Alternations of Yucatec Maya

Alternations
Alternation name Description Examples Verbs
C
y Generic causative construction:
[ [ Pn ]
PC.i [ [ W ]V.intr_inact -Caus ]V.tr -Absj [ P ]NP.j [ A ]NP.i ]VCC
"A causes V to happen to P."
This is a subtype of the basic transitive construction. P is the causee and A is added to W's valency.
If W is an adjective or a positional, the factitive derivation (suffix ) applies. If it is an inactive intransitive verb root, the causative derivation proper (basic allomorph
-s ) applies. More dynamic bases do not causativize.
Variants of this construction (e.g. #37, 40, 89) have an additional verbal dependent.
(285)
Kin na'ksik le kuuch yóok'ol le tsíimino'.
k-in
IMPF-SBJ.1SG
na'k-s-ik
climb-CAUS-INCMPL
le
DEM
kuuch
load
y-óok'ol
0-over
le
DEM
tsíimin-o'
horse-D2
‘I load the burden on the horse.’
19
C
y Deagentive construction:
[ [ Pn ]
i [ [ W ]V.tr -Deag ]V.intr_inact [ P ]NP.i ]VCC
"P undergoes W (without an agent)"
Deag is a high tone on the base and P is the direct object of W, but the subject of the derived verb.
(what some call anticausative)
(182)
Lep' a wóol yéetel le suumo'! - Pa'tiki', h k'áaxih.
lep'
hurry
a
POSS.2
w-óol
0-mind
yéetel
with
le
DEM
suum-o'
rope-D2
pa't-ik-i'
wait-INCMPL-LOCF
h
PRFV
k'áax-ih
tie\DEAG(CMPL)-ABS.3SG
‘Hurry up with the rope! - Wait a moment, it got entangled.’
10
C
y Extraversive construction:
[ [ Pn ]
PC.i [ [ W ]V.intr_act -t ]V.tr -Absj [ P ]NP.j [ A ]NP.i ]VCC
"A acts on P".
The intransitive active base W is converted into a transitive verb by the
-t suffix.
A is the subject of both the base and the derived verb, and the direct object P is often unforeseeable from the point of view of the base construction.
It is almost an applicative, except that no promotion is involved, and instead it is a generic transitivization process, even with non-verbal bases W.
This is a subtype of the basic transitive verb construction.
(121)
Le tsíimino' ku yáalkabtik kanlúub.
le
DEM
tsíimin-o'
horse-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
y-áalkab-t-ik
0-run-TRR-INCMPL
kan-lúub
four-league
‘That horse runs four miles.’
18
C
y Fientive verb construction:
[ [ Pn ]
PC.i [ [ W ]N/Adj -tal ]V.intr [ S ]NP.i ]VCC
"S is in the state or process W"
where W is a nominal (adjectival or, if semantically suitable, substantival) base or a verbal base of a certain class. X's valency does not change, but its aktionsart may change from static to dynamic.
(326)
Táan u tikintal le lu'mo'.
táan
PROG
u
SBJ.3
tikin-tal
dry-FIENT.INCMPL
le
DEM
lu'm-o'
earth-D2
‘The ground is getting dry.’
9
C
y [ [X]V - [Y]N ]V.intr
instead of
[ X ]
V ([ Z ]Prep) [ Y ]NP
where Y is either the direct object or the instrument of X. The incorporative verb is basically intransitive, but is in most cases "retransitivized" by extraversion.
(53)
Chak'ichnahen.
chak'-ich-nah-en
blink-eye-CMPL-ABS.1SG
‘I blinked.’
25
C
y [W]V [ [ possX Y ]NP [ X ]NP ]NP [Z]NP
where Z is subject, Y is direct object,
and X is conceived as Y's possessor [thus participating in W only indirectly],
instead of
[W]
V [ Y ]NP [ti' X]PP [Z]NP
where X is conceived as partipating in W.
This alternation is not coded on the verb and instead in nominal morphology.
(328)
Le wíiniko' tu ch'a'ah u taak'in u láak'.
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ch'a'-ah
take-CMPL
u
POSS.3
taak'in
money
u
POSS.3
láak'
equal
‘The man took the money from his friend.’
13
C
y Introversive construction:
[ [ Pn ]
PC.i [ [ W ]V.tr introv ]V.intr-act [ S ]NP.i ]VCC
"S does the action W".
where
introv is one of the allomorphs of the introversive morpheme, S is the subject of both the base and the derived verb, and there is no way to include what was the direct object of W.
(137)
Le máako' ku ts'iik.
le
DEM
máak-o'
person-D2
k-u
IMPF-SBJ.3
ts'iik
shave\INTROV
‘That person shaves (people).’
16
C
y Passive construction:
[ [ Pn ]
i [ [ W ]V.tr -Pass ]V.intr_inact [ P ]NP.i [ tuméen [ A ]NP ]PrepP ]VCC
"P undergoes W by A"
(150)
Kíinsa'b yéetel báat u k'ux-óolal le wíiniko' .
kíins-a'b
kill-PASS.CMPL
yéetel
with
báat
axe
u
POSS.3
k'uxóolal
enemy
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
‘The enemy was killed by the man with an axe.’
98
C
y Reciprocal construction:
[ [ Pn ]
PC.i [ (paaklan) WV.tr ] ([ possi báah ]NP.j) [ A ]NPi ]VCC
"The As W each other."
where the adverb
paaklan 'together, each other' immediately precedes W (and optionally forms a compound with it) and the reflexive phrase takes the stead of W's direct object.

