Indirect participation C

Description

[W]V [ [ possX Y ]NP [ X ]NP ]NP [Z]NP
where Z is subject, Y is direct object,
and X is conceived as Y's possessor [thus participating in W only indirectly],
instead of
[W]
V [ Y ]NP [ti' X]PP [Z]NP
where X is conceived as partipating in W.
This alternation is not coded on the verb and instead in nominal morphology.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
TAKE ch'a' R
(31)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ch'a'-ah
take-CMPL
u
POSS.3
taak'in
money
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
láak'
equal
‘The man took the money from his friend.’

(328)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ch'a'-ah
take-CMPL
u
POSS.3
taak'in
money
u
POSS.3
láak'
equal
‘The man took the money from his friend.’
SAY a'l N
(24)
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-a'l-ah-o'b
0-say-CMPL-PL
teen
me
ma'-il
NEG-ABSTR
‘They said 'no' to me.’
(118)
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-a'l-ah-o'b
0-say-CMPL-PL
teen
me
k'áa-k'as
RED-bad
t'aan-o'b
word-PL
‘They sad bad words to me.’
(119)
leti'
that.one
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-a'l-ah-o'b
0-say-CMPL-PL
teen
me
‘That (is what) they said to me.’
(303)
u
SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
k'ahóol
know
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
le
DEM
beetik
makes
ma'
NEG
t-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
y-a'l-ik-o'b
0-say-INCMPL-PL
mixba'l
nothing
‘They know each other that is why they say nothing.’
SCREAM awat (1) N
(67)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
awat-nah-ih
shout-CMPL-ABS.3SG
‘The man screamed.’
(145)
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-il-ah
0-see-CMPL
le
DEM
kaan-o'
snake-D2
káa
CONJ
aawat-nah-ih
call\INTROV-CMPL-ABS.3SG
‘He saw the snake and cried.’
SHOUT AT awat (2) N
(22)
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'
woman-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-awat-ah
0-shout-CMPL
le
DEM
paal-al-o'b-o'
child-COLL-PL-D2
‘The woman shouted at the children.’
ROLL balak' N
(75)
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
balak'
roll
le
DEM
boolah-o'
ball-D2
‘The ball is rolling.’
ROLL (tr) balak'es N
(229)
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
balak'-es-ik
roll-CAUS-INCMPL
le
DEM
tuunich-o'
stone-D2
‘I roll that stone.’
BUILD beet N
(25)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'b-o'
man-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
beet-ah-o'b
do-CMPL-PL
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
xa'n-il
palm-REL
nah
house
‘The men built a house out of palm leaves.’
(99)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
beet-ah
do-CMPL
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
baaxal
toy
yéetel
with
k'at
clay
‘The boy made a toy from clay.’
GO bin N
(63)
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'
woman-D2
h
PRFV
bin
go
k'íiwik
market
‘The woman went to the market.’
CARRY bis N
(40)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'b-o'
man-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
bis-ah-o'b
carry-CMPL-PL
le
DEM
máaben-o'b
box-PL
ti'
LOC
k'íiwik-o'
market-D2
‘The men carried the boxes to the market.’
SINK (tr) bul N
(156)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
bul-ah
submerge-CMPL
le
DEM
tuunich-o'
stone-D2
‘I submerged the stone.’
FILL but' R
(51)
le
DEM
koolnáal-o'
farmer-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
but'-ah
fill-CMPL
ixi'm
corn
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
kaamion-o'
truck-D2
‘The farmer loaded corn onto the truck.’
(205)
but'
fill
le
DEM
nal
corncob
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
xuux-o'
long.basket-D2
‘Put the corn cobs into the basket (to fill it).’
(357)
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
but'-ik
fill-INCMPL
le
DEM
kuch
load
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
káamion-a'
truck-D1
‘I am filling the load into the truck.’
(358)
le
EM
koolnáal-o'
farmer-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
but'-ah
fill-CMPL
ixi'm
corn
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
kaamion-o'
truck-D2
‘The farmer loaded corn onto the truck.’

(346)
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
but'-ik
fill-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
kuch
load
le
DEM
káamion-a'
truck-D1
‘I am filling the load into the truck.’
PLAY báaxal N
(72)
le
DEM
paal-o'
child-D2
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
báaxal
play
‘The child is playing.’
PLAY báaxt N
(222)
ba'x
what
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
báax-t-ik
play-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
chaampal-o'
baby-D2
‘What does the child play?’
