Examples of Yucatec Maya

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
Le xibpale' tu haantah le abalo'.
le
DEM
xibpal-e'
boy-D3
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
haan-t-ah
eat-TRR-CMPL
le
DEM
abal-o'
plum-D2
‘The boy ate the plum.’
EAT an Alternation:
Extraversive
(2)
Tu méek'ah u chaan xibpal le maamaho'.
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
méek'-ah
hug-CMPL
u
POSS.3
chaan
little
xibpal
boy
le
DEM
maamah-o'
mother-D2
‘The mother hugged her little boy.’
HUG a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(3)
Le xibpalo' tu paktah le xch'úupalo'.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
pakat-ah
look-CMPL
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The boy looked at the girl.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(4)
Le wíiniko' tu yilah le báalamo'.
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-il-ah
0-see-CMPL
le
DEM
báalam-o'
jaguar-D2
‘The man saw the jaguar.’
SEE a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(5)
Le kéeho' tu yu'bah u book le xibpalo'.
le
DEM
kéeh-o'
deer-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-u'b-ah
0-feel-CMPL
u
POSS.3
book
smell
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
‘The deer smelled the boy.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(6)
Le wíiniko' sahak ti' le báalamo'.
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
sahak
afraid
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
báalam-o'
jaguar-D2
‘The man feared/fears the jaguar.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V ti'+2 1
(7)
Le báalamo' tu sahbesah le wíiniko'.
le
DEM
báalam-o'
jaguar-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
sah-bes-ah
fear-CAUS-CMPL
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
‘The jaguar frightened the man.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Causative
(8)
Le báalamo' tu sahakkunsah le wíiniko'.
le
DEM
báalam-o'
jaguar-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
sahak-kuns-ah
afraid-FACT-CMPL
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
‘The jaguar frightened the man.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Causative
(9)
Le xibpalo' uts tu yich u tumben baaxal.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
uts
good
t-u
LOC-POSS.3
y-ich
0-eye
u
POSS.3
tumben
new
baaxal
toy
‘The boy likes his new toy.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(10)
Le xibpalo' u k'ahóol le xch'úupalo'.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
u
SBJ.3
k'ahóol
know
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The boy knows/knew the girl.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(11)
Le xch'úupalo' tu tukultah u chiich holheak.
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
tukul-t-ah
think-TRR-CMPL
u
POSS.3
chiich
grandmother
ho'lheak
yesterday
‘The girl thought about her grandmother yesterday.’
THINK an Alternation:
Extraversive
(12)
Le wíiniko' táan u kaxtik le xch'úupo'bo'.
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
kax-t-ik
search-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'b-o'
woman-PL-D2
‘The man is searching for the women.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(13)
Le xch'úupo' tu yisintah le chaampalo'.
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'
woman-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-isíin-t-ah
0-bathe-TRR-CMPL
le
DEM
chaampal-o'
baby-D2
‘The woman washed/bathed the baby.’
WASH an Alternation:
Extraversive
(14)
Le wíiniko' tu ts'ikah u me'x.
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ts'ik-ah
shave-CMPL
u
POSS.3
me'x
beard
‘The man shaved his beard.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(15)
Tin wáantah le xibpalo'bo'.
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
w-áant-ah
0-help-CMPL
le
DEM
xibpal-o'b-o'
boy-PL-D2
‘I helped the boys.’
HELP a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(16)
Le xibpalo'bo' ku ch'a'pachtiko'b le xch'úupalo'ob.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'b-o'
boy-PL-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
ch'a'-pach-t-ik-o'b
take-back-TRR-INCMPL-PL
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'b-o'
girl-PL-D2
‘The boys follow the girls.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Extraversive
(17)
Le wíiniko'bo' tu naktáantaho'b le xibpalo'bo'.
le
DEM
wíinik-o'b-o'
man-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
naktáan-t-ah-o'b
meet-TRR-CMPL-PL
le
DEM
xibpal-o'b-o'
boy-PL-D2
‘The men met the boys.’
MEET a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(18)
Le wíiniko'bo' tu nuptáantaho'b le xibpalo'bo'.
le
DEM
wíinik-o'b-o'
man-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
nuptáan-t-ah-o'b
meet-TRR-CMPL-PL
le
DEM
xibpal-o'b-o'
boy-PL-D2
‘The men met the boys.’
MEET a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(19)
Le xch'úupalo' tsikbalnah yéetel le xibpalo' yo'lal u yaalak' peek'.
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
tsikbal-nah
talk-CMPL
yéetel
with
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
y-o'lal
0-reason
u
POSS.3
y-aalak'
0-CL.domestic
peek'
dog
‘The girl talked to the boy about her dog.’
TALK a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1 yéetel+2 yóok'ol+3
(20)
Le xch'úupalo' h t'aanah yéetel le xibpal yóok'ol u yaalak' peek'o'.
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
h
PRFV
t'aan-nah
speak-CMPL
yéetel
with
le
DEM
xibpal
boy
y-óok'ol
0-over
u
POSS.3
y-aalak'
0-CL.domestic
peek'-o'
dog-D2
‘The girl talked to the boy about her dog.’
TALK a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1 yéetel+2 yóok'ol+3
(21)
Le xibpalo' tu k'áatah taak'in ti' u taataho'b.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
k'áat-ah
ask-CMPL
taak'in
money
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
taatah-o'b
father-PL
‘The boy asked his parents for money.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 ti'+3 1
(22)
Le xch'úupo' tu yawtah le paalalo'bo'.
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'
woman-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-awat-ah
0-shout-CMPL
le
DEM
paal-al-o'b-o'
child-COLL-PL-D2
‘The woman shouted at the children.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
Extraversive
(23)
Le xch'úupalo' tu tsikbatah hump'éel che'hbil tsikbal ti' le xibpalo'.
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
tsikbal-t-ah
talk-TRR-CMPL
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
che'h-bil
laugh-GER
tsikbal
story
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
‘The girl told the boy a funny story.’
TELL an Alternation:
Extraversive
(24)
Tu ya'laho'b teen ma'(il).
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-a'l-ah-o'b
0-say-CMPL-PL
teen
me
ma'-il
NEG-ABSTR
‘They said 'no' to me.’
SAY a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 ti'+3 1
(25)
Le wíiniko'bo' tu beetaho'b hump'éel xa'nil nah.
le
DEM
wíinik-o'b-o'
man-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
beet-ah-o'b
do-CMPL-PL
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
xa'n-il
palm-REL
nah
house
‘The men built a house out of palm leaves.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 (yéetel+3)
(26)
Le xibpalo' tu pa'ah le kalomk'iin yéetel tunicho'.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
pa'-ah
break-CMPL
kalomk'iin
window
yéetel
with
tuunich-o'
stone-D2
‘The boy broke the window with a stone.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 (yéetel+3)
(27)
Le wíiniko' tu kíinsah u k'uxóolal yéetel báat.
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
kíim-s-ah
die-CAUS-CMPL
u
POSS.3
k'uxóolal
enemy
yéetel
with
báat
axe
‘The man killed his enemy with an axe.’
KILL an Alternation:
Causative
(28)
Le xibpalo' tu p'u'p'uchah le kaan yéetel che'o'.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
p'u'-p'uch-ah
RED-beat-CMPL
le
DEM
kaan
snake
yéetel
with
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The boy beat the snake with a stick.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 (yéetel+3)
(29)
Le xibpalo' tu kohah le kaan yéetel che'o'.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
koh-ah
toss-CMPL
le
DEM
kaan
snake
yéetel
with
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The boy touched the snake with a stick.’
HIT a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 (yéetel+3)
(30)
Le ko'lelo' tu xotah le waah yéetel xoteb hach yaan u yeho'.
le
DEM
ko'lel-o'
woman-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
xot-ah
cut-CMPL
le
DEM
waah
tortilla
yéetel
with
xotéeb
knife
hach
really
yaan
EXIST
u
POSS.3
y-eh-o'
0-edge-D2
‘The woman cut the tortilla with a sharp knife.’
CUT a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 (yéetel+3)
(31)
Le wíiniko' tu ch'a'ah u taak'in ti' u láak'.
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ch'a'-ah
take-CMPL
u
POSS.3
taak'in
money
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
láak'
equal
‘The man took the money from his friend.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 ti'+3 1
(32)
Le xch'úupalo' tu hatah hunwáal le analte'o'.
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
hat-ah
tear-CMPL
hun-wáal
one-CL.flat
le
DEM
analte'-o'
book-D2
‘The girl tore a page from the book.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Indirect participation
(33)
Le xibpalo' tu sóoltah le che'o'.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
sóol-t-ah
peel-TRR-CMPL
le
DEM
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The boy peeled the bark off the stick.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(34)
Le xibpalo' tu cheppóoltah le che'o'.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
chep-póol-t-ah
rub-trim-TRR-CMPL
le
DEM
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The boy ripped the bark off the stick.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(35)
Le xibpalo' tu lakah u sóol le che'o'.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
lak-ah
detach-CMPL
u
POSS.3
sóol
shell
le
DEM
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The boy removed the bark from the stick.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(36)
Le xibpalo' tu ta'kah le muuch' ti' u maamaho'.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ta'k-ah
hide-CMPL
le
DEM
muuch'
frog
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
maamah-o'
mother-D2
‘The boy hid the frog from his mother.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 ti'+3 1
(37)
Le xch'úupalo' tu ye'sah le analte' ti' u ah kaanbesaho'.
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-e's-ah
0-show-CMPL
le
DEM
analte'
book
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
ah-kaanbesah-o'
AG.M-teacher-D2
‘The girl showed the book to her teacher.’
SEE an Alternation:
Causative
(38)
T ts'a'ah le analte'o'b ti' le paalalo'bo'.
t
PRFV.SBJ.1PL
ts'a'-ah
put/give-CMPL
le
DEM
analte'-o'b
book-PL
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
paal-al-o'b-o'
child-COLL-PL-D2
‘We gave the books to the children.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 LOC3
(39)
Le xch'úupalo' tu túuxtah loolo'b ti' u chiich.
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
túuxt-ah
send-CMPL
lool-o'b
flower-PL
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
chiich
grandmother
‘The girl sent flowers to her grandmother.’
SEND a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 LOC3
(40)
Le wíiniko'bo' tu bisaho'b le máabeno'b (ti') k'íiwiko'.
le
DEM
wíinik-o'b-o'
man-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
bis-ah-o'b
carry-CMPL-PL
le
DEM
máaben-o'b
box-PL
ti'
LOC
k'íiwik-o'
market-D2
‘The men carried the boxes to the market.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Causative
(41)
Le xibpalo' tu pulah le boolah teh béentaanaho'.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
pul-ah
throw-CMPL
le
DEM
boolah
ball
teh
LOC:DEM
béentaanah-o'
window-D2
‘The boy threw the ball into the window.’
