’
(95)
n-tyá-xáʔā
HAB-begin-scream
saaʔ
parrot
choō
friend
jlyū
large
tuʔwa=ri
mouth=only
nyaʔa
HAB.see(.3)
tza
one
laaʔ
like.so
wiʔ
there
nkā
before
‘The parrots would begin to cry, friend, and thick they looked when gathered together there before (when they lifted off to fly).’
LEAVE nkū-túʔu N
(165)
NEG
n-tyō-tīʔ=ya
HAB-?-living.core=1PL.EXCL
wala
where
ntē-túʔu
PRG-leave
tejeʔ
salt
nu
NOM
nt-aku=ya
HAB-eat=1PL.EXCL
now
‘We don't know where the salt we eat now comes from.’
(166)
tyúʔu
POT.leave
na
ART
kiiʔ=V́
fire=DEM
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
ketǫʔ=V́
pot=DEM
CONJ
ta
already
nkū-kéʔ
CPL-get.cooked
na
ART
súkwā
food
‘The fire is going to be taken from the pot because the food is done cooking.’
(254)
nkū-túʔu
CPL-leave
kweʔę
air
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
pelótā
ball
‘The air came out of the ball (the ball was punctured).’
(255)
nkū-túʔu
CPL-leave
na
ART
nkwítzą=V́
child=DEM
kitzę
village
‘The child left the village.’
(275)
lēʔ
then
nkū-túʔu=ūʔ
CPL-leave=3PL
nch-aa=ūʔ
PRG-go.NBASE=3PL
‘Then they left and they went away.’
TALK y-akwiʔ N
(200)
tzoʔō
good
ntakǫʔ
very
ʔne=yu
HAB.do=3SG.M
ntekwā
DEM
niī
now
CONJ
nti-kwiʔ=yu
HAB-speak=3SG.M
jiʔį̄=na
RN=1PL.INCL
‘He does very well because he talks to us.’
(203)
lēʔ
then
tyāʔ
still
y-akwiʔ
CPL-speak
nu
NOM
kūnáʔa
female
jlyālá
mean
jiʔį̄
RN
na
ART
nkwítzą=Vʔ
child=DEM
lēʔ
then
nakwę
say(.3)
laaʔ
like.so
i
and
wala
where
tz-āā
POT-go.NBASE.2SG
EMPH
now
‘And the mean woman still spoke to the child, and she said to him, "And where are you going now?"’
(204)
y-akwiʔ
CPL-speak
nu
NOM
kūnáʔa
female
jiʔį̄=ą̄ʔ
RN=1SG
i
and
nkā-tāá
CPL-give(.3)
súkwā
food
jiʔį̄
RN
nāáʔ
1SG
‘The woman spoke to me and offered me food.’
(231)
niī
now
nu
NOM
NEG
nyaʔa
HAB.see(.3)
jiʔį̄=na
RN=1PL.INCL
NEG
ki-kwiʔ
POT-speak(.3)
jiʔį̄=na
RN=1PL.INCL
maxi
CONJ
kākwá=ri
close.by=only
nku-teję̄
CPL-pass(.3)
‘Now they don't see us, they don't speak to us, even when they pass close by.’
(276)
NEG
tukwi
which
y-akwiʔ
CPL-speak(.3)
jiʔį̄=ya
RN=1PL.EXCL
‘No one spoke to us.’
(288)
CONJ
saʔne
long.ago
nch-akwiʔ
PRG-speak
nāáʔ
1SG
tzáʔ
thing
DEM
now
‘I have been talking about this for a long time now.’
NAME nka-lōó-naa N
(287)
nka-lōó-naa=ūʔ
CPL.CAUS-take.out-name=3NSPEC
jiʔį̄
RN
kinī
bird
wiʔ
DEM
naa
name
sensóklē
mockingbird
‘They named that bird mockingbird.’