BE A DRESS búuk N
(349)
u
POSS.3
búuk
dress
Pedro
Peter
lel-o'
DEM-D2
‘That is Peter's dress.’
DRESS búukint N
(115)
le
DEM
ko'lel-o'
woman-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
búuk-int-ah
dress-USAT-CMPL
u
POSS.3
nook'
clothing
u
POSS.3
paal
child
‘That woman put on her child's clothing.’
FOLLOW ch'a' paach N
(151)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'b-o'
boy-PL-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
ch'a'-ik-o'b
take-INCMPL-PL
u
POSS.3
paach
back
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'b-o'
girl-PL-D2
‘The boys follow the girls.’
FEAR ch'a' sahakil
(124)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ch'a'-ah
take-CMPL
sahak-il
afraid-ABSTR
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
báalam-o'
jaguar-D2
‘The man got afraid of the jaguar.’
SMELL ch'a'bok N
(113)
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
ch'a-ch'a'-book
RED-take-smell
le
DEM
kéeh-o'
deer-D2
‘The deer is sniffing.’
SMELL ch'a'bokt N
(111)
le
DEM
kéeh-o'
deer-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ch'a'-book-t-ah
take-smell-TRR-CMPL
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
‘The deer smelled the boy.’
FOLLOW ch'a'paacht N
(16)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'b-o'
boy-PL-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
ch'a'-pach-t-ik-o'b
take-back-TRR-INCMPL-PL
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'b-o'
girl-PL-D2
‘The boys follow the girls.’
THROW ch'in N
(87)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
léen-ch'in-t-ah
very-pelt-TRR-CMPL
le
DEM
xch'úupal
girl
ti'
LOC
ha'-o'
water-D2
‘The boy pushed the girl into the water.’
COOK chak R
(93)
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'b-o'
woman-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
chak-ah-o'b
cook-CMPL-PL
u
POSS.3
bak'-el
flesh-REL
kaax
chicken
‘The women cooked the chicken meat.’
BLINK chak' N
(284)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
chak'-ah
blink-CMPL
teen
me
u
POSS.3
y-ich
0-eye
‘The girl blinked at me.’
LAUGH che'h N
(66)
le
DEM
chaan
little
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
che'h-nah-ih
laugh-CMPL-ABS.3SG
‘The little girl laughed.’
LAUGH ABOUT che'ht N
(291)
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
che'h-t-ik
laugh-TRR-INCMPL
ba'x
what
k-a
IMPF-SBJ.2
w-a'l-ik
0-say-INCMPL
‘I am laughing about what you say.’
PEEL cheppóolt N
(34)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
chep-póol-t-ah
rub-trim-TRR-CMPL
le
DEM
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The boy ripped the bark off the stick.’
WIPE cho' M
(83)
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'b-o'
woman-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
cho'-ah-o'b
clean-CMPL-PL
le
DEM
mayak-o'
table-D2
‘The women wiped the table.’
FILL chup M
(49)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
chup-ah
fill-CMPL
le
DEM
luuch
cup
yéetel
with
ha'-o'
water-D2
‘The girl filled the glass with water.’
APPEAR chíikpah N
(95)
h
PRFV
chíik-pah
appear-SPONT(CMPL)
le
DEM
k'iin-o'
sun/day-D2
‘The sun appeared.’
(311)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
chíik-pah-al
appear-SPONT-INCMPL
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
nah-o'
house-D2
‘The man appears at the house.’
MAKE APPEAR chíikbes N
(266)
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
chíik-bes-ik
appear-CAUS-INCMPL
ti'
LOC
a
POSS.2
táan
front
‘I let it appear before you.’
SHOW e's N
(37)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-e's-ah
0-show-CMPL
le
DEM
analte'
book
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
ah-kaanbesah-o'
AG.M-teacher-D2
‘The girl showed the book to her teacher.’
EAT haan N
(127)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
haan-al
eat-INCMPL
‘The boy is eating.’
(188)
le
DEM
ba'lche'-o'
animal-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
haan-t-ik
eat-TRR-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah
self
‘That animal eats itself.’
EAT haant N
(1)
le
DEM
xibpal-e'
boy-D3
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
haan-t-ah
eat-TRR-CMPL
le
DEM
abal-o'
plum-D2
‘The boy ate the plum.’