THROW a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 LOC3
(42)
Ta pulah teen le boolaho'.
t-a
PRFV-SBJ.2
pul-ah
throw-CMPL
teen
me
le
DEM
boolah-o'
ball-D2
‘You threw me the ball.’
THROW a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 LOC3
(43)
Káa tu pulho'b ichil áaktun.
káa
CONJ
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
pul-ah-o'b
throw-CMPL-PL
ichil
inside
áaktun
cistern
‘And they threw him into a well.’
THROW a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 LOC3
(44)
Le wíiniko' tu k'axah huntúul tsíimin yéetel hunhíil suum teh che'o'.
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
k'ax-ah
tie-CMPL
hun-túul
one-CL.AN
tsíimin
horse
yéetel
with
hun-híil
one-CL.string
suum
rope
teh
LOC:DEM
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The man tied the horse with a rope to the tree.’
TIE a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 (ti'+3) (yéetel+4) 1
(45)
Le luucho' tin ts'a'ah ti' le ka'nche'o'.
le
DEM
luuch-o'
cup-D2
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
ts'a'-ah
put/give-CMPL
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
ka'nche'-o'
table-D2
‘I put the cup onto the table.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 LOC3
(46)
Le wíiniko' tu láalah ha' ti'/ichil le luucho'.
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
láal-ah
pour-CMPL
ha'
water
ti'/ichil
LOC/inside
le
DEM
luuch-o'
cup-D2
‘The man poured water into the cup.’
POUR a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 LOC3
(47)
Le wíiniko' tu t'ohah le ha' teh luucho'.
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
t'oh-ah
pour-CMPL
le
DEM
ha'
water
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
luuch-o'
cup-D2
‘The man poured the water into the cup.’
POUR a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 LOC3
(48)
Le xch'úupo' tu pixah le xibpal yéetel teep'elo'.
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'
woman-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
pix-ah
cover-CMPL
le
DEM
xibpal
boy
yéetel
with
teep'el-o'
blanket-D2
‘The woman covered the boy with a blanket.’
COVER a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 (yéetel+3)
(49)
Le xch'úupalo' tu chupah le luuch yéetel ha'o'.
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
chup-ah
fill-CMPL
le
DEM
luuch
cup
yéetel
with
ha'-o'
water-D2
‘The girl filled the glass with water.’
FILL a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 (yéetel+3)
(50)
Le xch'úupalo' tu but'ah le luuch yéetel ha'o'.
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
but'-ah
fill-CMPL
le
DEM
luuch
cup
yéetel
with
ha'-o'
water-D2
‘The girl filled the cup with water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Direct object shift
(51)
Le koolnáalo' tu but'ah ixi'm ti' le kaamiono'.
le
DEM
koolnáal-o'
farmer-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
but'-ah
fill-CMPL
ixi'm
corn
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
kaamion-o'
truck-D2
‘The farmer loaded corn onto the truck.’
FILL a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 LOC3
(52)
Táan in kuchik le nala'.
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
kuch-ik
load-INCMPL
le
DEM
nal-a'
corncob-D1
‘I am loading (on myself) these corncobs.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(53)
Chak'ichnahen.
chak'-ich-nah-en
blink-eye-CMPL-ABS.1SG
‘I blinked.’
BLINK an Alternation:
Incorporative
(54)
Le nohoch máako' h sa'sa'kaalnahih.
le
DEM
nohoch
big
máak-o'
person-D2
h
PRFV
sa'sa'kaal-nah-ih
cough-CMPL-ABS.3SG
‘The old man coughed.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(55)
Le nohoch máako' h se'nnahih.
le
DEM
nohoch
big
máak-o'
person-D2
h
PRFV
se'n-nah-ih
cough-CMPL-ABS.3SG
‘The old man coughed.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(56)
Le wíiniko'bo' h na'ko'b ti' le che'o'.
le
DEM
wíinik-o'b-o'
man-PL-D2
h
PRFV
na'k-o'b
climb-PL
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The men climbed (up) the tree.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V LOC2 1
(57)
Táan u yáalkab le tsíimno'.
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
y-áalkab
0-run
le
DEM
tsíimin-o'
horse-D2
‘The horse is running.’
RUN a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(58)
Le paalalo'bo' kulukbalo'b ti' lu'm.
le
DEM
paal-al-o'b-o'
child-COLL-PL-D2
kul-ukbal-o'b
sit-POS-PL
ti'
LOC
lu'm
earth
‘The children sat on the floor.’
SIT a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V LOC2 1
(59)
Le paalalo'bo' h kulchaho'b ti' le k'áanche'o'.
le
DEM
paal-al-o'b-o'
child-COLL-PL-D2
h
PRFV
kul-chah-o'b
sit-FIENT.CMPL-PL
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
k'áanche'-o'
chair-D2
‘The children sat down on the chair.’
SIT the Verb form kul
(60)
Le xch'úupalo' h síit'nahih.
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
h
PRFV
síit'-nah-ih
jump-CMPL-ABS.3SG
‘The girl jumped.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(61)
Le xibpalo' h k'aaynahih.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
h
PRFV
k'aay-nah-ih
sing\INTROV-CMPL-ABS.3SG
‘The boy sang.’
SING an Alternation:
Introversive
(62)
Le xibpalo' tu k'ayah hump'éel k'aay.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
k'ay-ah
sing-CMPL
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
k'aay
song
‘The boy sang a song.’
SING a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(63)
Le xch'úupo' h bin k'íiwik.
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'
woman-D2
h
PRFV
bin
go
k'íiwik
market
‘The woman went to the market.’
GO a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V LOC2 1
(64)
Le xibpalo' h hóok' tu kaahal.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
h
PRFV
hóok'
leave
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
kaah-al
village-REL
‘The boy left the village.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V LOC2 1
(65)
Le nohoch máako'bo' kahakbalo'b / ku kahtalo'b / kaha'no'b ich nohoch kah.
le
DEM
nohoch
big
máak-o'b-o'
person-PL-D2
kah-akbal-o'b
live-POS-PL
/
/
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
kah-tal-o'b
live-FIENT.INCMPL-PL
/
/
kah-a'n-o'b
live-RSLTV-PL
ich
in
nohoch
big
kahtal
village
‘The old people live in town.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V LOC2 1
(66)
Le chaan xch'úupalo' che'hnahih.
le
DEM
chaan
little
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
che'h-nah-ih
laugh-CMPL-ABS.3SG
‘The little girl laughed.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(67)
Le wíiniko' awatnahih.
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
awat-nah-ih
shout-CMPL-ABS.3SG
‘The man screamed.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(68)
Yah in k'ab.
yah
hurt
in
POSS.1SG
k'ab
hand
‘My arm/hand hurts.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(69)
Táan u k'i'nam in k'ab.
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
k'i'nam
pain
in
POSS.1SG
k'ab
hand
‘My arm/hand is hurting.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(70)
Ke'len.
ke'l-en
cold-ABS.1SG
‘I am cold.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(71)
H kíim le kaano'.
h
PRFV
kíim
die(CMPL)
le
DEM
kaan-o'
snake-D2
‘The snake died.’
DIE a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(72)
Le paalo' táan u báaxal.
le
DEM
paal-o'
child-D2
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
báaxal
play
‘The child is playing.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(73)
Ok'om u yóol le chaan xch'úupalo'.
ok'om
sad
u
POSS.3
y-óol
0-mind
le
DEM
chaan
little
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The little girl is said.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(74)
Wi'h le chaampalo'.
wi'h
hungry
le
DEM
chaampal-o'
baby-D2
‘The baby is hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(75)
Táan u balak' le boolaho'.
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
balak'
roll
le
DEM
boolah-o'
ball-D2
‘The ball is rolling.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(76)
H búul le che'mo'.
h
PRFV
búul
submerge\DEAG
le
DEM
che'm-o'
boat-D2
‘The boat sank.’
SINK (tr) an Alternation:
Deagentive
(77)
Táan u yéelel le naho'.
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
y-éel-el
0-burn-INCMPL
le
DEM
nah-o'
house-D2
‘The house is burning.’
BURN a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(78)
Tin tóokah le naho'.
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
tóok-ah
burn-CMPL
le
DEM
nah-o'
house-D2
‘I burnt the house.’
BURN (tr) a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(79)
Tikin le lu'mo'.
tikin
dry
le
DEM
lu'm-o'
earth-D2
‘The ground is dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(80)
H k'áax ha'.
h
PRFV
k'áax
rain
ha'
water
‘It rained.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(81)
Le wíinika' huntúul hts'oon.
le
DEM
wíinik-a'
man-D1
hun-túul
one-CL.AN
h-ts'oon
M-hunter
‘This man is a hunter.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(82)
Le xch'úupo'bo' tu huch'aho'b le ixi'm yéetel ka'o'.
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'b-o'
woman-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
huch'-ah-o'b
grind-CMPL-PL
le
DEM
ixi'm
corn
yéetel
with
ka'-o'
handmill-D2
‘The women ground the corn by handmill.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 (yéetel+3)
(83)
Le xch'úupo'bo' tu cho'ho'b le mayako'.
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'b-o'
woman-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
cho'-ah-o'b
clean-CMPL-PL
le
DEM
mayak-o'
table-D2
‘The women wiped the table.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(84)
Le xch'úupo'bo' tu púustaho'b le meesaho'.
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'b-o'
woman-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
púus-t-ah-o'b
remove.dust-TRR-CMPL-PL
le
DEM
meesah-o'
table-D2
‘The women wiped (dirt off) the table.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(85)
Le xch'úupo'bo' tu púustaho'b u luuk'il le meesaho'.
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'b-o'
woman-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
púus-t-ah-o'b
remove.dust-TRR-CMPL-PL
u
POSS.3
luuk'-il
mud-REL
le
DEM
meesah-o'
table-D2
‘The women wiped the dirt off the table.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Extraversive
(86)
Le xch'úupo' táan u háalik wi'.
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'
woman-D2
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
háal-ik
dig.out-INCMPL
wi'
bulb
‘The woman is digging for roots.’
DIG a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(87)
Le xibpalo' tu léench'intah le xch'úupal ti' ha'o'.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
léen-ch'in-t-ah
very-pelt-TRR-CMPL
le
DEM
xch'úupal
girl
ti'
LOC
ha'-o'
water-D2
‘The boy pushed the girl into the water.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 LOC3
(88)
Le xibpalo' tu tulah le xch'úupal ka lúubuk ich ha'o'.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
tul-ah
push-CMPL
le
DEM
xch'úupal
girl
káa
CONJ
lúub-uk
fall-SUBJ
ich
in
ha'-o'
water-D2
‘The boy pushed the girl into the water.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(89)
Le xch'úupalo' tu taasah teen lool.
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
taas-ah
bring-CMPL
teen
me
lool
flower
‘The girl brought flowers to me.’
