Reflexive C

Description

Reflexive construction of a transitive verb:
[ [ W ]
V.tr [ possA báah ]NP ] [ A ]NP
"A does W to himself"
Báah 'self' takes possessive clitics cross-referencing the subject (as in English).
The phrase
poss báah ('A's self') takes the stead of W's direct object, A is the subject and poss codes person and number of A.
Since
báah is the direct object, this is a subtype of the basic transitive construction.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
SHAVE (a body part/person) ts'ik R
(14)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ts'ik-ah
shave-CMPL
u
POSS.3
me'x
beard
‘The man shaved his beard.’
(136)
Hwaan-e'
John-TOP
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ts'ik-ah
shave-CMPL
Peedroh
Peter
‘John shaved Peter.’

(135)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ts'ik-ah
shave-CMPL
u
POSS.3
báah
self
‘The man shaved (himself).’
ASK FOR k'áat (2) R
(21)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
k'áat-ah
ask-CMPL
taak'in
money
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
taatah-o'b
father-PL
‘The boy asked his parents for money.’

(164)
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
k'áat-chi'-t-ik
ask-mouth-TRR-INCMPL
in
POSS.1SG
báah
self
wáah
if
hach
really
haahil
true
in
POSS.1SG
yaabil-mah
love-PART.PERF
‘I ask myself if I really love her.’
BUILD beet M
(25)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'b-o'
man-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
beet-ah-o'b
do-CMPL-PL
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
xa'n-il
palm-REL
nah
house
‘The men built a house out of palm leaves.’
(99)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
beet-ah
do-CMPL
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
baaxal
toy
yéetel
with
k'at
clay
‘The boy made a toy from clay.’
BREAK pa' N
(26)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
pa'-ah
break-CMPL
kalomk'iin
window
yéetel
with
tuunich-o'
stone-D2
‘The boy broke the window with a stone.’
HIT hats' R
(350)
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1.SG
hats'-ik
hit-INCMPL
le
DEM
che'
wood
yéetel
with
u
POSS.3
yéet
companion
che'-il-a'
wood-REL-D1
‘I am hitting this branch with another branch of the same tree.’
HIT koh
(29)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
koh-ah
toss-CMPL
le
DEM
kaan
snake
yéetel
with
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The boy touched the snake with a stick.’
TAKE ch'a' N
(31)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ch'a'-ah
take-CMPL
u
POSS.3
taak'in
money
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
láak'
equal
‘The man took the money from his friend.’
TEAR hat M
(32)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
hat-ah
tear-CMPL
hun-wáal
one-CL.flat
le
DEM
analte'-o'
book-D2
‘The girl tore a page from the book.’
THINK tukult R
(11)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
tukul-t-ah
think-TRR-CMPL
u
POSS.3
chiich
grandmother
ho'lheak
yesterday
‘The girl thought about her grandmother yesterday.’

(199)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
chéen
only
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
tukul-t-ik
think-TRR-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah
self
‘The girl thinks only of herself.’
SHOUT AT awat (2) N
(22)
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'
woman-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-awat-ah
0-shout-CMPL
le
DEM
paal-al-o'b-o'
child-COLL-PL-D2
‘The woman shouted at the children.’
SAY a'l R
(24)
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-a'l-ah-o'b
0-say-CMPL-PL
teen
me
ma'-il
NEG-ABSTR
‘They said 'no' to me.’
(118)
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-a'l-ah-o'b
0-say-CMPL-PL
teen
me
k'áa-k'as
RED-bad
t'aan-o'b
word-PL
‘They sad bad words to me.’
(119)
leti'
that.one
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-a'l-ah-o'b
0-say-CMPL-PL
teen
me
‘That (is what) they said to me.’
(303)
u
SBJ.3
paaklan
each.other
k'ahóol
know
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
le
DEM
beetik
makes
ma'
NEG
t-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
y-a'l-ik-o'b
0-say-INCMPL-PL
mixba'l
nothing
‘They know each other that is why they say nothing.’
BE NAMED k'aaba'int N
(351)
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1.SG
k'aaba'-t-ik
name-USAT-INCMPL
le
DEM
he'l-a'
PRSV-D1
‘I am called this.’
KILL kíins R
(27)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
kíim-s-ah
die-CAUS-CMPL
u
POSS.3
k'uxóolal
enemy
yéetel
with
báat
axe
‘The man killed his enemy with an axe.’