TEAR hat R
(32)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
hat-ah
tear-CMPL
hun-wáal
one-CL.flat
le
DEM
analte'-o'
book-D2
‘The girl tore a page from the book.’
HIT hats' N
(350)
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1.SG
hats'-ik
hit-INCMPL
le
DEM
che'
wood
yéetel
with
u
POSS.3
yéet
companion
che'-il-a'
wood-REL-D1
‘I am hitting this branch with another branch of the same tree.’
BE A HUNTER hts'oon N
(81)
le
DEM
wíinik-a'
man-D1
hun-túul
one-CL.AN
h-ts'oon
M-hunter
‘This man is a hunter.’
GRIND huch' M
(82)
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'b-o'
woman-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
huch'-ah-o'b
grind-CMPL-PL
le
DEM
ixi'm
corn
yéetel
with
ka'-o'
handmill-D2
‘The women ground the corn by handmill.’
DIG háal N
(86)
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'
woman-D2
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
háal-ik
dig.out-INCMPL
wi'
bulb
‘The woman is digging for roots.’
LEAVE hóok' N
(64)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
h
PRFV
hóok'
leave
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
kaah-al
village-REL
‘The boy left the village.’
CHASE hóok's R
(289)
hóok'-es
leave-CAUS
le
DEM
peek'
dog
ich
in
nah-o'
house-D2
‘Chase the dog out of the house.’
WASH ichkíil N
(134)
le
DEM
ko'lel-o'
woman-D2
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
y-ichkíil
0-wash
‘The woman is bathing.’
SEE il N
(4)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-il-ah
0-see-CMPL
le
DEM
báalam-o'
jaguar-D2
‘The man saw the jaguar.’
(145)
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-il-ah
0-see-CMPL
le
DEM
kaan-o'
snake-D2
káa
CONJ
aawat-nah-ih
call\INTROV-CMPL-ABS.3SG
‘He saw the snake and cried.’
(228)
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
w-il-ik
0-see-INCMPL
le
DEM
haanal-o'
food-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
wi'h-kuns-ik-en
hungry-FACT-INCMPL-ABS.1SG
‘It makes me hungry to see the food.’
WASH isíins N
(13)
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'
woman-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-isíin-t-ah
0-bathe-TRR-CMPL
le
DEM
chaampal-o'
baby-D2
‘The woman washed/bathed the baby.’
WASH ichíint N
(332)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
w-ichíin-t-ah
0-wash-TRR-CMPL
síis
cold
ha'
water
‘I washed with cold water.’
NAME k'aaba' N
(331)
Hwaan
John
u
POSS.3
k'aaba'
name
in
POSS.1SG
iihoh
son
‘My son's name is John.’
BE NAMED k'aaba'int N
(351)
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1.SG
k'aaba'-t-ik
name-USAT-INCMPL
le
DEM
he'l-a'
PRSV-D1
‘I am called this.’
KNOW k'ahóol N
(10)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
u
SBJ.3
k'ahóol
know
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The boy knows/knew the girl.’
KNOW k'ahóolt N
(125)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
k'ahóol-t-ik
know-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The boy knows the girl.’
(128)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
u
SBJ.3
k'ahóol-t-mah
know-TRR-PART.PERF
ka'ch
past
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The boy knew the girl.’
GET k'am N
(100)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
k'am-ah
receive-CMPL
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
kaartah
letter
ti'
LOC
in
POSS.1SG
maamah
mother
‘I received a letter from my mother.’
(314)
le
DEM
ko'lel-o'
woman-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
k'am-ik
receive-INCMPL
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
nikte'
flower
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The woman receives a flower from the girl.’
(327)
behe'la'
today
in
SBJ.1SG
k'am-ik
receive-INCMPL
u'lab-o'b-e'
guest-PL-D3
‘Today I receive guests.’
TIE k'ax N
(44)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
k'ax-ah
tie-CMPL
hun-túul
one-CL.AN
tsíimin
horse
yéetel
with
hun-híil
one-CL.string
suum
rope
teh
LOC:DEM
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The man tied the horse with a rope to the tree.’
SING k'ay M
(62)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
k'ay-ah
sing-CMPL
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
k'aay
song
‘The boy sang a song.’
FEEL PAIN k'i'nam N
(69)
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
k'i'nam
pain
in
POSS.1SG
k'ab
hand
‘My arm/hand is hurting.’