BRING an Alternation:
Causative
(90)
Le h-ookolo' tu yooklah u taak'in le ko'lelo'.
le
DEM
h-ookol-o'
M-thief-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-ookol-ah
0-steal-CMPL
u
POSS.3
taak'in
money
le
DEM
ko'lel-o'
woman-D2
‘The thief stole money from the lady.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Indirect participation
(91)
Le ko'lelo' tu ka'nsah le xch'úupal ti' hump'éel k'aayo'.
le
DEM
ko'lel-o'
woman-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ka'n-s-ah
learn\PASS-CAUS-CMPL
le
DEM
xch'úupal
girl
ti'
LOC
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
k'aay-o'
song-D2
‘The lady taught the girl a song.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Causative
(92)
Le xibpalo' tu yu'bah le báalamo'.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-u'b-ah
0-feel-CMPL
le
DEM
báalam-o'
jaguar-D2
‘The boy heard the jaguar.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(93)
Le xch'úupo'bo' tu chakaho'b u bak'el kaax.
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'b-o'
woman-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
chak-ah-o'b
cook-CMPL-PL
u
POSS.3
bak'-el
flesh-REL
kaax
chicken
‘The women cooked the chicken meat.’
COOK a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(94)
Táan u look le ha'o'.
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
look
boil
le
DEM
ha'-o'
water-D2
‘The water is boiling.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(95)
H chíikpah le k'iino'.
h
PRFV
chíik-pah
appear-SPONT(CMPL)
le
DEM
k'iin-o'
sun/day-D2
‘The sun appeared.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(96)
K'oha'n in taatah.
k'oha'n
sick
in
POSS.1SG
taatah
father
‘My father is ill/sick.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(97)
Táan u yóok'ol le xch'úupalo'.
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
y-óok'ol
0-cry
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The girl is crying/weeping.’
CRY a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(98)
H lúub le che'o'.
h
PRFV
lúub
fall
le
DEM
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The tree fell.’
FALL a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(99)
Le xibpalo' tu beetah hump'éel baaxal yéetel k'at.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
beet-ah
do-CMPL
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
baaxal
toy
yéetel
with
k'at
clay
‘The boy made a toy from clay.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 (yéetel+3)
(100)
Tin k'amah hump'éel kaartah ti' in maamah.
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
k'am-ah
receive-CMPL
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
kaartah
letter
ti'
LOC
in
POSS.1SG
maamah
mother
‘I received a letter from my mother.’
GET a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 ti'+3 1
(101)
In kiiko' hump'éel xa'nil nah u k'áat.
in
POSS.1SG
kiik-o'
elder.sister-D2
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
xa'n-il
palm-REL
nah
house
u
SBJ.3
k'áat
want
‘My sister wants a palm-roof house.’
WANT a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(102)
Tu kachah u xikin a p'úul.
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
kach-ah
break-CMPL
u
POSS.3
xikin
ear
a
POSS.2
p'úul
jug
‘He broke the handle of your jug.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(103)
Haanta'b le abal tumen le xibpalo'.
haan-t-a'b
eat-TRR-PASS.CMPL
le
DEM
abal
plum
tumen
by
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
‘The plum was eaten by the girl.’
EAT an Alternation:
Passive
(104)
Le ichche'o' ma' tu haanta'l.
le
DEM
ichche'-o'
fruit-D2
ma'
NEG
t-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
haan-t-a'l
eat-TRR-PASS.INCMPL
‘That fruit is not for eating.’
EAT an Alternation:
Passive
(105)
Méek'a'b le chaan xibpal tumen u maamah.
méek'-a'b
hug-PASS.CMPL
le
DEM
chaan
little
xibpal
boy
tumen
by
u
POSS.3
maamah
mother
‘The little boy was hugged by his mother.’
HUG an Alternation:
Passive
(106)
Le xch'úupalo' pakta'b tumen le xibpalo'.
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
h
PRFV
pakat-a'b
look-PASS.CMPL
tumen
by
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
‘The girl was looked at by the boy.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Passive
(107)
Le xibpalo' táan u paakat.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
paakat
look\INTROV
‘The boy is watching.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Introversive
(108)
Le báalamo' ila'b tumen le wíiniko'.
le
DEM
báalam-o'
jaguar-D2
il-a'b
see-PASS.CMPL
tumen
by
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
‘The jaguar was seen by the man.’
SEE an Alternation:
Passive
(109)
Le báalamo' u'ya'b tumen le xibpalo'.
le
DEM
báalam-o'
jaguar-D2
u'y-a'b
feel-PASS.CMPL
tumen
by
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
‘The jaguar was heard by the man.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Passive
(110)
Le paaxe' ma' tu yu'ba(')l waye'.
le
DEM
paax-e'
music-TOP
ma'
NEG
t-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
y-u'b-a'l
0-feel-PASS.INCMPL
way-e'
here-D3
‘The music is not heard over here.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Passive
(111)
Le kéeho' tu ch'a'boktah le xibpalo'.
le
DEM
kéeh-o'
deer-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ch'a'-book-t-ah
take-smell-TRR-CMPL
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
‘The deer smelled the boy.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Incorporative
(112)
Ch'a'bokta'b le xibpal tumen le kéeho'.
ch'a'-book-t-a'b
take-smell-TRR-PASS.CMPL
le
DEM
xibpal
boy
tumen
by
le
DEM
kéeh-o'
deer-D2
‘The boy was smelled by the deer.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Passive
(113)
Túun ch'a'ch'abook le kéeho'.
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
ch'a-ch'a'-book
RED-take-smell
le
DEM
kéeh-o'
deer-D2
‘The deer is sniffing.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Incorporative
(114)
Ch'a'n sahakil ti' le báalam tuláakal tu'xo'.
ch'a'-a'n
take-RSLTV
sahak-il
afraid-ABSTR
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
báalam
jaguar
tuláakal
all
tu'x-o'
where-D2
‘The jaguar is feared everywhere.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Passive
(115)
Le ko'lelo' tu búukintah u nook' u paal.
le
DEM
ko'lel-o'
woman-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
búuk-int-ah
dress-USAT-CMPL
u
POSS.3
nook'
clothing
u
POSS.3
paal
child
‘That woman put on her child's clothing.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Usative
(116)
Le taatahtsilo'bo' tu ts'a'ho'b Ana u k'aaba'int u paal.
le
DEM
taatah-tsil-o'b-o'
father-ABSOL-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ts'a'-ah-o'b
put/give-CMPL-PL
Ana
Anna
u
POSS.3
k'aaba'-int
name-USAT
u
POSS.3
paal
child
‘The parents named their child Anna.’
BE NAMED an Alternation:
Usative
(117)
A'lab teen ma'(il) tumen leti'o'b.
a'l-a'b
say-PASS.CMPL
teen
me
ma'-il
NEG-ABSTR
tumen
by
leti'-o'b
that.one-PL
‘I was told 'no' by them.’
SAY an Alternation:
Passive
(118)
Tu ya'laho'b teen k'áak'as t'aano'b.
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-a'l-ah-o'b
0-say-CMPL-PL
teen
me
k'áa-k'as
RED-bad
t'aan-o'b
word-PL
‘They sad bad words to me.’
SAY a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 ti'+3 1
(119)
Leti' tu ya'laho'b teen.
leti'
that.one
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-a'l-ah-o'b
0-say-CMPL-PL
teen
me
‘That (is what) they said to me.’
SAY a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 ti'+3 1
(120)
Le tsíimino' áalkabnah ti' le beho'.
le
DEM
tsíimin-o'
horse-D2
áalkab-nah
run-CMPL
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
beh-o'
path-D2
‘The horse ran along the path.’
RUN a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(121)
Le tsíimino' ku yáalkabtik kanlúub.
le
DEM
tsíimin-o'
horse-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
y-áalkab-t-ik
0-run-TRR-INCMPL
kan-lúub
four-league
‘That horse runs four miles.’
RUN an Alternation:
Extraversive
(122)
Tin wáalkabansah le tsíimino'.
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
w-áalkab-ans-ah
0-run-CAUS-CMPL
le
DEM
tsíimin-o'
horse-D2
‘I had the horse run.’
RUN an Alternation:
Causative
(123)
Búukinta'b le nook' tumen le ko'lelo'.
búuk-int-a'b
dress-USAT-PASS.CMPL
le
DEM
nook'
clothing
tumen
by
le
DEM
ko'lel-o'
woman-D2
‘The dress was put on by the woman.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Passive
(124)
Le wíiniko' tu ch'a'ah sahakil ti' le báalamo'.
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ch'a'-ah
take-CMPL
sahak-il
afraid-ABSTR
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
báalam-o'
jaguar-D2
‘The man got afraid of the jaguar.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(125)
Le xibpalo' ku k'ahóoltik le xch'úupalo'.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
k'ahóol-t-ik
know-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The boy knows the girl.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Extraversive
(126)
Le xch'úupalo' k'ah-óolta'n ka'ch tumen le xibpalo'.
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
k'ahóol-t-a'n
know-TRR-RSLTV
ka'ch
past
tumen
by
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
‘The girl was known by the boy.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Passive
(127)
Le xibpalo' táan u haanal.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
haan-al
eat-INCMPL
‘The boy is eating.’
EAT a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(128)
Le xibpalo' u k'ahóoltmah ka'ch le xch'úupalo'.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
u
SBJ.3
k'ahóol-t-mah
know-TRR-PART.PERF
ka'ch
past
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The boy knew the girl.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(129)
Ho'lheake' tukulta'b/tukla'b le chiichtsil(o') tumen le xch'úupalo'.
ho'lheak-e'
yesterday-TOP
tukul-t-a'b/tukul-a'b
think-TRR-PASS.CMPL/think-PASS.CMPL
le
DEM
chiich-tsil-o'
grandmother-ABSOL-D2
tumen
by
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘Yesterday the grandmother was thought of by the girl.’
THINK an Alternation:
Passive
(130)
Ya'b u tuukul le xch'úupalo'.
ya'b
much
u
SBJ.3
tuukul
think\INTROV
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The girl thinks much.’
THINK a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(131)
Ku kaxta'l le xch'úupo'b tumen le máako' .
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
kax-t-a'l
search-TRR-PASS.INCMPL
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'b
woman-PL
tumen
by
le
DEM
máak-o'
person-D2
‘The women are sought by the man.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Passive
(132)
Táan in kaaxan.
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
kaaxan
search\INTROV
‘I am searching.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Introversive
(133)
Isinta'b le chaampal tumen le ko'lelo'.
isíin-t-a'b
bathe-TRR-PASS.CMPL
le
DEM
chaampal
baby
tumen
by
le
DEM
ko'lel-o'
woman-D2
‘The baby was washed by the woman.’
WASH an Alternation:
Passive
(134)
Le ko'lelo' táan u yichkíil.
le
DEM
ko'lel-o'
woman-D2
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
y-ichkíil
0-wash
‘The woman is bathing.’
WASH a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(135)
Le wíiniko' tu ts'ikah u báah.
