Examples of Yorùbá

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
Ade je̩ è̩wà.
Ade
Ade
je̩
eat
è̩wà
beans
‘Ade ate beans.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(2)
Ade je̩ mi ní onje̩.
Ade
Ade
je̩
eat
mi
1SG.O
PREP
onje̩
food
‘Ade ate my food.’
EAT an Alternation:
Possessive alternation
(3)
Adé dìrò̩mó̩ ìyáa rè̩.
Adé
Ade
dìrò̩mó̩
hug
ìyáa
mother.POSS
rè̩
3SG.POSS
‘Ade hugged his mother.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(4)
Ade wo Bó̩lá.
Ade
Ade
wo
look
Bó̩lá
Bola
‘Ade looked at Bola.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(5)
Ade rí ilé náà.
Ade
Ade
see
ilé
house
náà
DEF
‘Ade saw the house.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(6)
Òkú aja náà ń rùn.
òkú
dead
aja
dog
náà
DEF
ń
PROG
rùn
smell
‘The dead dog's carcass is smelling.’
SMELL the Verb form rùn
(7)
Ó run o̩wó̩o̩ rè̩ wò.
ó
3SG.S
run
smell
o̩wó̩o̩
hand.POSS
rè̩
3SG.POSS
look
‘He smelled his hand.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(8)
Ó rùn sí mi.
ó
3SG.S
rùn
smell
PREP
mi
1SG.O
‘It (the smell) oozed out to me. / It smelled to me.’
SMELL the Verb form rùn
(9)
Ade bè̩rù omi-òkun.
Ade
Ade
bè̩rù
fear
omi-òkun
water-ocean
‘Ade feared the ocean.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(10)
È̩rù omi-òkun ba Ade.
è̩rù
fear
omi-òkun
water-ocean
ba
catch
Ade
Ade
‘Ade feared the ocean.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Symmetrical alternation
(11)
Ade dé̩rùba Bó̩lá.
Ade
Ade
dé̩rùba
frighten
Bó̩lá
Bola
‘Ade frightened Bola.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(12)
Olùkó̩ni náà fé̩ràn o̩mo̩dé.
olùkó̩ni
teacher
náà
DEF
fé̩ràn
like
o̩mo̩dé
little.children
‘The teacher likes little children.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(13)
Ade mo̩ àwo̩n òbíi rè̩.
Ade
Ade
mo̩
know
àwo̩n
PL
òbíi
parents.POSS
rè̩
3SG.POSS
‘Ade knows his parents.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(14)
Ade mò̩.
Ade
Ade
mò̩
know
‘Ade knows.’
KNOW the Verb form mò̩
(15)
Ade ronú nípa ò̩rò̩ náà.
Ade
Ade
ronú
think
nípa
PREP
ò̩rò̩
word
náà
DEF
‘Ade thought about the matter (lit. Ade thinks about the word).’
THINK a Coding frame:
1 V nípa+2
(16)
Ade ronú sí ò̩rò̩ náà.
Ade
Ade
ronú
think
PREP
ò̩rò̩
word
náà
DEF
‘Ade thought of the matter. / Ade thinks of the matter.’
THINK the Verb form rònú
(17)
Ade ro ò̩rò̩ náà.
Ade
Ade
ro
think
ò̩rò̩
word
náà
DEF
‘Ade thought about the matter. / Ade thinks about/of the matter.’
THINK an Alternation:
Preposition-dropping
(18)
O̩de̩ náà ń wá ìgbín.
o̩de̩
hunter
náà
DEF
ń
PROG
look
ìgbín
snail
‘The hunter is looking for snails. / The hunter is searching for snails.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(19)
Adé fo̩ o̩wó̩o̩ rè̩ méjèèjì.
Adé
Ade
fo̩
wash
o̩wó̩o̩
hand.POSS
rè̩
3SG.POSS
méjèèjì
two.two
‘Ade washed both his two hands.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(20)
Ade we̩ o̩mo̩ náà.
Ade
Ade
we̩
bathe
o̩mo̩
child
náà
DEF
‘Ade bathe the child.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(21)
O̩mo̩ náà wè̩.
o̩mo̩
child
náà
DEF
wè̩
bathe
‘The child bathe/wash.’
WASH an Alternation:
Inchoative-causative
(22)
Ade múra fún Bó̩lá.
Ade
Ade
múra
dress
fún
PREP
Bó̩lá
Bola
‘Ade dressed Bola.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1 V fún+2
(23)
Bó̩lá múra.