BE ILL k'oha'n N
(96)
k'oha'n
sick
in
POSS.1SG
taatah
father
‘My father is ill/sick.’
MAKE SICK k'oha'nkunt N
(267)
ba'x
what
k'oha'n-kuns-ech
sick-FACT-ABS.2SG
‘What made you sick?’
WANT k'áat (1) N
(101)
in
POSS.1SG
kiik-o'
elder.sister-D2
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
xa'n-il
palm-REL
nah
house
u
SBJ.3
k'áat
want
‘My sister wants a palm-roof house.’
ASK FOR k'áat (2)
(21)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
k'áat-ah
ask-CMPL
taak'in
money
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
taatah-o'b
father-PL
‘The boy asked his parents for money.’
RAIN k'áax N
(80)
h
PRFV
k'áax
rain
ha'
water
‘It rained.’
(238)
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
k'áax-al
rain-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
le'
leaf
nikte'-o'b
flower-PL
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
y-óok'ol
0-over
in
POSS.1SG
nah-il
house-REL
‘It rains leaves of flowers on my house.’
(239)
h
PRFV
k'áax
rain
toop
misfortune
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
y-óok'ol
0-over
‘It rained misfortune on him.’
TEACH ka'ns N
(91)
le
DEM
ko'lel-o'
woman-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ka'n-s-ah
learn\PASS-CAUS-CMPL
le
DEM
xch'úupal
girl
ti'
LOC
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
k'aay-o'
song-D2
‘The lady taught the girl a song.’
BREAK kach M
(102)
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
kach-ah
break-CMPL
u
POSS.3
xikin
ear
a
POSS.2
p'úul
jug
‘He broke the handle of your jug.’
LIVE kah N
(65)
le
DEM
nohoch
big
máak-o'b-o'
person-PL-D2
kah-akbal-o'b
live-POS-PL
/
/
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
kah-tal-o'b
live-FIENT.INCMPL-PL
/
/
kah-a'n-o'b
live-RSLTV-PL
ich
in
nohoch
big
kahtal
village
‘The old people live in town.’
MARRY kahkunt N
(212)
Peedroh-e'
Peter-TOP
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
kah-kuns-ah
live-FACT-CMPL
x-Luupe
F-Lupe
‘Pedro married Lupe.’
LEARN kan N
(330)
le
DEM
x-ch'úupal-o'
F-girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
kan-ah
learn-CMPL
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
k'aay
song
‘The girl learnt a song.’
STEAL ookol R
(335)
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
w-ookol-ik
0-steal-INCMPL
teech
you
le
DEM
ba'l-o'
thing-D2
‘I steal that thing from you.’

(90)
le
DEM
h-ookol-o'
M-thief-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-ookol-ah
0-steal-CMPL
u
POSS.3
taak'in
money
le
DEM
ko'lel-o'
woman-D2
‘The thief stole money from the lady.’
SEARCH FOR kax(an)t N
(12)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
kax-t-ik
search-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'b-o'
woman-PL-D2
‘The man is searching for the women.’
FEEL COLD ke'l N
(70)
ke'l-en
cold-ABS.1SG
‘I am cold.’
HIT koh N
(29)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
koh-ah
toss-CMPL
le
DEM
kaan
snake
yéetel
with
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The boy touched the snake with a stick.’
LOAD kuch N
(52)
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
kuch-ik
load-INCMPL
le
DEM
nal-a'
corncob-D1
‘I am loading (on myself) these corncobs.’
SIT kul N
(58)
le
DEM
paal-al-o'b-o'
child-COLL-PL-D2
kul-ukbal-o'b
sit-POS-PL
ti'
LOC
lu'm
earth
‘The children sat on the floor.’
SEAT kulkint N
(286)
kul-kins
sit-FACT
y-óok'ol
0-over
le
DEM
k'áan-che'-o'
hammock-wood-D2
‘Make him sit (down) on the stool.’
HUG méek' N
(2)
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
méek'-ah
hug-CMPL
u
POSS.3
chaan
little
xibpal
boy
le
DEM
maamah-o'
mother-D2
‘The mother hugged her little boy.’
HEAR u'y N
(5)
le
DEM
kéeh-o'
deer-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-u'b-ah
0-feel-CMPL
u
POSS.3
book
smell
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
‘The deer smelled the boy.’
(92)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-u'b-ah
0-feel-CMPL
le
DEM
báalam-o'
jaguar-D2
‘The boy heard the jaguar.’