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ts'ik-ah
shave-CMPL
u
POSS.3
báah
self
‘The man shaved (himself).’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Reflexive
(136)
Hwaane' tu ts'ikah Peedroh.
Hwaan-e'
John-TOP
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ts'ik-ah
shave-CMPL
Peedroh
Peter
‘John shaved Peter.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(137)
Le máako' ku ts'iik.
le
DEM
máak-o'
person-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
ts'iik
shave\INTROV
‘That person shaves (people).’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Introversive
(138)
Le xibpalo'bo' áanta'bo'b tumen teen.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'b-o'
boy-PL-D2
áant-a'b-o'b
help-PASS.CMPL-PL
tumen
by
teen
me
‘The boys were helped by me.’
HELP an Alternation:
Passive
(139)
Le máako' ku yáantah.
le
DEM
máak-o'
person-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
y-áant-ah
0-help-INTROV(INCMPL)
‘This person helps.’
HELP an Alternation:
Introversive
(140)
Le xch'úupalo'bo' ku ch'a'bal u paacho'b tumen le xibpalo'bo'.
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'b-o'
girl-PL-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
ch'a'b-al
take:PASS-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
pach-o'b
back-PL
tumen
by
le
DEM
xibpal-o'b-o'
boy-PL-D2
‘The girls are followed by the boys.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Passive
(141)
Le xch'úupalo' táan u tsikbal.
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
tsikbal
talk
‘The girl is talking.’
TALK the Verb form tsikbal
(142)
Ku t'a'nal tu k'aaba'.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
t'a'n-al
call\PASS-INCMPL
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
k'aaba'
name
‘He is called by his name.’
CALL an Alternation:
Passive
(143)
Le xibpalo' máantats' u k'áat(bal).
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
máantats'
constantly
u
SBJ.3
k'áat-bal
ask-INTROV
‘The boy always demands.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Introversive
(144)
In taataho'be' paaklan u k'áatik u báaho'b taak'in.
in
POSS.1SG
taatah-o'b-e'
father-PL-TOP
paaklan
each.other
u
SBJ.3
k'áat-ik
ask-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
taak'in
money
‘My parents ask each other for money.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(145)
Tu yilah le kaano' káa aawatnahih.
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-il-ah
0-see-CMPL
le
DEM
kaan-o'
snake-D2
káa
CONJ
aawat-nah-ih
call\INTROV-CMPL-ABS.3SG
‘He saw the snake and cried.’
SEE a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(146)
Ichil to'ne' paaklan k tsikbaltik úuchben tsikbalo'b.
ichil
inside
to'n-e'
us-TOP
paaklan
each.other
k
SBJ.1PL
tsikbal-t-ik
talk-TRR-INCMPL
úuchben
old
tsikbal-o'b
story-PL
‘In our group we tell each other old stories.’
TELL an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(147)
Kin tsikbaltik tin báah.
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
tsikbal-t-ik
talk-TRR-INCMPL
ti'
LOC
in
POSS.1SG
báah
self
‘I am talking to myself.’
TELL an Alternation:
Reflexive
(148)
Káach u xikin in p'úul.
h
PRFV
káach
break\DEAG
u
POSS.3
xikin
ear
in
POSS.1SG
p'úul
jug
‘The handle of my jug broke off.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Deagentive
(149)
H kíim u k'ux-óolal le máak yéetel báato'.
h
PRFV
kíim
die
u
POSS.3
k'uxóolal
enemy
le
DEM
máak
person
yéetel
with
báat-o'
axe-D2
‘The man's enemy died from an axe.’
DIE a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(150)
Kíinsa'b yéetel báat u k'ux-óolal le wíiniko' .
kíins-a'b
kill-PASS.CMPL
yéetel
with
báat
axe
u
POSS.3
k'uxóolal
enemy
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
‘The enemy was killed by the man with an axe.’
KILL an Alternation:
Passive
(151)
Le xibpalo'bo' ku ch'a'iko'b u paach le xch'úupalo'bo'.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'b-o'
boy-PL-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
ch'a'-ik-o'b
take-INCMPL-PL
u
POSS.3
paach
back
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'b-o'
girl-PL-D2
‘The boys follow the girls.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(152)
Yéetel ha'ha'ile' ku búulul ch'aka'n.
yéetel
with
ha'ha'il-e'
rainy.season-D3
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
búul-ul
submerge\DEAG-INCMPL
ch'aka'n
savannah
‘In the rainy season, the savannah gets drowned.’
SINK (tr) an Alternation:
Deagentive
(153)
Ku pa'bal le kalomk'iino'.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
pa'b-al
break:PASS-INCMPL
le
DEM
kalomk'iin-o'
window-D2
‘The window is being broken.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Passive
(154)
Ch'a'b u taak'in le wíinik tumen u láak'o'.
ch'a'b
take:PASS(CMPL)
u
POSS.3
taak'in
money
le
DEM
wíinik
man
tumen
by
u
POSS.3
láak'-o'
equal-D2
‘The man's money was taken by his friend.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Passive
(155)
Ha't hunwáal le analte' tumen le xch'úupalo'.
ha't
tear\PASS(CMPL)
hun-wáal
one-CL.flat
le
DEM
analte'
book
tumen
by
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘A page of the book was torn by the girl.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Passive
(156)
Tin bulah le tuncho'.
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
bul-ah
submerge-CMPL
le
DEM
tuunich-o'
stone-D2
‘I submerged the stone.’
SINK (tr) a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(157)
Le xibpalo' ku p'uuch.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
p'uuch
beat\INTROV
‘The boy beats.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Introversive
(158)
Hwaan yéetel u yatane' ku (paaklan) hats'ik u báaho'b.
Hwaan
John
yéetel
with
u
POSS.3
y-atan-e'
0-wife-D3
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
hats'-ik
beat-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘John and his wife beat each other.’
HIT an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(159)
Le xibpalo' tu ts'íilah u sool le che'o'.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ts'íil-ah
peel-CMPL
u
POSS.3
sóol
shell
le
DEM
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The boy peeled the bark off the tree.’
PEEL the Verb form ts'íil
(160)
Le xibpalo' ku ts'íil.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
ts'íil
peel
‘The boy peels.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Introversive
(161)
Ku ch'a'pachtik u báaho'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
ch'a'pach-t-ik
pursue-TRR-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘They pursue each other.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(162)
Tu naktáant u báaho'b k'íiwik.
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
naktáan-t-ah
meet-TRR-CMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
k'íiwik
market
‘They met at the market.’
MEET an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(163)
Ku paklant'aantik u báaho'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paklan-t'aan-t-ik
each.other-speak-TRR-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘They speak to each other.’
TALK an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(164)
Kin k'áatchi'tik in báah wáa hach haahil in yaabilmah.
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
k'áat-chi'-t-ik
ask-mouth-TRR-INCMPL
in
POSS.1SG
báah
self
wáah
if
hach
really
haahil
true
in
POSS.1SG
yaabil-mah
love-PART.PERF
‘I ask myself if I really love her.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Reflexive
(165)
Ku paaklan awtik u báaho'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
awat-ik
shout-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘They shout at each other.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(166)
Tu paaklan ya'lah u báaho'be' buka'h u yaabiltmah u báaho'b .
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
a'l-ah
say-CMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b-e'
self-PL-D3
buka'h
how.much
u
SBJ.3
yaabil-t-mah
love-TRR-PART.PERF
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘They told each other how much they love each other.’
SAY an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(167)
Tu paaklan kíinsah u báaho'b.
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
kíins-ah
kill-CMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘They killed each other.’
KILL an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(168)
U nohochilo'be' tu kíinsah u báah.
u
POSS.3
nohoch-il-o'b-e'
big-ABSTR-PL-TOP
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
kíins-ah
kill-CMPL
u
POSS.3
báah
self
‘Their chef killed himself.’
KILL an Alternation:
Reflexive
(169)
Le paalo'be' ku ta'kik u báaho'b tu báatsilo'b.
le
DEM
paal-o'b-e'
child-PL-D3
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
ta'k-ik
hide-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
báahtsil-o'b
self:ABSOL-PL
‘The children hide from each other.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(170)
Táan u ye'sah.
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
y-e's-ah
0-show-INTROV(INCMPL)
‘He is showing.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Introversive
(171)
Ku paaklan ye'sik u báaho'b ichil leti'o'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
y-e's-ik
0-show-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
ichil
inside
leti'-o'b
that.one-PL
‘They show themselves to each other.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(172)
Ku ye'sik u báaho'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
y-e's-ik
0-show-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘They show/exhibit themselves.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Reflexive
(173)
Ku ts'a'ik u k'abo'b ichil u báatsilo'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
ts'a'-ik
put/give-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
k'ab-o'b
hand-PL
ichil
inside
u
POSS.3
báah-tsil-o'b
self-ABSOL-PL
‘They give each other their hands.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(174)
Ku ts'a'ik síihbalo'b ichil u báatsilo'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
ts'a'-ik
put/give-INCMPL
síihbal-o'b
present-PL
ichil
inside
u
POSS.3
báah-tsil-o'b
self-ABSOL-PL
‘They give each other presents.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(175)
Túuxta'b lool ti' le chiicho'.
túuxt-a'b
send-PASS.CMPL
lool
flower
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
chiich-o'
grandmother-D2
‘Flowers were sent to the grandmother.’
SEND an Alternation:
Passive
(176)
Tu paaklan túuxtah lool'ob ti' u báaho'b.
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
túuxt-ah
send-CMPL
lool-o'b
flower-PL
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘They sent each other flowers.’
SEND an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(177)
Tin túuxtah loolo'b tin báah.
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
túuxt-ah
send-CMPL
lool-o'b
flower-PL
ti'
LOC
in
POSS.1SG
báah
self
‘I sent flowers to myself .’
SEND an Alternation:
Reflexive
(178)
Uts k bisik (k) báah.
uts
good
k
SBJ.1PL
bis-ik
carry-INCMPL
k
POSS.1PL
báah
self
‘We get along with each other.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(179)
Ku pulik u báah (tu húunal) le tuk'ucho'.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
pul-ik
throw-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah
self
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
huunal
alone
le
DEM
tuk'uch-o'
bug-D2
‘The bug bounces up by itself.’
THROW an Alternation:
Reflexive
(180)
Ku paaklan ch'inik u báaho'b yéetel tuunich.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
ch'in-ik
pelt-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
yéetel
with
tuunich
stone
‘They throw stones at each other.’
THROW an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(181)
Teech ka puul.
teech
you
k-a
IMPF-SBJ.2
puul
throw\INTROV
‘It's your turn to throw.’
THROW an Alternation:
Introversive
(182)
Lep' a wóol yéetel le suumo'! - Pa'tiki', h k'áaxih.
lep'
hurry
a
POSS.2
w-óol
0-mind
yéetel
with
le
DEM
suum-o'
rope-D2
pa't-ik-i'
wait-INCMPL-LOCF
h
PRFV
k'áax-ih
tie\DEAG(CMPL)-ABS.3SG
‘Hurry up with the rope! - Wait a moment, it got entangled.’