(168)
u
POSS.3
nohoch-il-o'b-e'
big-ABSTR-PL-TOP
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
kíins-ah
kill-CMPL
u
POSS.3
báah
self
‘Their chef killed himself.’
CUT xot R
(30)
le
DEM
ko'lel-o'
woman-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
xot-ah
cut-CMPL
le
DEM
waah
tortilla
yéetel
with
xotéeb
knife
hach
really
yaan
EXIST
u
POSS.3
y-eh-o'
0-edge-D2
‘The woman cut the tortilla with a sharp knife.’
PEEL sóolt N
(33)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
sóol-t-ah
peel-TRR-CMPL
le
DEM
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The boy peeled the bark off the stick.’
HIDE ta'k R
(36)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ta'k-ah
hide-CMPL
le
DEM
muuch'
frog
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
maamah-o'
mother-D2
‘The boy hid the frog from his mother.’
SHOW e's R
(37)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-e's-ah
0-show-CMPL
le
DEM
analte'
book
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
ah-kaanbesah-o'
AG.M-teacher-D2
‘The girl showed the book to her teacher.’

(172)
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
y-e's-ik
0-show-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
‘They show/exhibit themselves.’
GIVE ts'a' M
(38)
t
PRFV.SBJ.1PL
ts'a'-ah
put/give-CMPL
le
DEM
analte'-o'b
book-PL
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
paal-al-o'b-o'
child-COLL-PL-D2
‘We gave the books to the children.’
(45)
le
DEM
luuch-o'
cup-D2
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
ts'a'-ah
put/give-CMPL
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
ka'nche'-o'
table-D2
‘I put the cup onto the table.’
SEND túuxt R
(39)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
túuxt-ah
send-CMPL
lool-o'b
flower-PL
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
chiich
grandmother
‘The girl sent flowers to her grandmother.’

(177)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
túuxt-ah
send-CMPL
lool-o'b
flower-PL
ti'
LOC
in
POSS.1SG
báah
self
‘I sent flowers to myself .’
CARRY bis N
(40)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'b-o'
man-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
bis-ah-o'b
carry-CMPL-PL
le
DEM
máaben-o'b
box-PL
ti'
LOC
k'íiwik-o'
market-D2
‘The men carried the boxes to the market.’
THROW pul R
(41)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
pul-ah
throw-CMPL
le
DEM
boolah
ball
teh
LOC:DEM
béentaanah-o'
window-D2
‘The boy threw the ball into the window.’
(42)
t-a
PRFV-SBJ.2
pul-ah
throw-CMPL
teen
me
le
DEM
boolah-o'
ball-D2
‘You threw me the ball.’
(43)
káa
CONJ
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
pul-ah-o'b
throw-CMPL-PL
ichil
inside
áaktun
cistern
‘And they threw him into a well.’