FEAR sahak N
(6)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
sahak
afraid
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
báalam-o'
jaguar-D2
‘The man feared/fears the jaguar.’
FRIGHTEN sahbes N
(7)
le
DEM
báalam-o'
jaguar-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
sah-bes-ah
fear-CAUS-CMPL
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
‘The jaguar frightened the man.’
FRIGHTEN sahakkuns N
(8)
le
DEM
báalam-o'
jaguar-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
sahak-kuns-ah
afraid-FACT-CMPL
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
‘The jaguar frightened the man.’
LIKE uts ti' ich N
(9)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
uts
good
t-u
LOC-POSS.3
y-ich
0-eye
u
POSS.3
tumben
new
baaxal
toy
‘The boy likes his new toy.’
THINK tukult N
(11)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
tukul-t-ah
think-TRR-CMPL
u
POSS.3
chiich
grandmother
ho'lheak
yesterday
‘The girl thought about her grandmother yesterday.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) ts'ik R
(14)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ts'ik-ah
shave-CMPL
u
POSS.3
me'x
beard
‘The man shaved his beard.’
(136)
Hwaan-e'
John-TOP
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ts'ik-ah
shave-CMPL
Peedroh
Peter
‘John shaved Peter.’
HELP áant N
(15)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
w-áant-ah
0-help-CMPL
le
DEM
xibpal-o'b-o'
boy-PL-D2
‘I helped the boys.’
(203)
áant
help
a
POSS.2
báah
self
káa
CONJ
áant-a'k-ech
help-SUBJ.PASS-ABS.2SG
tumen
by
yúum
lord
k'uh
god
‘Help yourself, then god will help you.’
MEET naktáant N
(17)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'b-o'
man-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
naktáan-t-ah-o'b
meet-TRR-CMPL-PL
le
DEM
xibpal-o'b-o'
boy-PL-D2
‘The men met the boys.’
MEET nuptáant N
(18)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'b-o'
man-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
nuptáan-t-ah-o'b
meet-TRR-CMPL-PL
le
DEM
xibpal-o'b-o'
boy-PL-D2
‘The men met the boys.’
TELL tsikbat N
(23)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
tsikbal-t-ah
talk-TRR-CMPL
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
che'h-bil
laugh-GER
tsikbal
story
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
‘The girl told the boy a funny story.’
TALK t'aan N
(20)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
h
PRFV
t'aan-nah
speak-CMPL
yéetel
with
le
DEM
xibpal
boy
y-óok'ol
0-over
u
POSS.3
y-aalak'
0-CL.domestic
peek'-o'
dog-D2
‘The girl talked to the boy about her dog.’
BREAK pa' N
(26)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
pa'-ah
break-CMPL
kalomk'iin
window
yéetel
with
tuunich-o'
stone-D2
‘The boy broke the window with a stone.’
KILL kíins N
(27)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
kíim-s-ah
die-CAUS-CMPL
u
POSS.3
k'uxóolal
enemy
yéetel
with
báat
axe
‘The man killed his enemy with an axe.’
CUT xot N
(30)
le
DEM
ko'lel-o'
woman-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
xot-ah
cut-CMPL
le
DEM
waah
tortilla
yéetel
with
xotéeb
knife
hach
really
yaan
EXIST
u
POSS.3
y-eh-o'
0-edge-D2
‘The woman cut the tortilla with a sharp knife.’
PEEL sóolt N
(33)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
sóol-t-ah
peel-TRR-CMPL
le
DEM
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The boy peeled the bark off the stick.’
HIDE ta'k N
(36)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ta'k-ah
hide-CMPL
le
DEM
muuch'
frog
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
maamah-o'
mother-D2
‘The boy hid the frog from his mother.’
GIVE ts'a' R
(38)
t
PRFV.SBJ.1PL
ts'a'-ah
put/give-CMPL
le
DEM
analte'-o'b
book-PL
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
paal-al-o'b-o'
child-COLL-PL-D2
‘We gave the books to the children.’
(45)
le
DEM
luuch-o'
cup-D2
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
ts'a'-ah
put/give-CMPL
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
ka'nche'-o'
table-D2
‘I put the cup onto the table.’

(348)
ts'a'
put/give
u
POSS.3
bohol-il
scarecrow-REL
le
DEM
wayu'm-o'
guaya-D2
yo'lal
in.order
ma'
NEG
u
SBJ.3
taal
come
u
POSS.3
ch'íich'-il
bird-REL
‘Put a scarecrow on the guaya tree so that the birds won't come.’