TIE an Alternation:
Deagentive
(183)
Ku paklank'axtik u báaho'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paklan-k'ax-t-ik
each.other-tie-TRR-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-P
‘They tie each other.’
TIE an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(184)
Tin láalah ha' tin wóok'ol.
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
láal-ah
pour-CMPL
ha'
water
ti'
LOC
in
POSS.1SG
w-óok'ol
0-over
‘I poured water over myself.’
POUR an Alternation:
Reflexive
(185)
Le paalalo'bo' ku paaklan láalik ha' tu báaho'b.
le
DEM
paal-al-o'b-o'
child-COLL-PL-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
láal-ik
pour-INCMPL
ha'
water
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘The children dabble water at each other.’
POUR an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(186)
Ku láalha'tik u báho'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
láal-ha'-t-ik
pour-water-TRR-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘They throw water at themselves.’
POUR an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(187)
Le yik'lo'bo' ku paaklan haantik u báaho'b.
le
DEM
y-ik'el-o'b-o'
0-insect-PL-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
haan-t-ik
eat-TRR-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘The insects eat each other.’
EAT an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(188)
Le ba'lche'o' ku haantik u báah.
le
DEM
ba'lche'-o'
animal-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
haan-t-ik
eat-TRR-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah
self
‘That animal eats itself.’
EAT an Alternation:
Reflexive
(189)
Le máako'bo' ku paaklan méek'ik u báaho'b tumen táant u yilik u báaho'be'.
le
DEM
máak-o'b-o'
person-PL-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
méek'-ik
hug-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
tumen
because
táant
IMM.PAST
u
SBJ.3
y-il-ik
0-see-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b-e'
self-PL-D3
‘The men hug each other because they just met.’
HUG an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(190)
Ku yilik u báah ichil le ha'o'.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
y-il-ik
0-see-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah
self
ichil
inside
le
DEM
ha'-o'
water-D2
‘He sees himself in the water.’
SEE an Alternation:
Reflexive
(191)
Le xibpalo' ma' tu yu'bah.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
ma'
NEG
t-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
y-u'b-ah
0-feel-INTROV(INCMPL)
‘The boy does not listen.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Introversive
(192)
Leti'o'be' tu yu'bah u báaho'b.
leti'-o'b-e'
that.one-PL-TOP
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-u'b-ah
0-feel-CMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘They felt/heard each other.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(193)
Leti'o'be' tu yu'bah u báaho'b hach xibo'b.
leti'-o'b-e'
that.one-PL-TOP
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-u'b-ah
0-feel-CMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
hach
really
xib-o'b
man-PL
‘They felt really macho.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Reflexive
(194)
Ku paaklan ch'a'ik sahakilo'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
ch'a'-ik
take-INCMPL
sahak-il-o'b
afraid-ABSTR-PL
‘They fear each other.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(195)
Ku ch'a'ik sahakil tu báah.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
ch'a'-ik
take-INCMPL
sahak-il
afraid-ABSTR
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
báah
self
‘He is afraid of himself.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Reflexive
(196)
Ku paaklan sahakkunsik u báaho'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
sahak-kuns-ik
afraid-FACT-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘They frighten each other.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(197)
Ku uts-ichtik u báaho'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
uts-ich-t-ik
good-eye-TRR-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘They like each other.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(198)
Teene' in k'ahóoltmah in báah.
teen-e'
me-TOP
in
SBJ.1SG
k'ahóol-t-mah
know-TRR-PART.PERF
in
POSS.1SG
báah
self
‘I know myself.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Reflexive
(199)
Le xch'úupalo' chéen ku tukultik u báah.
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
chéen
only
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
tukul-t-ik
think-TRR-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah
self
‘The girl thinks only of herself.’
THINK an Alternation:
Reflexive
(200)
Ku paaklan ichkíilo'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
ichkíil-o'b
wash-PL
‘The two bathe together.’
WASH an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(201)
Ku paaklan ts'ikik u báaho'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
ts'ik-ik
shave-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘They shave each other.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(202)
Le máako'bo' ku paaklan áantik u báaho'b.
le
DEM
máak-o'b-o'
person-PL-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
áant-ik
help-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘The persons help each other.’
HELP an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(203)
Áant a báah ka áanta'kech tumen yúum k'uh.
áant
help
a
POSS.2
báah
self
káa
CONJ
áant-a'k-ech
help-SUBJ.PASS-ABS.2SG
tumen
by
yúum
lord
k'uh
god
‘Help yourself, then god will help you.’
HELP an Alternation:
Reflexive
(204)
Ku píixil in nal yéetel k'áax.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
píix-il
cover\DEAG-INCMPL
in
POSS.1.SG
nal
corncob
yéetel
with
k'áax
jungle
‘My corn plants cover with brush.’
COVER an Alternation:
Deagentive
(205)
But' le nal teh xuuxo'.
but'
fill
le
DEM
nal
corncob
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
xuux-o'
long.basket-D2
‘Put the corn cobs into the basket (to fill it).’
FILL a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 LOC3
(206)
Ku paaklan ts'a'ik u kuucho'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
ts'a'-ik
put/give-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
kuuch-o'b
load-PL
‘They load each other with their burdens.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(207)
Kin chak'ichtik le xch'úupalo'.
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
chak'-ich-t-ik
blink-eye-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘I blink at the girl.’
BLINK an Alternation:
Incorporative
(208)
Ku chak'ichtik u báaho'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
chak'-ich-t-ik
blink-eye-TRR-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘They blink at each other.’
BLINK an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(209)
Tu se'ntah in wich.
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
se'n-t-ah
cough-TRR-CMPL
in
POSS.1SG
w-ich
0-eye
‘He coughed at my face.’
COUGH an Alternation:
Extraversive
(210)
Le ahk'aayo'bo' h k'aaynaho'b ti' le hala'cho'.
le
DEM
ah-k'aay-o'b-o'
AG.M-sing\INTROV-PL-D2
h
PRFV
k'aay-nah-o'b
sing\INTROV-CMPL-PL
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
hala'ch-o'
noble-D2
‘The singers sang for the nobleman.’
SING an Alternation:
Introversive
(211)
Ku paklank'aytik u báaho'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paklan-k'ay-t-ik
each.other-sing-TRR-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘They sing for each other.’
SING an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(212)
Peedrohe' tu kahkunsah xLuupe.
Peedroh-e'
Peter-TOP
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
kah-kuns-ah
live-FACT-CMPL
x-Luupe
F-Lupe
‘Pedro married Lupe.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Causative
(213)
Kin che'htik in báah.
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
che'h-t-ik
laugh-TRR-INCMPL
in
POSS.1SG
báah
self
‘I am laughing about myself.’
LAUGH ABOUT an Alternation:
Reflexive
(214)
Tin yahkuntah in k'ab ikil in pets'ik le boolaho'.
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
yah-kunt-ah
hurt-FACT-CMPL
in
POSS.1SG
k'ab
hand
ikil
owing.to
in
SBJ.1SG
pets'-ik
grab-INCMPL
le
DEM
boolah-o'
ball-D2
‘I injured my hand because I grabbed that ball.’
HURT a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(215)
Yan u paaklan báaxalo'b.
yan
DEB
u
SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
báaxal-o'b
play-PL
‘Each of them has to play with one of the others.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(216)
Le ba'lo' ku ok'om-óoltiken.
le
DEM
ba'l-o'
thing-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
ok'om-óol-t-ik-en
sad-mind-TRR-INCMPL-ABS.1SG
‘That thing makes me sad.’
BE SAD an Alternation:
Causative
(217)
Le meyaho' ku wi'hkunsiken.
le
DEM
meyah-o'
work-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
wi'h-kuns-ik-en
hungry-FACT-INCMPL-ABS.1SG
‘The work makes me hungry.’
BE HUNGRY an Alternation:
Causative
(218)
Kin balak'tik le boolaho'.
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
balak'-t-ik
roll-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
boolah-o'
ball-D2
‘I roll the ball.’
ROLL (tr) a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 LOC3
(219)
Le ke'lo ku yahkunsik in k'ab.
le
DEM
ke'l-o
cold-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
yah-kuns-ik
hurt-FACT-INCMPL
in
POSS.1SG
k'ab
hand
‘The cold makes my hand hurt.’
FEEL PAIN an Alternation:
Causative
(220)
Le iik'o' ku ke'lkunsiken.
le
DEM
iik'-o'
air-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
ke'l-kuns-ik-en
cold-FACT-INCMPL-ABS.1SG
‘The wind cools me down.’
FEEL COLD an Alternation:
Causative
(221)
Kíinsa'b huntúul kéeh teh k'áaxo'.
kíins-a'b
kill-PASS.CMPL
hun-túul
one-CL.AN
kéeh
deer
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
k'áax-o'
jungle-D2
‘A deer was killed in the woods.’
KILL an Alternation:
Passive
(222)
Ba'x ku báaxtik le chaampalo'?
ba'x
what
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
báax-t-ik
play-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
chaampal-o'
baby-D2
‘What does the child play?’
PLAY an Alternation:
Extraversive
(223)
Báaxta'b kóochek' wóolis ho'lheak.
báax-t-a'b
play-TRR-PASS.CMPL
kóochek'
kick
wóolis
ball
ho'lheak
yesterday
‘Football was played yesterday.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Passive
(224)
Le paalo'bo' ku paaklan báaxal ti' le k'íiwiko'.
le
DEM
paal-o'b-o'
child-PL-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
báaxal
play
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
k'íiwik-o'
market-D2
‘The kids play with each other on the market.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(225)
Ma' ok'om-óoltik .
ma'
NEG
ok'om
sad
óol-t-ik
mind-TRR-INCMPL
‘Don't be sad about it.’
BE SAD an Alternation:
Extraversive
(226)
Ok'om-óolta'b úuchik u kíimih.
ok'om-óol-t-a'b
sad-mind-TRR-PASS.CMPL
úuchik
OBL.SR
u
SBJ.3
kíim-il
die-INCMPL
‘It caused grief that she died.’
BE SAD ABOUT an Alternation:
Passive
(227)
Le ki'waho' ku wi'hkuntiken.
le
DEM
ki'wah-o'
main.dish-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
wi'h-kunt-ik-en
hungry-FACT-INCMPL-ABS.1SG
‘The food makes me hungry.’
BE HUNGRY an Alternation:
Causative
(228)
Kin wilik le hanalo' ku wi'hkunsiken.
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
w-il-ik
0-see-INCMPL
le
DEM
haanal-o'
food-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
wi'h-kuns-ik-en
hungry-FACT-INCMPL-ABS.1SG
‘It makes me hungry to see the food.’
SEE an Alternation:
Causative
(229)
Kin balk'esik le tuunicho'.