(179)
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
pul-ik
throw-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah
self
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
huunal
alone
le
DEM
tuk'uch-o'
bug-D2
‘The bug bounces up by itself.’
TIE k'ax R
(44)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
k'ax-ah
tie-CMPL
hun-túul
one-CL.AN
tsíimin
horse
yéetel
with
hun-híil
one-CL.string
suum
rope
teh
LOC:DEM
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The man tied the horse with a rope to the tree.’
POUR t'oh N
(47)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
t'oh-ah
pour-CMPL
le
DEM
ha'
water
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
luuch-o'
cup-D2
‘The man poured the water into the cup.’
POUR láal M
(46)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
láal-ah
pour-CMPL
ha'
water
ti'/ichil
LOC/inside
le
DEM
luuch-o'
cup-D2
‘The man poured water into the cup.’
COVER pix R
(48)
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'
woman-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
pix-ah
cover-CMPL
le
DEM
xibpal
boy
yéetel
with
teep'el-o'
blanket-D2
‘The woman covered the boy with a blanket.’
FILL chup N
(49)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
chup-ah
fill-CMPL
le
DEM
luuch
cup
yéetel
with
ha'-o'
water-D2
‘The girl filled the glass with water.’
FILL but' N
(51)
le
DEM
koolnáal-o'
farmer-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
but'-ah
fill-CMPL
ixi'm
corn
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
kaamion-o'
truck-D2
‘The farmer loaded corn onto the truck.’
(205)
but'
fill
le
DEM
nal
corncob
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
xuux-o'
long.basket-D2
‘Put the corn cobs into the basket (to fill it).’
(357)
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
but'-ik
fill-INCMPL
le
DEM
kuch
load
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
káamion-a'
truck-D1
‘I am filling the load into the truck.’
(358)
le
EM
koolnáal-o'
farmer-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
but'-ah
fill-CMPL
ixi'm
corn
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
kaamion-o'
truck-D2
‘The farmer loaded corn onto the truck.’
LOAD kuch N
(52)
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
kuch-ik
load-INCMPL
le
DEM
nal-a'
corncob-D1
‘I am loading (on myself) these corncobs.’
BLINK chak' N
(284)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
chak'-ah
blink-CMPL
teen
me
u
POSS.3
y-ich
0-eye
‘The girl blinked at me.’
COUGH sa'sa'kaal N
(54)
le
DEM
nohoch
big
máak-o'
person-D2
h
PRFV
sa'sa'kaal-nah-ih
cough-CMPL-ABS.3SG
‘The old man coughed.’
COUGH se'n N
(55)
le
DEM
nohoch
big
máak-o'
person-D2
h
PRFV
se'n-nah-ih
cough-CMPL-ABS.3SG
‘The old man coughed.’
CLIMB na'k N
(56)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'b-o'
man-PL-D2
h
PRFV
na'k-o'b
climb-PL
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The men climbed (up) the tree.’
RUN áalkab N
(57)
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
y-áalkab
0-run
le
DEM
tsíimin-o'
horse-D2
‘The horse is running.’
(120)
le
DEM
tsíimin-o'
horse-D2
áalkab-nah
run-CMPL
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
beh-o'
path-D2
‘The horse ran along the path.’
SIT kul N
(58)
le
DEM
paal-al-o'b-o'
child-COLL-PL-D2
kul-ukbal-o'b
sit-POS-PL
ti'
LOC
lu'm
earth
‘The children sat on the floor.’
JUMP síit' N
(60)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
h
PRFV
síit'-nah-ih
jump-CMPL-ABS.3SG
‘The girl jumped.’
SING k'ay N
(62)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
k'ay-ah
sing-CMPL
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
k'aay
song
‘The boy sang a song.’
GO bin N
(63)
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'
woman-D2
h
PRFV
bin
go
k'íiwik
market
‘The woman went to the market.’
LEAVE hóok' N
(64)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
h
PRFV
hóok'
leave
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
kaah-al
village-REL
‘The boy left the village.’
LIVE kah N
(65)
le
DEM
nohoch
big
máak-o'b-o'
person-PL-D2
kah-akbal-o'b
live-POS-PL
/
/
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
kah-tal-o'b
live-FIENT.INCMPL-PL
/
/
kah-a'n-o'b
live-RSLTV-PL
ich
in
nohoch
big
kahtal
village
‘The old people live in town.’
LAUGH che'h N
(66)
le
DEM
chaan
little
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
che'h-nah-ih
laugh-CMPL-ABS.3SG
‘The little girl laughed.’
FEEL PAIN yah N
(68)
yah
hurt
in
POSS.1SG
k'ab
hand
‘My arm/hand hurts.’
FEEL PAIN k'i'nam N
(69)
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
k'i'nam
pain
in
POSS.1SG
k'ab
hand
‘My arm/hand is hurting.’
FEEL COLD ke'l N
(70)
ke'l-en
cold-ABS.1SG
‘I am cold.’
DIE kíim N
(71)
h
PRFV
kíim
die(CMPL)
le
DEM
kaan-o'
snake-D2
‘The snake died.’
(149)
h
PRFV
kíim
die
u
POSS.3
k'uxóolal
enemy
le
DEM
máak
person
yéetel
with
báat-o'
axe-D2
‘The man's enemy died from an axe.’
PLAY báaxal N
(72)
le
DEM
paal-o'
child-D2
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
báaxal
play
‘The child is playing.’
BE SAD ok'om N
(73)
ok'om
sad
u
POSS.3
y-óol
0-mind
le
DEM
chaan
little
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The little girl is said.’
BE HUNGRY wi'h N
(74)
wi'h
hungry
le
DEM
chaampal-o'
baby-D2
‘The baby is hungry.’
ROLL balak' N
(75)
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
balak'
roll
le
DEM
boolah-o'
ball-D2
‘The ball is rolling.’
SINK (tr) bul R
(156)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
bul-ah
submerge-CMPL
le
DEM
tuunich-o'
stone-D2
‘I submerged the stone.’

(233)
le
DEM
kutsha'-o'
duck-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
bul-ah
submerge-CMPL
u
POSS.3
báah
self
ka'h
when.NONFUT
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-il-ah-en
0-see-CMPL-ABS.1SG
‘The duck dived when it saw me.’
BURN éel N
(77)
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
y-éel-el
0-burn-INCMPL
le
DEM
nah-o'
house-D2
‘The house is burning.’
(235)
bix
how
éel-ik-ech
burn-INCMPL-ABS.2SG
‘How did you get burnt?’
BURN (tr) tóok R
(78)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
tóok-ah
burn-CMPL
le
DEM
nah-o'
house-D2
‘I burnt the house.’