Bó̩lá
Bola
múra
dress
‘Bola dressed.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Inchoative-causative
(24)
O̩de̩ kan ran aláboyún náà ló̩wó̩.
o̩de̩
hunter
kan
INDEF
ran
render
aláboyún
pregnant.one
náà
DEF
ló̩wó̩
PREP.hand
‘A hunter helped the pregnant woman.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(25)
Ade fá irun-abíyá mi.
Ade
Ade
shave
irun-abíyá
hair-armpit
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade shaved my armpit.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(26)
Ade fá mi ní irun-abíyá.
Ade
Ade
shave
mi
1SG.O
PREP
irun-abíyá
hair-armpit
‘Ade shaved my armpit.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Possessive alternation
(27)
Mo tè̩lé Ade.
mo
1SG.S
tè̩lé
follow
Ade
Ade
‘I followed Ade. / I accompanied Ade.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(28)
Ade pàdé Bó̩lá.
Ade
Ade
pàdé
meet
Bó̩lá
Bola
‘Ade mets Bola.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(29)
Ade bá Bó̩lá ní ilé.
Ade
Ade
meet
Bó̩lá
Bola
PREP
ilé
house
‘Ade met Bola at home.’
MEET the Verb form
(30)
Ade bá Bó̩lá sò̩rò̩
Ade bá Bó̩lá sò̩rò̩.
Ade
Ade
join
Bó̩lá
Bola
sò̩rò̩
talk
‘Ade talked to Bola.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(31)
Ade to̩ro̩ owó ní o̩wó̩ò̩ mi
Ade to̩ro̩ owó ní o̩wó̩ò̩ mi.
Ade
Ade
to̩ro̩
ask
owó
money
PREP
o̩wó̩ò̩
hand.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade asked for money from me. / Ade begged me for some money.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1 V 2 ní+3
(32)
Adé to̩ro̩ owó
Adé to̩ro̩ owó.
Adé
Ade
to̩ro̩
ask
owó
money
‘Ade asked for money. / Ade begged for money.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Preposition-dropping
(33)
Ade kígbe sí O̩ló̩run
Ade kígbe sí O̩ló̩run.
Ade
Ade
kígbe
cry.noise
PREP
O̩ló̩run
God
‘Ade shouted to God. / Ade cried out to God.’
SHOUT AT the Verb form kígbe
(34)
Ade kígbe mó̩ O̩ló̩run.
Ade kígbe mó̩ O̩ló̩run.
Ade
Ade
kígbe
cry.noise
mó̩
PREP
O̩ló̩run
God
‘Ade shouted at God.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1 V mó̩+2
(35)
Ade so̩ ò̩rò̩ náà fún mi
Ade so̩ ò̩rò̩ náà fún mi.
Ade
Ade
so̩
tell
ò̩rò̩
word
náà
DEF
fún
PREP
mi
1SG.O
‘Ade told me about the matter. / Ade informed me of the matter.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1 V 2 fún+3
(36)
Ade so̩ fún mi
Ade so̩ fún mi.
Ade
Ade
so̩
tell
fún
PREP
mi
1SG.O
‘Ade told me (of the matter). / Ade informed me (of the matter).’
TELL an Alternation:
Theme-dropping alternation
(37)
ìyáà mí so̩ mí ní Adé
Ìyáà mí so̩ mí ní Adé.
ìyáà
mother.POSS
1SG.POSS
so̩
name
1SG.O
PREP
Adé
Ade
‘My mother named me Ade. / My mother called me Ade.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1 V 2 ní+3
(38)
ìyáà mí fi Adé so̩ mí
Ìyáà mí fi Adé so̩ mí.
ìyáà
mother.POSS
1SG.POSS
fi
take
Adé
Ade
so̩
call
1SG.O
‘My mother named me Ade.’
NAME an Alternation:
Ní/fi alternation
(39)
Ade fi amò̩ kó̩ ilé náà
Ade fi amò̩ kó̩ ilé náà.
Ade
Ade
fi
take
amò̩
clay
kó̩
build
ilé
house
náà
DEF
‘Ade built the house with clay.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1 fi+2 V 3
(40)
Ade kó̩ ilé náà ní alámò̩
Ade kó̩ ilé náà ní alámò̩.