SEND túuxt M
(39)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
túuxt-ah
send-CMPL
lool-o'b
flower-PL
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
chiich
grandmother
‘The girl sent flowers to her grandmother.’
THROW pul N
(41)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
pul-ah
throw-CMPL
le
DEM
boolah
ball
teh
LOC:DEM
béentaanah-o'
window-D2
‘The boy threw the ball into the window.’
(42)
t-a
PRFV-SBJ.2
pul-ah
throw-CMPL
teen
me
le
DEM
boolah-o'
ball-D2
‘You threw me the ball.’
(43)
káa
CONJ
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
pul-ah-o'b
throw-CMPL-PL
ichil
inside
áaktun
cistern
‘And they threw him into a well.’
POUR t'oh N
(47)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
t'oh-ah
pour-CMPL
le
DEM
ha'
water
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
luuch-o'
cup-D2
‘The man poured the water into the cup.’
POUR láal N
(46)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
láal-ah
pour-CMPL
ha'
water
ti'/ichil
LOC/inside
le
DEM
luuch-o'
cup-D2
‘The man poured water into the cup.’
COVER pix N
(48)
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'
woman-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
pix-ah
cover-CMPL
le
DEM
xibpal
boy
yéetel
with
teep'el-o'
blanket-D2
‘The woman covered the boy with a blanket.’
COUGH sa'sa'kaal N
(54)
le
DEM
nohoch
big
máak-o'
person-D2
h
PRFV
sa'sa'kaal-nah-ih
cough-CMPL-ABS.3SG
‘The old man coughed.’
COUGH se'n N
(55)
le
DEM
nohoch
big
máak-o'
person-D2
h
PRFV
se'n-nah-ih
cough-CMPL-ABS.3SG
‘The old man coughed.’
CLIMB na'k N
(56)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'b-o'
man-PL-D2
h
PRFV
na'k-o'b
climb-PL
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The men climbed (up) the tree.’
RUN áalkab N
(57)
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
y-áalkab
0-run
le
DEM
tsíimin-o'
horse-D2
‘The horse is running.’
(120)
le
DEM
tsíimin-o'
horse-D2
áalkab-nah
run-CMPL
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
beh-o'
path-D2
‘The horse ran along the path.’
JUMP síit' N
(60)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
h
PRFV
síit'-nah-ih
jump-CMPL-ABS.3SG
‘The girl jumped.’
FEEL PAIN yah N
(68)
yah
hurt
in
POSS.1SG
k'ab
hand
‘My arm/hand hurts.’
DIE kíim N
(71)
h
PRFV
kíim
die(CMPL)
le
DEM
kaan-o'
snake-D2
‘The snake died.’
(149)
h
PRFV
kíim
die
u
POSS.3
k'uxóolal
enemy
le
DEM
máak
person
yéetel
with
báat-o'
axe-D2
‘The man's enemy died from an axe.’
BE SAD ok'om N
(73)
ok'om
sad
u
POSS.3
y-óol
0-mind
le
DEM
chaan
little
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The little girl is said.’
BE HUNGRY wi'h N
(74)
wi'h
hungry
le
DEM
chaampal-o'
baby-D2
‘The baby is hungry.’
BURN éel N
(77)
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
y-éel-el
0-burn-INCMPL
le
DEM
nah-o'
house-D2
‘The house is burning.’
(235)
bix
how
éel-ik-ech
burn-INCMPL-ABS.2SG
‘How did you get burnt?’
BURN (tr) tóok N
(78)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
tóok-ah
burn-CMPL
le
DEM
nah-o'
house-D2
‘I burnt the house.’
BE DRY tikin N
(79)
tikin
dry
le
DEM
lu'm-o'
earth-D2
‘The ground is dry.’
WIPE púust R
(84)
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'b-o'
woman-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
púus-t-ah-o'b
remove.dust-TRR-CMPL-PL
le
DEM
meesah-o'
table-D2
‘The women wiped (dirt off) the table.’
PUSH léench'int N
(87)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
léen-ch'in-t-ah
very-pelt-TRR-CMPL
le
DEM
xch'úupal
girl
ti'
LOC
ha'-o'
water-D2
‘The boy pushed the girl into the water.’