(237)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
tóok-ah
burn-CMPL
in
POSS.1SG
báah
self
ka'h
when.NONFUT
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
mach-ah
seize-CMPL
le
DEM
xamach-o'
cooktop-D2
‘I burnt myself when I touched the cooktop.’
BE DRY tikin R
(79)
tikin
dry
le
DEM
lu'm-o'
earth-D2
‘The ground is dry.’
RAIN k'áax N
(80)
h
PRFV
k'áax
rain
ha'
water
‘It rained.’
(238)
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
k'áax-al
rain-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
le'
leaf
nikte'-o'b
flower-PL
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
y-óok'ol
0-over
in
POSS.1SG
nah-il
house-REL
‘It rains leaves of flowers on my house.’
(239)
h
PRFV
k'áax
rain
toop
misfortune
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
y-óok'ol
0-over
‘It rained misfortune on him.’
BE A HUNTER hts'oon N
(81)
le
DEM
wíinik-a'
man-D1
hun-túul
one-CL.AN
h-ts'oon
M-hunter
‘This man is a hunter.’
GRIND huch' N
(82)
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'b-o'
woman-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
huch'-ah-o'b
grind-CMPL-PL
le
DEM
ixi'm
corn
yéetel
with
ka'-o'
handmill-D2
‘The women ground the corn by handmill.’
WIPE cho' M
(83)
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'b-o'
woman-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
cho'-ah-o'b
clean-CMPL-PL
le
DEM
mayak-o'
table-D2
‘The women wiped the table.’
WIPE púust M
(84)
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'b-o'
woman-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
púus-t-ah-o'b
remove.dust-TRR-CMPL-PL
le
DEM
meesah-o'
table-D2
‘The women wiped (dirt off) the table.’
DIG háal N
(86)
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'
woman-D2
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
háal-ik
dig.out-INCMPL
wi'
bulb
‘The woman is digging for roots.’
PUSH léench'int N
(87)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
léen-ch'in-t-ah
very-pelt-TRR-CMPL
le
DEM
xch'úupal
girl
ti'
LOC
ha'-o'
water-D2
‘The boy pushed the girl into the water.’
PUSH tul N
(88)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
tul-ah
push-CMPL
le
DEM
xch'úupal
girl
káa
CONJ
lúub-uk
fall-SUBJ
ich
in
ha'-o'
water-D2
‘The boy pushed the girl into the water.’
BRING taas N
(89)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
taas-ah
bring-CMPL
teen
me
lool
flower
‘The girl brought flowers to me.’
STEAL ookol N
(335)
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
w-ookol-ik
0-steal-INCMPL
teech
you
le
DEM
ba'l-o'
thing-D2
‘I steal that thing from you.’
TEACH ka'ns N
(91)
le
DEM
ko'lel-o'
woman-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ka'n-s-ah
learn\PASS-CAUS-CMPL
le
DEM
xch'úupal
girl
ti'
LOC
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
k'aay-o'
song-D2
‘The lady taught the girl a song.’
COOK chak N
(93)
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'b-o'
woman-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
chak-ah-o'b
cook-CMPL-PL
u
POSS.3
bak'-el
flesh-REL
kaax
chicken
‘The women cooked the chicken meat.’
BOIL look N
(94)
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
look
boil
le
DEM
ha'-o'
water-D2
‘The water is boiling.’
APPEAR chíikpah N
(95)
h
PRFV
chíik-pah
appear-SPONT(CMPL)
le
DEM
k'iin-o'
sun/day-D2
‘The sun appeared.’
(311)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
chíik-pah-al
appear-SPONT-INCMPL
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
nah-o'
house-D2
‘The man appears at the house.’
BE ILL k'oha'n M
(96)
k'oha'n
sick
in
POSS.1SG
taatah
father
‘My father is ill/sick.’
CRY ook'ol N
(97)
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
y-óok'ol
0-cry
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The girl is crying/weeping.’
(312)
le
DEM
paal-o'
child-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
y-ook'ol
0-weep
ka'ch
before
t-u
LOC-POSS.3
y-o'lal
0-reason
u
POSS.3
haatal
torn
báaxal
toy
‘The child cried over its torn toy.’
FALL lúub N
(98)
h
PRFV
lúub
fall
le
DEM
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The tree fell.’
(252)
h
PRFV
tu'l
push\PASS
káa
CONJ
lúub-ih
fall-ABS.3SG
‘He was pushed and fell.’
(272)
bix
how
lúub-ik
fall-CMPL.EXTRAFOC
‘How did it fall?’
(313)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
lúub-ul
fall-INCMPL
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
che'-o'
wood-D2
ichil
inside
le
DEM
ts'ono't-o'
cenote-D2
‘The man falls out of the tree into the cenote.’
GET k'am N
(100)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
k'am-ah
receive-CMPL
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
kaartah
letter
ti'
LOC
in
POSS.1SG
maamah
mother
‘I received a letter from my mother.’
(314)
le
DEM
ko'lel-o'
woman-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
k'am-ik
receive-INCMPL
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
nikte'
flower
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The woman receives a flower from the girl.’
(327)
behe'la'
today
in
SBJ.1SG
k'am-ik
receive-INCMPL
u'lab-o'b-e'
guest-PL-D3
‘Today I receive guests.’
WANT k'áat (1) N
(101)
in
POSS.1SG
kiik-o'
elder.sister-D2
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
xa'n-il
palm-REL
nah
house
u
SBJ.3
k'áat
want
‘My sister wants a palm-roof house.’
BREAK kach N
(102)
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
kach-ah
break-CMPL
u
POSS.3
xikin
ear
a
POSS.2
p'úul
jug
‘He broke the handle of your jug.’
SMELL ch'a'bok N
(113)
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
ch'a-ch'a'-book
RED-take-smell
le
DEM
kéeh-o'
deer-D2
‘The deer is sniffing.’
FEAR ch'a' sahakil R
(124)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ch'a'-ah
take-CMPL
sahak-il
afraid-ABSTR
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
báalam-o'
jaguar-D2
‘The man got afraid of the jaguar.’