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
balak'-es-ik
roll-CAUS-INCMPL
le
DEM
tuunich-o'
stone-D2
‘I roll that stone.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Causative
(230)
Kin balak'tik le nuxi' che'a'.
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
balak'-t-ik
roll-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
nuxib
old
che'-a'
wood-D1
‘I am rolling this big tree.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Extraversive
(231)
Balak't'ab te'l kaabalo' .
balak'-t-a'b
roll-TRR-PASS.CMPL
te'l
there
kaabal-o'
down-D2
‘He/she/it was rolled down there.’
ROLL (tr) an Alternation:
Passive
(232)
Ku paaklan balak'tik u báaho'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
balak'-t-ik
roll-TRR-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘They roll each other.’
ROLL (tr) an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(233)
Le kutsha'o' tu bulah u báah káa tu yilahen.
le
DEM
kutsha'-o'
duck-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
bul-ah
submerge-CMPL
u
POSS.3
báah
self
ka'h
when.NONFUT
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-il-ah-en
0-see-CMPL-ABS.1SG
‘The duck dived when it saw me.’
SINK (tr) an Alternation:
Reflexive
(234)
Ku paaklan bulik u poolo'b ichil le ha'o'.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
bul-ik
submerge-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
pool-o'b
head-PL
ichil
inside
le
DEM
ha'-o'
water-D2
‘They submerge each other's head into the water.’
SINK (tr) an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(235)
Bix éelikech ?
bix
how
éel-ik-ech
burn-INCMPL-ABS.2SG
‘How did you get burnt?’
BURN a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(236)
Tóoka'b u kool tumen u paal.
tóok-a'b
burn-PASS.CMPL
u
POSS.3
kool
milpa
tumen
by
u
POSS.3
paal
child
‘His milpa was burnt by his son.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Passive
(237)
Tin tóok in báah káa tin machah le xamacho' .
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
tóok-ah
burn-CMPL
in
POSS.1SG
báah
self
ka'h
when.NONFUT
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
mach-ah
seize-CMPL
le
DEM
xamach-o'
cooktop-D2
‘I burnt myself when I touched the cooktop.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Reflexive
(238)
Ku k'áaxal u le' nikte'o'b (tu) yóok'ol in nahil.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
k'áax-al
rain-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
le'
leaf
nikte'-o'b
flower-PL
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
y-óok'ol
0-over
in
POSS.1SG
nah-il
house-REL
‘It rains leaves of flowers on my house.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(239)
K'áax toop tu y-óok'ol.
h
PRFV
k'áax
rain
toop
misfortune
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
y-óok'ol
0-over
‘It rained misfortune on him.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(240)
Le ts'oonnáalo' tu kíinsah huntúul kéeh.
le
DEM
ts'oon-náal-o'
hunter-AG-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
kíins-ah
kill-CMPL
hun-túul
one-CL.AN
kéeh
deer
‘The hunter killed a deer.’
BE A HUNTER the Verb form hts'oon
(241)
H binen huuch'.
h
PRFV
bin-en
go-ABS.1SG
huuch'
grind\INTROV
‘I went to grind.’
GRIND an Alternation:
Introversive
(242)
Hu'ch' in k'ab tumen le tuunicho' .
hu'ch'
grind\PASS
in
POSS.1SG
k'ab
hand
tumen
by
le
DEM
tuunich-o'
stone-D2
‘My hand was crushed by the stone.’
GRIND an Alternation:
Passive
(243)
Cho' a báah!
cho'
clean
a
POSS.2
báah
self
‘Clean yourself!’
WIPE an Alternation:
Reflexive
(244)
Binen púus.
h
PRFV
bin-en
go(CMPL)-ABS.1SG
púus
remove.dust
‘I went cleaning.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(245)
Púusta'b ich nah.
púus-t-a'b
remove.dust-TRR-PASS.CMPL
ich
in
nah
house
‘It was cleaned inside the house.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Passive
(246)
Púust a báah.
púus-t
remove.dust-TRR
a
POSS.2
báah
self
‘Clean yourself.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Reflexive
(247)
Ku paaklan púustik yicho'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
púus-t-ik
remove.dust-TRR-INCMPL
y-ich-o'b
POSS.3-eye-PL
‘They clean each other's face.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(248)
Le xch'úupalo' bin u páan u wi' makal.
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
h
PRFV
bin
go
u
SBJ.3
páan
lay.bare
u
POSS.3
wi'
bulb
makal
yams
‘The girl went to dig out yams bulbs.’
DIG a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(249)
Láah páana'b in pak'al xi'm.
láah
all
páan-a'b
lay.bare-PASS.CMPL
in
POSS.1SG
paak'al
CL.seed
ixi'm
corn
‘All my corn plants were dug out.’
DIG an Alternation:
Passive
(250)
Léench'inta'b tumen u suku'n ichil le ha'o'.
léen-ch'in-t-a'b
push-pelt-TRR-PASS.CMPL
tumen
by
u
POSS.3
suku'n
elder.brother
ichil
inside
le
DEM
ha'-o'
water-D2
‘He was pushed into the water by his elder brother.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Passive
(251)
Ku paaklan léench'intik u báaho'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
léen-ch'in-t-ik
push-pelt-TRR-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘They push each other.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(252)
H tu'l káa lúubih.
h
PRFV
tu'l
push\PASS
káa
CONJ
lúub-ih
fall-ABS.3SG
‘He was pushed and fell.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Passive
(253)
Taasa'b teen huncháach nikte'o'b.
h
PRFV
taas-a'b
bring-PASS.CMPL
teen
me
hun-cháach
one-handful
nikte'-o'b
flower-PL
‘I was brought a handful of flowers.’
BRING an Alternation:
Passive
(254)
Ku paaklan taasik u kuucho'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
taas-ik
bring-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
kuuch-o'b
load-PL
‘They bring each other's burden.’
BRING an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(255)
Le ko'lelo' tu ka'nsah ti' le xch'úupalo' hunp'éel k'aay.
le
DEM
ko'lel-o'
woman-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ka'n-s-ah
learn\PASS-CAUS-CMPL
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
k'aay
song
‘The lady taught the girl a song.’
TEACH the Verb form ka'ns
(256)
Máax le ku ka'nsah waye'?
máax
who
le
DEM
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
ka'n-s-ah
learn\PASS-CAUS-INTROV(INCMPL)
way-e'
here-D3
‘Who teaches here?’
TEACH an Alternation:
Introversive
(257)
Ma' in wohel máax ku yookol waye'.
ma'
NEG
in
SBJ.1SG
w-ohel
0-know
máax
who
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
y-ookol
0-steal
way-e'
here-D3
‘I don't know who is stealing here.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Introversive
(258)
Ho'lheake' ook'olta'b tuláakal in taak'in.
ho'lheak-e'
yesterday-D3
h
PRFV
ookol-t-a'b
steal-TRR-PASS.CMPL
tuláakal
all
in
POSS.1SG
taak'in
money
‘Yesterday all my money was stolen.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Passive
(259)
Ka'nsa'ben utsil t'aan maaya tumen in ahkaanbesah.
ka'n-s-a'b-en
learn\PASS-CAUS-PASS.CMPL-ABS.1SG
utsil
well
t'aan
speak
maaya
maya
tumen
by
in
POSS.1SG
ah-kaanbesah
AG.M-teacher
‘I was taught to speak Maya well by my teacher.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Passive
(260)
Ku paaklan ka'nsik u báaho'b heheláas t'aano'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
ka'ns-ik
teach-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
heheláas
various
t'aan-o'b
word-PL
‘They teach each other various languages.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(261)
Ku paaklan yu'b-ik u báaho'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
y-u'b-ik
0-feel-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘They hear each other.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(262)
Le ko'lelo' ku chaakal bul k'iin.
le
DEM
ko'lel-o'
woman-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
chaak-al
cook\INTROV-INCMPL
bul
entire
k'iin
sun/day
‘The woman cooks all the day.’
COOK an Alternation:
Introversive
(263)
Cha'k u bak'el k'éek'en utia'l in haante'.
cha'k
cook\PASS
u
POSS.3
bak'-el
flesh-REL
k'éek'en
pig
utia'l
for
in
SBJ.1SG
haan-t-e'
eat-TRR-D3
‘Pork meat was cooked for me to eat.’
COOK an Alternation:
Passive
(264)
Táan in lookansik le ki'waho'.
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
look-ans-ik
boil-CAUS-INCMPL
le
DEM
ki'wah-o'
main.dish-D2
‘I am boiling the food.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Causative
(265)
Lookansa'b le ki'waho'?
look-ans-a'b
boil-CAUS-PASS.CMPL
le
DEM
ki'wah-o'
main.dish-D2
‘Has the food been boiled?’
BOIL (tr) an Alternation:
Passive
(266)
Kin chíikbesik ta táan.
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
chíik-bes-ik
appear-CAUS-INCMPL
ti'
LOC
a
POSS.2
táan
front
‘I let it appear before you.’
APPEAR an Alternation:
Causative
(267)
Ba'x k'oha'nkunsech?
ba'x
what
k'oha'n-kuns-ech
sick-FACT-ABS.2SG
‘What made you sick?’
BE ILL an Alternation:
Causative
(268)
K'oha'nkunta'b tumen le ke'lo'.
k'oha'n-kunt-a'b
sick-FACT-PASS.CMPL
tumen
by
le
DEM
ke'l-o'
cold-D2
‘He got sick from the cold.’
MAKE SICK an Alternation:
Passive
(269)
K'oha'nkunt a báah tu yóolal ma' bin meyah.
k'oha'n-kunt
sick-FACT
a
POSS.2
báah
self
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
y-o'lal
0-reason
ma'
NEG
a
SBJ.2
bin
go
meyah
work
‘Make yourself sick so that you don't go to work.’
MAKE SICK an Alternation:
Reflexive
(270)
Ba'x ka wook'tik?
ba'x
what
k-a
IMPF-SBJ.2
w-ook'-t-ik
0-cry-TRR-INCMPL
‘What are you crying about?’
CRY an Alternation:
Extraversive
(271)
Ook'ta'b tumen u paalalo'b káa h kíimih.
ook'-t-a'b
cry-TRR-PASS.CMPL
tumen
by
u
POSS.3
paal-al-o'b
child-COLL-PL
ka'h
when.NONFUT
h
PRFV
kíim-ih
die-ABS.3SG
‘His children cried for him when he died.’
CRY ABOUT an Alternation:
Passive
(272)
Bix lúubik?
bix
how
lúub-ik
fall-CMPL.EXTRAFOC
‘How did it fall?’
FALL a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(273)
Tin lúubsah le nuxi' che'o'.
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
lúub-s-ah
fall-CAUS-CMPL
le
DEM
nuxib
old
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘I felled that old/big tree.’
FALL an Alternation:
Causative
(274)
Lúubsa'b le che' tumen le iik'o'.
lúub-s-a'b
fall-CAUS-PASS.CMPL
le
DEM
che'
wood
tumen
by
le
DEM
iik'-o'
air-D2
‘The tree was felled by the wind.’