PUSH tul N
(88)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
tul-ah
push-CMPL
le
DEM
xch'úupal
girl
káa
CONJ
lúub-uk
fall-SUBJ
ich
in
ha'-o'
water-D2
‘The boy pushed the girl into the water.’
BRING taas R
(89)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
taas-ah
bring-CMPL
teen
me
lool
flower
‘The girl brought flowers to me.’
BOIL look N
(94)
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
look
boil
le
DEM
ha'-o'
water-D2
‘The water is boiling.’
CRY ook'ol N
(97)
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
y-óok'ol
0-cry
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The girl is crying/weeping.’
(312)
le
DEM
paal-o'
child-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
y-ook'ol
0-weep
ka'ch
before
t-u
LOC-POSS.3
y-o'lal
0-reason
u
POSS.3
haatal
torn
báaxal
toy
‘The child cried over its torn toy.’
FALL lúub N
(98)
h
PRFV
lúub
fall
le
DEM
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The tree fell.’
(252)
h
PRFV
tu'l
push\PASS
káa
CONJ
lúub-ih
fall-ABS.3SG
‘He was pushed and fell.’
(272)
bix
how
lúub-ik
fall-CMPL.EXTRAFOC
‘How did it fall?’
(313)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
lúub-ul
fall-INCMPL
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
che'-o'
wood-D2
ichil
inside
le
DEM
ts'ono't-o'
cenote-D2
‘The man falls out of the tree into the cenote.’
PEEL ts'íil N
(354)
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1.SG
ts'íil-ik
peel-CMPL
le
DEM
xchiina-o'
orange-D2
‘I am peeling the orange.’
WIPE púus N
(244)
h
PRFV
bin-en
go(CMPL)-ABS.1SG
púus
remove.dust
‘I went cleaning.’
DIG páan N
(248)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
h
PRFV
bin
go
u
SBJ.3
páan
lay.bare
u
POSS.3
wi'
bulb
makal
yams
‘The girl went to dig out yams bulbs.’
TOUCH mach N
(334)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
mach-ah
seize-CMPL
y-éetel
0-with
in
POSS.1SG
xts'íik
left
k'ab
hand
‘I seized her with my left hand.’
FOLLOW tsaypacht N
(319)
le
DEM
peek'-o'
dog-D2
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
tsaypach-t-ik
follow-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
xibpal
boy
máan
pass
k'iin-o'
sun/day-D2
‘The dog follows the boy all day.’
BEAT p'uch N
(28)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
p'u'-p'uch-ah
RED-beat-CMPL
le
DEM
kaan
snake
yéetel
with
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The boy beat the snake with a stick.’
(322)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
p'uch-ik
beat-INCMPL
le
DEM
kaan
snake
yéetel
with
u
POSS.3
baston-o'
stick-D2
‘The boy is beating the snake with his stick.’
LOOK AT pakat N
(3)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
pakat-ah
look-CMPL
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The boy looked at the girl.’
(336)
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
pakat-ik-ech
look-INCMPL-ABS.2SG
‘I loook at you.’
THINK tuukul N
(130)
ya'b
much
u
SBJ.3
tuukul
think\INTROV
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The girl thinks much.’
(340)
ma'loob
good
a
SBJ.2
tuukul-e'x
think\INTROV-2PL
‘You think well.’
CALL t'an N
(338)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
t'an-ah
call-CMPL
in
POSS.1SG
w-íits'in
0-younger.sibling
ti'
LOC
haanal
food
‘I called my younger sibling to eat.’
BE SAD ABOUT ok'om-óolt N
(225)
ma'
NEG
ok'om
sad
óol-t-ik
mind-TRR-INCMPL
‘Don't be sad about it.’
CRY ABOUT ook'olt N
(270)
ba'x
what
k-a
IMPF-SBJ.2
w-ook'-t-ik
0-cry-TRR-INCMPL
‘What are you crying about?’
PEEL lak R
(35)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
lak-ah
detach-CMPL
u
POSS.3
sóol
shell
le
DEM
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The boy removed the bark from the stick.’
(352)
pa'tik
will.be.useful
in
SBJ.1.SG
lah-ik
detach-INCMPL
le
DEM
he'l-a'
PRSV-D1
‘Let me detach this (thing).’
TALK tsikbal N
(19)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
tsikbal-nah
talk-CMPL
yéetel
with
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
y-o'lal
0-reason
u
POSS.3
y-aalak'
0-CL.domestic
peek'
dog
‘The girl talked to the boy about her dog.’