(195)
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
ch'a'-ik
take-INCMPL
sahak-il
afraid-ABSTR
ti'
LOC
u
POSS.3
báah
self
‘He is afraid of himself.’
KNOW k'ahóolt R
(125)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
k'ahóol-t-ik
know-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The boy knows the girl.’
(128)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
u
SBJ.3
k'ahóol-t-mah
know-TRR-PART.PERF
ka'ch
past
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The boy knew the girl.’

(198)
teen-e'
me-TOP
in
SBJ.1SG
k'ahóol-t-mah
know-TRR-PART.PERF
in
POSS.1SG
báah
self
‘I know myself.’
FOLLOW ch'a' paach N
(151)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'b-o'
boy-PL-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
ch'a'-ik-o'b
take-INCMPL-PL
u
POSS.3
paach
back
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'b-o'
girl-PL-D2
‘The boys follow the girls.’
EAT haan N
(127)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
haan-al
eat-INCMPL
‘The boy is eating.’
(188)
le
DEM
ba'lche'-o'
animal-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
haan-t-ik
eat-TRR-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah
self
‘That animal eats itself.’
HUG méek' M
(2)
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
méek'-ah
hug-CMPL
u
POSS.3
chaan
little
xibpal
boy
le
DEM
maamah-o'
mother-D2
‘The mother hugged her little boy.’
SEE il R
(4)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-il-ah
0-see-CMPL
le
DEM
báalam-o'
jaguar-D2
‘The man saw the jaguar.’
(145)
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-il-ah
0-see-CMPL
le
DEM
kaan-o'
snake-D2
káa
CONJ
aawat-nah-ih
call\INTROV-CMPL-ABS.3SG
‘He saw the snake and cried.’
(228)
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
w-il-ik
0-see-INCMPL
le
DEM
haanal-o'
food-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
wi'h-kuns-ik-en
hungry-FACT-INCMPL-ABS.1SG
‘It makes me hungry to see the food.’

(190)
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
y-il-ik
0-see-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah
self
ichil
inside
le
DEM
ha'-o'
water-D2
‘He sees himself in the water.’
HEAR u'y R
(5)
le
DEM
kéeh-o'
deer-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-u'b-ah
0-feel-CMPL
u
POSS.3
book
smell
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
‘The deer smelled the boy.’
(92)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-u'b-ah
0-feel-CMPL
le
DEM
báalam-o'
jaguar-D2
‘The boy heard the jaguar.’

(193)
leti'-o'b-e'
that.one-PL-TOP
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-u'b-ah
0-feel-CMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
hach
really
xib-o'b
man-PL
‘They felt really macho.’
FEAR sahak M
(6)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
sahak
afraid
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
báalam-o'
jaguar-D2
‘The man feared/fears the jaguar.’
FRIGHTEN sahbes N
(7)
le
DEM
báalam-o'
jaguar-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
sah-bes-ah
fear-CAUS-CMPL
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
‘The jaguar frightened the man.’
FRIGHTEN sahakkuns M
(8)
le
DEM
báalam-o'
jaguar-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
sahak-kuns-ah
afraid-FACT-CMPL
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
‘The jaguar frightened the man.’
LIKE uts ti' ich N
(9)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
uts
good
t-u
LOC-POSS.3
y-ich
0-eye
u
POSS.3
tumben
new
baaxal
toy
‘The boy likes his new toy.’
KNOW k'ahóol R
(10)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
u
SBJ.3
k'ahóol
know
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The boy knows/knew the girl.’
PEEL ts'íil N
(354)
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1.SG
ts'íil-ik
peel-CMPL
le
DEM
xchiina-o'
orange-D2
‘I am peeling the orange.’
MEET naktáant N
(17)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'b-o'
man-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
naktáan-t-ah-o'b
meet-TRR-CMPL-PL
le
DEM
xibpal-o'b-o'
boy-PL-D2
‘The men met the boys.’
MEET nuptáant N
(18)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'b-o'
man-PL-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
nuptáan-t-ah-o'b
meet-TRR-CMPL-PL
le
DEM
xibpal-o'b-o'
boy-PL-D2
‘The men met the boys.’
TELL tsikbat R
(23)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
tsikbal-t-ah
talk-TRR-CMPL
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
che'h-bil
laugh-GER
tsikbal
story
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
‘The girl told the boy a funny story.’