FELL an Alternation:
Passive
(275)
Behe'la' in k'aame' .
behe'la'
today
in
SBJ.1SG
k'aam-e'
receive\INTROV-D3
‘Today I receive.’
GET an Alternation:
Introversive
(276)
K'a'm yéetel ki'mak óolal tumen u suku'no'b.
k'a'm
receive\PASS(CMPL)
yéetel
with
ki'mak-óol-al
happy-mind-ABSTR
tumen
by
u
POSS.3
suku'n-o'b
elder.brother-PL
‘He was received with joy by his brothers.’
GET an Alternation:
Passive
(277)
Beeta'b le nah yéetel xa'no' tumen hach k'íilk'ab.
beet-a'b
do-PASS.CMPL
le
DEM
nah
house
yéetel
with
xa'n-o'
palm-D2
tumen
because
hach
really
k'íilk'ab
hot
‘The house was built out of palm leaves because it is really hot.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Passive
(278)
Ma' a beetik a báah beey ma' a wohele' .
ma'
NEG
a
SBJ.2
beet-ik
do-INCMPL
a
POSS.2
báah
self
beey
thus
ma'
NEG
a
SBJ.2
w-ohel-e'
0-know-D3
‘Don't pretend not to know it.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Reflexive
(279)
Le máako' ku haats'.
le
DEM
máak-o'
person-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
haats'
beat\INTROV
‘That person beats.’
HIT an Alternation:
Introversive
(280)
Ha't u nook' tumen u yíitsin.
ha't
tear\PASS(CMPL)
u
POSS.3
nook'
clothing
tumen
by
u
POSS.3
y-íiits'in
0-younger.sibling
‘His dress was torn by his younger brother.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Passive
(281)
Háat in nook'.
háat
tear\DEAG
in
POSS.1SG
nook'
clothing
‘My clothes tore.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Deagentive
(282)
K'áax in wook ichil le suumo'.
h
PRFV
k'áax
tie\DEAG
in
POSS.1SG
w-ook
0-foot
ichil
inside
le
DEM
suum-o'
rope-D2
‘My foot got tied in the rope.’
TIE an Alternation:
Deagentive
(283)
Ku chu'pul le ch'óoyo'.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
chu'p-ul
fill\PASS-INCMPL
le
DEM
ch'óoy-o'
bucket-D2
‘The bucket is filled.’
FILL an Alternation:
Passive
(284)
Le xch'uupalo' tu chak'ah teen u yich.
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
chak'-ah
blink-CMPL
teen
me
u
POSS.3
y-ich
0-eye
‘The girl blinked at me.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V ti'+2 1
(285)
Kin na'ksik le kuuch yóok'ol le tsíimino'.
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
na'k-s-ik
climb-CAUS-INCMPL
le
DEM
kuuch
load
y-óok'ol
0-over
le
DEM
tsíimin-o'
horse-D2
‘I load the burden on the horse.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Causative
(286)
Kulkins yóok'ol le k'áanche'o'.
kul-kins
sit-FACT
y-óok'ol
0-over
le
DEM
k'áan-che'-o'
hammock-wood-D2
‘Make him sit (down) on the stool.’
SIT an Alternation:
Causative
(287)
Le máako' ku síit'tik le kooto'.
le
DEM
máak-o'
person-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
síit'-t-ik
jump-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
koot-o'
wall-D2
‘That man jumps over the wall.’
JUMP an Alternation:
Extraversive
(288)
Le xk'ook'o' ts'o'k u kahik u k'ay.
le
DEM
x-k'ook'-o'
F-nightingale-D2
ts'o'k
TERM
u
SBJ.3
kah-ik
begin-INCMPL
u
SBJ.3
k'aay
sing\INTROV
‘The nightingale has begun to sing.’
SING an Alternation:
Introversive
(289)
Hóok'es le peek' ich naho'.
hóok'-es
leave-CAUS
le
DEM
peek'
dog
ich
in
nah-o'
house-D2
‘Chase the dog out of the house.’
LEAVE an Alternation:
Causative
(290)
Kahbesa'b xLuupe tumen Hwaan.
h
PRFV
kah-bes-a'b
live-CAUS-PASS.CMPL
x-Luupe
F-Lupe
tumen
by
Hwaan
John
‘Lupe was taken to live with (~ married) by John.’
MARRY an Alternation:
Causative
(291)
Tin che'htik ba'x ka wa'lik.
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
che'h-t-ik
laugh-TRR-INCMPL
ba'x
what
k-a
IMPF-SBJ.2
w-a'l-ik
0-say-INCMPL
‘I am laughing about what you say.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Extraversive
(292)
Máax le ku choo' waye'?
máax
who
le
DEM
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
choo'
clean\INTROV
way-e'
here-D3
‘Who cleans here?’
WIPE an Alternation:
Introversive
(293)
K'a'm in ti'bilóolal.
k'a'm
receive\PASS(CMPL)
in
POSS.1SG
ti'bilóolal
sacrifical.offering
‘My present was received.’
GET an Alternation:
Passive
(294)
H káach in k'ab.
h
PRFV
káach
break\DEAG
in
POSS.1SG
k'ab
hand
‘My arm broke.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Deagentive
(295)
Tu'x kóoh a k'ab h boonol?
tu'x
where
kóoh
toss\DEAG
a
POSS.2
k'ab
hand
boonol
coloured
‘Where got your hand tossed, which is coloured?’
HIT an Alternation:
Deagentive
(296)
Le peek'o' ku ch'a'ch'a'boktik tu'x máan le kéeho'.
le
DEM
peek'-o'
dog-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
ch'a-ch'a'bok-t-ik
RED-smell-TRR-INCMPL
tu'x
where
máan
pass(CMPL)
le
DEM
kéeh-o'
deer-D2
‘The dog smells where the deer passed.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Extraversive
(297)
Ku haantik u báaho'b tu yo'lal le p'eekil yaan ti'o'bo'.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
haan-t-ik
eat-TRR-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
t-u
LOC-POSS.3
y-o'lal
0-reason
le
DEM
p'eek-il
hate-ABSTR
yaan
EXIST
ti'-o'b-o'
LOC-PL-D2
‘They nearly eat each other due to the hate they feel against each other.’
EAT an Alternation:
Reflexive
(298)
Tu méek'ah u báaho'b úuchik u yilik u báaho'b.
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
méek'-ah
hug-CMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
úuchik
OBL.SR
u
SBJ.3
y-il-ik
0-see-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘They hugged each other when they met.’
HUG an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(299)
Teene' ma' tin paakat.
teen-e'
me-TOP
ma'
NEG
t-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
paakat
look\INTROV
‘I can't see.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Introversive
(300)
Tu paaklan paaktik u báaho'be' utia'l u hach k'ahóoltik u báaho'b.
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
pakat-ik
look-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b-e'
self-PL-D3
utia'l
for
u
SBJ.3
hach
really
k'ahóol-t-ik
know-TRR-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘They are looking at each other in order to recognize each other.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(301)
Tu paktah u báah ti' le néeno'.
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
pakat-ah
look-CMPL
u
POSS.3
báah
self
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
néen-o'
mirror-D2
‘He looked at himself in the mirror.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Reflexive
(302)
Ku paaklan sahbesik u báaho'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
sah-bes-ik
fear-CAUS-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘They frighten each other.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(303)
U paaklan k'ahóol u báaho'b le beetik ma' tu ya'liko'b mixba'l.
u
SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
k'ahóol
know
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
le
DEM
beetik
makes
ma'
NEG
t-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
y-a'l-ik-o'b
0-say-INCMPL-PL
mixba'l
nothing
‘They know each other that is why they say nothing.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(304)
H náak u yóol kaaxan.
h
PRFV
náak
annoyed
u
POSS.3
y-óol
0-mind
kaaxan
search\INTROV
‘He got sick of searching.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Introversive
(305)
Ts'íila'b tuláakal le che'o'bo'.
ts'íil-a'b
peel-PASS.CMPL
tuláakal
all
le
DEM
che'-o'b-o'
wood-PL-D2
‘All the trees were peeled.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Passive
(306)
Tin tikinkuntah le sikila'.
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
tikin-kunt-ah
dry-FACT-CMPL
le
DEM
sikil-a'
pumpkin.seed-D1
‘I dried the pumpkin seed.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Causative
(307)
Tikinkunsa'b yáanal k'iin .
tikin-kuns-a'b
dry-FACT-PASS.CMPL
y-áanal
0-under
k'iin
sun/day
‘It was dried under the sun.’
DRY an Alternation:
Passive
(308)
Tin tikinkunsah le ixi'ima'.
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
tikin-kuns-ah
dry-FACT-CMPL
le
DEM
ixi'm-a'
corn-D1
‘I dried the corn.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Causative
(309)
Tikinkuns a báah yiknal le k'áak'o'.
tikin-kuns
dry-FACT
a
POSS.2
báah
self
y-iknal
0-at
le
DEM
k'áak'-o'
fire-D2
‘Dry yourself near the fire.’
DRY an Alternation:
Reflexive
(310)
Ku paaklan tikinkunsik u tso'tsel u poolo'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
tikin-kuns-ik
dry-FACT-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
tso'ts-el
hair-REL
u
POSS.3
pool-o'b
head-PL
‘The dry each other's hair.’
DRY an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(311)
Le wíiniko' ku chíikpahal ti' le naho'.
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
chíik-pah-al
appear-SPONT-INCMPL
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
nah-o'
house-D2
‘The man appears at the house.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(312)
Le paalo' ku yook'ol ka'ch tu yo'lal u haatal báaxal.
le
DEM
paal-o'
child-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
y-ook'ol
0-weep
ka'ch
before
t-u
LOC-POSS.3
y-o'lal
0-reason
u
POSS.3
haatal
torn
báaxal
toy
‘The child cried over its torn toy.’
CRY a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(313)
Le wíiniko' ku lúubul teh che'o' ichil le ts'ono'to'.
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
lúub-ul
fall-INCMPL
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
che'-o'
wood-D2
ichil
inside
le
DEM
ts'ono't-o'
cenote-D2
‘The man falls out of the tree into the cenote.’
FALL a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(314)
Le ko'lelo' ku k'amik hunp'éel nikte' ti' le xch'úupalo'.
le
DEM
ko'lel-o'
woman-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
k'am-ik
receive-INCMPL
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
nikte'
flower
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The woman receives a flower from the girl.’
GET a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 ti'+3 1
(315)
U le' le su'ko' ku xoot.
u
POSS.3
le'
leaf
le
DEM
su'k-o'
grass-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
xoot
cut\INTROV
‘The leaves of the grass cut .’