BOIL (tr) lookans N
(264)
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
look-ans-ik
boil-CAUS-INCMPL
le
DEM
ki'wah-o'
main.dish-D2
‘I am boiling the food.’
FELL lúubs N
(273)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
lúub-s-ah
fall-CAUS-CMPL
le
DEM
nuxib
old
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘I felled that old/big tree.’
LOAD na'ks R
(285)
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
na'k-s-ik
climb-CAUS-INCMPL
le
DEM
kuuch
load
y-óok'ol
0-over
le
DEM
tsíimin-o'
horse-D2
‘I load the burden on the horse.’
(356)
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
na'k-s-ik
climb-CAUS-INCMPL
le
DEM
kuch
load
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
káamion-a'
truck-D1
‘I am loading the load onto this truck.’

(345)
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
na'k-s-ik
climb-CAUS-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
kuch
load
le
DEM
káamion-a'
truck-D1
‘I am loading the load onto this truck.’
STEAL ookolt R
(347)
wa'pach'-e'
giant-TOP
ka
CONJ
bin
QUOT
ho'p'
begin
u
SBJ.3
ch'úuk-t-ik
watch-TRR-INCMPL
máax
who
ookol-t-ik
steal-TRR-INCMPL
‘The giant started watching who was robbing him.’
COUGH AT se'nt N
(209)
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
se'n-t-ah
cough-TRR-CMPL
in
POSS.1SG
w-ich
0-eye
‘He coughed at my face.’
JUMP OVER síit't N
(287)
le
DEM
máak-o'
person-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
síit'-t-ik
jump-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
koot-o'
wall-D2
‘That man jumps over the wall.’
COME (2) taal N
(339)
le
DEM
boolah-a'
ball-D1
h
PRFV
taal
come(CMPL)
t-in
LOC-POSS.1SG
k'ab
hand
‘This ball came into my hand.’
(353)
tu'x
where
a
SBJ.2
taal
come
‘Where do you come from?’
DRY tikinkunt N
(306)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
tikin-kunt-ah
dry-FACT-CMPL
le
DEM
sikil-a'
pumpkin.seed-D1
‘I dried the pumpkin seed.’
(308)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
tikin-kuns-ah
dry-FACT-CMPL
le
DEM
ixi'm-a'
corn-D1
‘I dried the corn.’
MAKE RUN áalkabans N
(122)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
w-áalkab-ans-ah
0-run-CAUS-CMPL
le
DEM
tsíimin-o'
horse-D2
‘I had the horse run.’
RUN áalkabt N
(121)
le
DEM
tsíimin-o'
horse-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
y-áalkab-t-ik
0-run-TRR-INCMPL
kan-lúub
four-league
‘That horse runs four miles.’
MAKE HUNGRY wi'hkunt N
(217)
le
DEM
meyah-o'
work-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
wi'h-kuns-ik-en
hungry-FACT-INCMPL-ABS.1SG
‘The work makes me hungry.’
(227)
le
DEM
ki'wah-o'
main.dish-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
wi'h-kunt-ik-en
hungry-FACT-INCMPL-ABS.1SG
‘The food makes me hungry.’
(228)
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
w-il-ik
0-see-INCMPL
le
DEM
haanal-o'
food-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
wi'h-kuns-ik-en
hungry-FACT-INCMPL-ABS.1SG
‘It makes me hungry to see the food.’
HURT yahkunt N
(214)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
yah-kunt-ah
hurt-FACT-CMPL
in
POSS.1SG
k'ab
hand
ikil
owing.to
in
SBJ.1SG
pets'-ik
grab-INCMPL
le
DEM
boolah-o'
ball-D2
‘I injured my hand because I grabbed that ball.’
BLINK chak'ich N
(53)
chak'-ich-nah-en
blink-eye-CMPL-ABS.1SG
‘I blinked.’
(325)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
túun
then
chak'-ich
blink-eye
‘The girl is blinking.’
ROLL (tr) balak't N
(218)
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
balak'-t-ik
roll-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
boolah-o'
ball-D2
‘I roll the ball.’
(230)
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
balak'-t-ik
roll-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
nuxib
old
che'-a'
wood-D1
‘I am rolling this big tree.’
BLINK chak'icht
(207)
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
chak'-ich-t-ik
blink-eye-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘I blink at the girl.’