(147)
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
tsikbal-t-ik
talk-TRR-INCMPL
ti'
LOC
in
POSS.1SG
báah
self
‘I am talking to myself.’
TALK t'aan N
(20)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
h
PRFV
t'aan-nah
speak-CMPL
yéetel
with
le
DEM
xibpal
boy
y-óok'ol
0-over
u
POSS.3
y-aalak'
0-CL.domestic
peek'-o'
dog-D2
‘The girl talked to the boy about her dog.’
SEARCH FOR kax(an)t M
(12)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
kax-t-ik
search-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'b-o'
woman-PL-D2
‘The man is searching for the women.’
WASH isíins N
(13)
le
DEM
xch'úup-o'
woman-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-isíin-t-ah
0-bathe-TRR-CMPL
le
DEM
chaampal-o'
baby-D2
‘The woman washed/bathed the baby.’
DRESS búukint N
(115)
le
DEM
ko'lel-o'
woman-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
búuk-int-ah
dress-USAT-CMPL
u
POSS.3
nook'
clothing
u
POSS.3
paal
child
‘That woman put on her child's clothing.’
HELP áant M
(15)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
w-áant-ah
0-help-CMPL
le
DEM
xibpal-o'b-o'
boy-PL-D2
‘I helped the boys.’
(203)
áant
help
a
POSS.2
báah
self
káa
CONJ
áant-a'k-ech
help-SUBJ.PASS-ABS.2SG
tumen
by
yúum
lord
k'uh
god
‘Help yourself, then god will help you.’
FOLLOW ch'a'paacht N
(16)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'b-o'
boy-PL-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
ch'a'-pach-t-ik-o'b
take-back-TRR-INCMPL-PL
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'b-o'
girl-PL-D2
‘The boys follow the girls.’
DIG páan N
(248)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
h
PRFV
bin
go
u
SBJ.3
páan
lay.bare
u
POSS.3
wi'
bulb
makal
yams
‘The girl went to dig out yams bulbs.’
TOUCH mach M
(334)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
mach-ah
seize-CMPL
y-éetel
0-with
in
POSS.1SG
xts'íik
left
k'ab
hand
‘I seized her with my left hand.’
FOLLOW tsaypacht N
(319)
le
DEM
peek'-o'
dog-D2
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
tsaypach-t-ik
follow-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
xibpal
boy
máan
pass
k'iin-o'
sun/day-D2
‘The dog follows the boy all day.’
BEAT p'uch N
(28)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
p'u'-p'uch-ah
RED-beat-CMPL
le
DEM
kaan
snake
yéetel
with
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The boy beat the snake with a stick.’
(322)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
p'uch-ik
beat-INCMPL
le
DEM
kaan
snake
yéetel
with
u
POSS.3
baston-o'
stick-D2
‘The boy is beating the snake with his stick.’
EAT haant M
(1)
le
DEM
xibpal-e'
boy-D3
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
haan-t-ah
eat-TRR-CMPL
le
DEM
abal-o'
plum-D2
‘The boy ate the plum.’
LOOK AT pakat R
(3)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
pakat-ah
look-CMPL
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The boy looked at the girl.’
(336)
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
pakat-ik-ech
look-INCMPL-ABS.2SG
‘I loook at you.’