CUT an Alternation:
Introversive
(316)
Le ch'óoyo' chúup yéetel ha'.
le
DEM
ch'óoy-o'
bucket-D2
chúup
fill\DEAG
yéetel
with
ha'
water
‘The bucket filled with water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Deagentive
(317)
Le xch'úupalo' ma'ch tumen u na' káa u'ya'k wáah táan u chokwil.
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
ma'ch
seize\PASS
tumen
by
u
POSS.3
na'
mother
káa
CONJ
u'y-a'k
feel-SUBJ.PASS
wáah
if
táan
PROG
u
POSS.3
chokwil
fever
‘The girl was touched by her mother in order to feel if she had fever.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Passive
(318)
Táan u machik u báaho'b káa u yu'bo'b wáah taan u chokwilo'b.
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
mach-ik
seize-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
káa
CONJ
u
SBJ.3
y-u'b-o'b
0-feel-PL
wáah
if
táan
PROG
u
POSS.3
chokwil-o'b
fever-PL
‘They are touching each other in order to feel if they have fever.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(319)
Le peek'o túun tsaypachtik le xibpal máan k'iino'.
le
DEM
peek'-o'
dog-D2
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
tsaypach-t-ik
follow-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
xibpal
boy
máan
pass
k'iin-o'
sun/day-D2
‘The dog follows the boy all day.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(320)
Le xch'úupalalo'bo' ku tsaypachta'lo'b tumen le xíipalalo'bo'.
le
DEM
xch'úupal-al-o'b-o'
girl-COLL-PL-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
tsaypach-t-a'l-o'b
follow-TRR-PASS.INCMPL-PL
tumen
by
le
DEM
xibpal-al-o'b-o'
boy-COLL-PL-D2
‘The girls are followed by the boys.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Passive
(321)
Le kaano' p'u'ch tumen le xibpalo.
le
DEM
kaan-o'
snake-D2
p'u'ch
beat\PASS
tumen
by
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
‘The snake was beaten by the boy.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Passive
(322)
Le xibpalo' táan u p'uchik le kaan yéetel u bastono'.
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
p'uch-ik
beat-INCMPL
le
DEM
kaan
snake
yéetel
with
u
POSS.3
baston-o'
stick-D2
‘The boy is beating the snake with his stick.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 (yéetel+3)
(323)
Le ch'óoyo' ku búut'ul yéetel lu'm.
le
DEM
ch'óoy-o'
bucket-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
búut'-ul
fill\DEAG-INCMPL
yéetel
with
lu'm
earth
‘The bucket fills with earth.’
FILL an Alternation:
Deagentive
(324)
Teene' kin ts'iik.
teen-e'
me-TOP
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
ts'iik
shave\INTROV
‘I shave.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Introversive
(325)
Le xch'úupalo' túun chak'ich.
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
túun
then
chak'-ich
blink-eye
‘The girl is blinking.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V ti'+2 1
(326)
Táan u tikintal le lu'mo'.
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
tikin-tal
dry-FIENT.INCMPL
le
DEM
lu'm-o'
earth-D2
‘The ground is getting dry.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Fientive
(327)
Behe'la' in k'amik u'labo'be'.
behe'la'
today
in
SBJ.1SG
k'am-ik
receive-INCMPL
u'lab-o'b-e'
guest-PL-D3
‘Today I receive guests.’
GET a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 ti'+3 1
(328)
Le wíiniko' tu ch'a'ah u taak'in u láak'.
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ch'a'-ah
take-CMPL
u
POSS.3
taak'in
money
u
POSS.3
láak'
equal
‘The man took the money from his friend.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Indirect participation
(329)
Ku paaklan isíinsik u báaho'b.
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
isíin-s-ik
bathe-CAUS-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘They bathe each other.’
WASH an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(330)
Le xch'úupalo' tu kanah hunp'éel k'aay.
le
DEM
x-ch'úupal-o'
F-girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
kan-ah
learn-CMPL
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
k'aay
song
‘The girl learnt a song.’
LEARN a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(331)
Hwaan u k'aaba' in iihoh.
Hwaan
John
u
POSS.3
k'aaba'
name
in
POSS.1SG
iihoh
son
‘My son's name is John.’
NAME a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(332)
Tin wichíintah síis ha'.
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
w-ichíin-t-ah
0-wash-TRR-CMPL
síis
cold
ha'
water
‘I washed with cold water.’
WASH an Alternation:
Extraversive
(333)
Tin kuchpachtah in wíits'in.
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
kuch-pach-t-ah
load-back-TRR-CMPL
in
POSS.1SG
w-íits'in
0-younger.sibling
‘I loaded my younger sibling on my back.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Incorporative
(334)
Tin machah yéetel in xts'íik k'ab.
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
mach-ah
seize-CMPL
y-éetel
0-with
in
POSS.1SG
xts'íik
left
k'ab
hand
‘I seized her with my left hand.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 (yéetel+3)
(335)
Kin wookolik teech le ba'lo'.
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
w-ookol-ik
0-steal-INCMPL
teech
you
le
DEM
ba'l-o'
thing-D2
‘I steal that thing from you.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 ti'+3 1
(336)
Tíin paktikech.
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
pakat-ik-ech
look-INCMPL-ABS.2SG
‘I loook at you.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(337)
Ch'a'a'n sahakil ti' le báalam tumen le máasewaalo'bo'.
ch'a'-a'n
take-RSLTV
sahak-il
afraid-ABSTR
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
báalam
jaguar
tumen
by
le
DEM
máasewaal-o'b-o'
indio-PL-D2
‘The jaguar is feared by the indios.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Passive
(338)
Tin t'anah in wíits'in ti' haanal.
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
t'an-ah
call-CMPL
in
POSS.1SG
w-íits'in
0-younger.sibling
ti'
LOC
haanal
food
‘I called my younger sibling to eat.’
CALL a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(339)
Le boolaha' h taal tin k'ab.
le
DEM
boolah-a'
ball-D1
h
PRFV
taal
come(CMPL)
t-in
LOC-POSS.1SG
k'ab
hand
‘This ball came into my hand.’
COME (2) a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V LOC2 1
(340)
Ma'loob a tuukule'x.
ma'loob
good
a
SBJ.2
tuukul-e'x
think\INTROV-2PL
‘You think well.’
THINK a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(341)
Hach ki'chkelem u búuk Pedro.
hach
really
ki'chkelem
handsome
u
POSS.3
búuk
dress
Pedro
Peter
‘Peter's dress is very handsome.’
BE A DRESS the Verb form búuk
(342)
Le xch'úup-o'b-o' t-u huch'-ah-o'b in k'u'm.
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'b-o'
woman-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
huch'-ah-o'b
grind-CMPL-3PL
in
POSS.1SG
k'u'm
nixtamal
‘The women ground my nixtamal.’
GRIND an Alternation:
Indirect participation
(343)
Le xch'úupo'bo' tu huch'aho'b teen k'u'm.
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'b-o'
woman-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
huch'-ah-o'b
grind-CMPL-3PL
teen
me
k'u'm
nixtamal
‘The women ground me some nixtamal.’
GRIND the Verb form huch'
(344)
Táan in tusik in kachik in lapiseero káa hach ka'ch teen.
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
tus-ik
lie-INCMPL
in
SBJ.1SG
kach-ik
break-INCMPL
in
POSS.1SG
lapiseero
pen
káa
CONJ
hach
really
ka'ch
break\PASS(CMPL)
teen
me
‘I was feigning to break my pen, and then it really broke on me.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Indirect participation
(345)
Tíin na'ksik u kuuch le káamiona'.
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
na'k-s-ik
climb-CAUS-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
kuch
load
le
DEM
káamion-a'
truck-D1
‘I am loading the load onto this truck.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Indirect participation
(346)
Tíin but'ik u kuuch le káamiona'.
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
but'-ik
fill-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
kuch
load
le
DEM
káamion-a'
truck-D1
‘I am filling the load into the truck.’
FILL an Alternation:
Indirect participation
(347)
Wa'pach'e' ka bin ho'p' u ch'úuktik máax ookoltik.
wa'pach'-e'
giant-TOP
ka
CONJ
bin
QUOT
ho'p'
begin
u
SBJ.3
ch'úuk-t-ik
watch-TRR-INCMPL
máax
who
ookol-t-ik
steal-TRR-INCMPL
‘The giant started watching who was robbing him.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(348)
Ts'a' u boholil le wayu'mo' yo'lal mu' taal u ch'íich'il.
ts'a'
put/give
u
POSS.3
bohol-il
scarecrow-REL
le
DEM
wayu'm-o'
guaya-D2
yo'lal
in.order
ma'
NEG
u
SBJ.3
taal
come
u
POSS.3
ch'íich'-il
bird-REL
‘Put a scarecrow on the guaya tree so that the birds won't come.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Indirect participation
(349)
U búuk Pedro lelo'.
u
POSS.3
búuk
dress
Pedro
Peter
lel-o'
DEM-D2
‘That is Peter's dress.’
BE A DRESS a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V 1
(350)
Tíin hats'ik le che' yéetel u yéet che'ila'.
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1.SG
hats'-ik
hit-INCMPL
le
DEM
che'
wood
yéetel
with
u
POSS.3
yéet
companion
che'-il-a'
wood-REL-D1
‘I am hitting this branch with another branch of the same tree.’
HIT a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 (yéetel+3)
(351)
Kin k'aaba'tik le he'la'.
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1.SG
k'aaba'-t-ik
name-USAT-INCMPL
le
DEM
he'l-a'
PRSV-D1
‘I am called this.’
BE NAMED a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(352)
Pa'tik in lahk e he'la'.
pa'tik
will.be.useful
in
SBJ.1.SG
lah-ik
detach-INCMPL
le
DEM
he'l-a'
PRSV-D1
‘Let me detach this (thing).’
PEEL a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(353)
Tu'x a taal?
tu'x
where
a
SBJ.2
taal
come
‘Where do you come from?’
COME (2) a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V LOC2 1
(354)
Táan in ts'íilik le xchiinao'.
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1.SG
ts'íil-ik
peel-CMPL
le
DEM
xchiina-o'
orange-D2
‘I am peeling the orange.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1
(355)
Yah tin wóol u lo'bita'l le mehen paalalo'bo'.
yah
painful
t-in
LOC-POSS.1.SG
w-óol
0-mind
u
SBJ.3
loobit-a'l
harm-PASS.INCMPL
le
DEM
mehen
small
paal-al-o'b-o'
child-COLL-PL-D2
‘I feel sorry that the little children are maltreated.’
FEEL PAIN the Verb form yah
(356)
Tíin na'ksik le kuuch teh káamiona'.
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
na'k-s-ik
climb-CAUS-INCMPL
le
DEM
kuch
load
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
káamion-a'
truck-D1
‘I am loading the load onto this truck.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
sbj[1].V.obj[2] 2 1 LOC3
(357)
Tíin but'ik le kuuch teh káamiona'.
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
but'-ik
fill-INCMPL
le
DEM
kuch
load
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
káamion-a'
truck-D1
‘I am filling the load into the truck.’