The ditransitive reciprocal construction is analogous, with the reflexive pronoun depending on
ti'.

Either
paaklan or the reflexive phrase is optional in the construction. If the former is omitted, then the reciprocal construction is an interpretation of the reflexive construction. If the latter is omitted, the reciprocal construction is an interpretation of a 'together'-construction.
(144)
In taataho'be' paaklan u k'áatik u báaho'b taak'in.
in
POSS.1SG
taatah-o'b-e'
father-PL-TOP
paaklan
each.other
u
SBJ.3
k'áat-ik
ask-INCMPL
u
POSS.3
báah-o'b
self-PL
taak'in
money
‘My parents ask each other for money.’
52
C
y Reflexive construction of a transitive verb:
[ [ W ]
V.tr [ possA báah ]NP ] [ A ]NP
"A does W to himself"
Báah 'self' takes possessive clitics cross-referencing the subject (as in English).
The phrase
poss báah ('A's self') takes the stead of W's direct object, A is the subject and poss codes person and number of A.
Since
báah is the direct object, this is a subtype of the basic transitive construction.
(135)
Le wíiniko' tu ts'ikah u báah.
le
DEM
wíinik-o'
man-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
ts'ik-ah
shave-CMPL
u
POSS.3
báah
self
‘The man shaved (himself).’
30
C
y [ [ X ]N -int ]V.tr [ Y ]NP [ Z ]NP
'Z has Y as (an) X'
instead of
[ [
poss X ] [ Z ]NP ] [ Y ]NP
'Y is Z's X'
where X is a (typically inalienable) noun. It amounts to a verbalization of a possessive predication.
(115)
Le ko'lelo' tu búukintah u nook' u paal.
le
DEM
ko'lel-o'
woman-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
búuk-int-ah
dress-USAT-CMPL
u
POSS.3
nook'
clothing
u
POSS.3
paal
child
‘That woman put on her child's clothing.’
2
U
n With a set of Yucatec three-argument verbs, either of the non-first arguments may be direct object, while the other non-first argument is preferably omitted. This alternation is called direct object shift. The set may be further subdivided as follows:

1. only bivalent (monotransitive) construction possible:
hat ‘tear P off L’, tix ‘rinse P off L’, tíit ‘shake P off L, púust ‘remove P (dust) from L’, ts'ik ‘shave L’s P’ and ts’íil ‘peel P off L’;

2.trivalent construction possible:
a. with
locative shift: but’ ‘stuff P into L, fill L with P’, bak’ ‘wind P around L, wrap L in P’,
b. with irregular valency alternation:
okol ‘steal P from L’, ka’ns ‘teach L P’.
(50)
Le xch'úupalo' tu but'ah le luuch yéetel ha'o'.
le
DEM
xch'úupal-o'
girl-D2
t-u
PRFV-SBJ.3
but'-ah
fill-CMPL
le
DEM
luuch
cup
yéetel
with
ha'-o'
water-D2
‘The girl filled the cup with water.’
5