(301)
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
pakat-ah
look-CMPL
u
POSS.3
báah
self
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
néen-o'
mirror-D2
‘He looked at himself in the mirror.’
WIPE púus N
(244)
h
PRFV
bin-en
go(CMPL)-ABS.1SG
púus
remove.dust
‘I went cleaning.’
THINK tuukul N
(130)
ya'b
much
u
SBJ.3
tuukul
think\INTROV
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘The girl thinks much.’
(340)
ma'loob
good
a
SBJ.2
tuukul-e'x
think\INTROV-2PL
‘You think well.’
WASH ichkíil N
(134)
le
DEM
ko'lel-o'
woman-D2
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
y-ichkíil
0-wash
‘The woman is bathing.’
CALL t'an N
(338)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
t'an-ah
call-CMPL
in
POSS.1SG
w-íits'in
0-younger.sibling
ti'
LOC
haanal
food
‘I called my younger sibling to eat.’
LAUGH ABOUT che'ht R
(291)
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
che'h-t-ik
laugh-TRR-INCMPL
ba'x
what
k-a
IMPF-SBJ.2
w-a'l-ik
0-say-INCMPL
‘I am laughing about what you say.’

(213)
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
che'h-t-ik
laugh-TRR-INCMPL
in
POSS.1SG
báah
self
‘I am laughing about myself.’
PLAY báaxt N
(222)
ba'x
what
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
báax-t-ik
play-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
chaampal-o'
baby-D2
‘What does the child play?’
BE SAD ABOUT ok'om-óolt N
(225)
ma'
NEG
ok'om
sad
óol-t-ik
mind-TRR-INCMPL
‘Don't be sad about it.’
CRY ABOUT ook'olt R
(270)
ba'x
what
k-a
IMPF-SBJ.2
w-ook'-t-ik
0-cry-TRR-INCMPL
‘What are you crying about?’
CHASE hóok's
(289)
hóok'-es
leave-CAUS
le
DEM
peek'
dog
ich
in
nah-o'
house-D2
‘Chase the dog out of the house.’
MAKE SICK k'oha'nkunt M
(267)
ba'x
what
k'oha'n-kuns-ech
sick-FACT-ABS.2SG
‘What made you sick?’
SEAT kulkint R
(286)
kul-kins
sit-FACT
y-óok'ol
0-over
le
DEM
k'áan-che'-o'
hammock-wood-D2
‘Make him sit (down) on the stool.’
FELL lúubs R
(273)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
lúub-s-ah
fall-CAUS-CMPL
le
DEM
nuxib
old
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘I felled that old/big tree.’
LOAD na'ks R
(285)
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
na'k-s-ik
climb-CAUS-INCMPL
le
DEM
kuuch
load
y-óok'ol
0-over
le
DEM
tsíimin-o'
horse-D2
‘I load the burden on the horse.’
(356)
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
na'k-s-ik
climb-CAUS-INCMPL
le
DEM
kuch
load
ti'
LOC
le
DEM
káamion-a'
truck-D1
‘I am loading the load onto this truck.’
STEAL ookolt M
(347)
wa'pach'-e'
giant-TOP
ka
CONJ
bin
QUOT
ho'p'
begin
u
SBJ.3
ch'úuk-t-ik
watch-TRR-INCMPL
máax
who
ookol-t-ik
steal-TRR-INCMPL
‘The giant started watching who was robbing him.’
JUMP OVER síit't N
(287)
le
DEM
máak-o'
person-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
síit'-t-ik
jump-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
koot-o'
wall-D2
‘That man jumps over the wall.’
COME (2) taal N
(339)
le
DEM
boolah-a'
ball-D1
h
PRFV
taal
come(CMPL)
t-in
LOC-POSS.1SG
k'ab
hand
‘This ball came into my hand.’
(353)
tu'x
where
a
SBJ.2
taal
come
‘Where do you come from?’
DRY tikinkunt R
(306)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
tikin-kunt-ah
dry-FACT-CMPL
le
DEM
sikil-a'
pumpkin.seed-D1
‘I dried the pumpkin seed.’
(308)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
tikin-kuns-ah
dry-FACT-CMPL
le
DEM
ixi'm-a'
corn-D1
‘I dried the corn.’

(309)
tikin-kuns
dry-FACT
a
POSS.2
báah
self
y-iknal
0-at
le
DEM
k'áak'-o'
fire-D2
‘Dry yourself near the fire.’
MAKE RUN áalkabans N
(122)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
w-áalkab-ans-ah
0-run-CAUS-CMPL
le
DEM
tsíimin-o'
horse-D2
‘I had the horse run.’
RUN áalkabt N
(121)
le
DEM
tsíimin-o'
horse-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
y-áalkab-t-ik
0-run-TRR-INCMPL
kan-lúub
four-league
‘That horse runs four miles.’
SCREAM awat (1) N
(67)
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
awat-nah-ih
shout-CMPL-ABS.3SG
‘The man screamed.’
(145)
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
y-il-ah
0-see-CMPL
le
DEM
kaan-o'
snake-D2
káa
CONJ
aawat-nah-ih
call\INTROV-CMPL-ABS.3SG
‘He saw the snake and cried.’
ROLL (tr) balak'es N
(229)
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
balak'-es-ik
roll-CAUS-INCMPL
le
DEM
tuunich-o'
stone-D2
‘I roll that stone.’
BE A DRESS búuk N
(349)
u
POSS.3
búuk
dress
Pedro
Peter
lel-o'
DEM-D2
‘That is Peter's dress.’
SMELL ch'a'bokt M
(111)
le
DEM
kéeh-o'
deer-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ch'a'-book-t-ah
take-smell-TRR-CMPL
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
‘The deer smelled the boy.’
THROW ch'in N
(87)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
léen-ch'in-t-ah
very-pelt-TRR-CMPL
le
DEM
xch'úupal
girl
ti'
LOC
ha'-o'
water-D2
‘The boy pushed the girl into the water.’
PEEL cheppóolt N
(34)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
chep-póol-t-ah
rub-trim-TRR-CMPL
le
DEM
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The boy ripped the bark off the stick.’
MAKE APPEAR chíikbes R
(266)
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
chíik-bes-ik
appear-CAUS-INCMPL
ti'
LOC
a
POSS.2
táan
front
‘I let it appear before you.’
WASH ichíint N
(332)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
w-ichíin-t-ah
0-wash-TRR-CMPL
síis
cold
ha'
water
‘I washed with cold water.’
NAME k'aaba' N
(331)
Hwaan
John
u
POSS.3
k'aaba'
name
in
POSS.1SG
iihoh
son
‘My son's name is John.’
MARRY kahkunt N
(212)
Peedroh-e'
Peter-TOP
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
kah-kuns-ah
live-FACT-CMPL
x-Luupe
F-Lupe
‘Pedro married Lupe.’
LEARN kan N
(330)
le
DEM
x-ch'úupal-o'
F-girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
kan-ah
learn-CMPL
hun-p'éel
one-CL.INAN
k'aay
song
‘The girl learnt a song.’
PEEL lak M
(35)
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
lak-ah
detach-CMPL
u
POSS.3
sóol
shell
le
DEM
che'-o'
wood-D2
‘The boy removed the bark from the stick.’
(352)
pa'tik
will.be.useful
in
SBJ.1.SG
lah-ik
detach-INCMPL
le
DEM
he'l-a'
PRSV-D1
‘Let me detach this (thing).’
TALK tsikbal N
(19)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
tsikbal-nah
talk-CMPL
yéetel
with
le
DEM
xibpal-o'
boy-D2
y-o'lal
0-reason
u
POSS.3
y-aalak'
0-CL.domestic
peek'
dog
‘The girl talked to the boy about her dog.’
BOIL (tr) lookans N
(264)
táan
PROG
in
SBJ.1SG
look-ans-ik
boil-CAUS-INCMPL
le
DEM
ki'wah-o'
main.dish-D2
‘I am boiling the food.’
COUGH AT se'nt N
(209)
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
se'n-t-ah
cough-TRR-CMPL
in
POSS.1SG
w-ich
0-eye
‘He coughed at my face.’
MAKE HUNGRY wi'hkunt N
(217)
le
DEM
meyah-o'
work-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
wi'h-kuns-ik-en
hungry-FACT-INCMPL-ABS.1SG
‘The work makes me hungry.’
(227)
le
DEM
ki'wah-o'
main.dish-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
wi'h-kunt-ik-en
hungry-FACT-INCMPL-ABS.1SG
‘The food makes me hungry.’
(228)
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
w-il-ik
0-see-INCMPL
le
DEM
haanal-o'
food-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
wi'h-kuns-ik-en
hungry-FACT-INCMPL-ABS.1SG
‘It makes me hungry to see the food.’
HURT yahkunt M
(214)
t-in
PRFV-SBJ.1SG
yah-kunt-ah
hurt-FACT-CMPL
in
POSS.1SG
k'ab
hand
ikil
owing.to
in
SBJ.1SG
pets'-ik
grab-INCMPL
le
DEM
boolah-o'
ball-D2
‘I injured my hand because I grabbed that ball.’
BLINK chak'ich N
(53)
chak'-ich-nah-en
blink-eye-CMPL-ABS.1SG
‘I blinked.’
(325)
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
túun
then
chak'-ich
blink-eye
‘The girl is blinking.’
ROLL (tr) balak't N
(218)
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
balak'-t-ik
roll-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
boolah-o'
ball-D2
‘I roll the ball.’
(230)
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
balak'-t-ik
roll-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
nuxib
old
che'-a'
wood-D1
‘I am rolling this big tree.’
BLINK chak'icht
(207)
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
chak'-ich-t-ik
blink-eye-TRR-INCMPL
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
‘I blink at the girl.’