Ade
Ade
kó̩
build
ilé
house
náà
DEF
PREP
alámò̩
own.clay
‘Ade built the house of clay. / Ade built the house with clay.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Fi/ní alternation
(41)
Ade kán egungun e̩sè̩ mi
Ade kán egungun e̩sè̩ mi.
Ade
Ade
kán
break
egungun
bone
e̩sè̩
leg
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade broke my leg.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(42)
Ade fi irin fó̩ kòkò omi náà
Ade fi irin fó̩ kòkò omi náà.
Ade
Ade
fi
take
irin
iron
fó̩
break
kòkò
pot
omi
water
náà
DEF
‘Ade broke the water pot with an iron.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(43)
egungun e̩sè̩ mi kán
Egungun e̩sè̩ mi kán.
egungun
bone
e̩sè̩
leg
mi
1SG.POSS
kán
break
‘My leg bone broke.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Inchoative-causative
(44)
Ade fó̩ mi ní kòkò omi
Ade fó̩ mi ní kòkò omi.
Ade
Ade
fó̩
break
mi
1SG.O
PREP
kòkò
pot
omi
water
‘Ade broke my water pot.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Possessive alternation
(45)
kòkò omi náà fó̩
Kòkò omi náà fó̩.
kòkò
pot
omi
water
náà
DEF
fó̩
break
‘The water pot broke.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Inchoative-causative
(46)
Ade kán mi ní egungun e̩sè̩
Ade kán mi ní egungun e̩sè̩.
Ade
Ade
kán
break
mi
1SG.O
PREP
egungun
bone
e̩sè̩
leg
‘Ade broke my leg (bone).’
BREAK an Alternation:
Possessive alternation
(47)
o̩ló̩pàá náà pa adigunjalè kan
O̩ló̩pàá náà pa adigunjalè kan.
o̩ló̩pàá
police
náà
DEF
pa
kill
adigunjalè
armed.robber
kan
INDEF
‘The police man killed an armed robber.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(48)
o̩ló̩pàá náà fi ìban pa adigunjalè kan
O̩ló̩pàá náà fi ìban pa adigunjalè kan.
o̩ló̩pàá
police
náà
DEF
fi
take
ìban
gun
pa
kill
adigunjalè
armed.robber
kan
INDEF
‘The policeman killed an armed robber with a gun.’
KILL the Verb form pa
(49)
Ade lu o̩mo̩ wa
Ade lu o̩mo̩ wa.
Ade
Ade
lu
beat
o̩mo̩
child
wa
1PL.POSS
‘Ade beat our child.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(50)
Ade fi ò̩pá lu o̩mo̩ wa
Ade fi ò̩pá lu o̩mo̩ wa.
Ade
Ade
fi
take
ò̩pá
staff
lu
beat
o̩mo̩
child
wa
1PL.POSS
‘Ade beat our child with a staff. / Ade used a staff to beat our child.’
BEAT the Verb form
(51)
Ade lu o̩mo̩ wa ní ò̩pá
Ade lu o̩mo̩ wa ní ò̩pá.
Ade
Ade
lu
beat
o̩mo̩
child
wa
1PL.POSS
PREP
ò̩pá
staff
‘Ade beat our child with a staff.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Fi/ní alternation
(52)
Ade lù wá ní o̩mo̩
Ade lù wá ní o̩mo̩.
Ade
Ade
beat
1PL.O
PREP
o̩mo̩
child
‘Ade beat our child.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Possessive alternation
(53)
Ade fi orógùn gbá oríi mi
Ade fi orógùn gbá oríi mi.
Ade
Ade
fi
take
orógùn
spatula
gbá
hit
oríi
head.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade hit my head with a spatula. / Ade hit me on the head with a spatula.’
HIT the Verb form gbá
(54)
Ade fi kè̩ké̩e̩ rè̩ ko̩lù mí
Ade fi kè̩ké̩e̩ rè̩ ko̩lù mí.
Ade
Ade
fi
take
kè̩ké̩e̩
bicycle.POSS
rè̩
3SG.POSS
ko̩lù
hit
1SG.O
‘Ade hit me with his bicycle.’
HIT a Coding frame:
1 fi+2 V 3
(55)
Ade gbá mi ní orí
Ade gbá mi ní orí.
Ade
Ade
gbá
hit
mi
1SG.O
PREP
orí
head
‘Ade hit my head (lit. Ade hit me on the head).’
HIT an Alternation:
Possessive alternation
(56)
Ade gbá mi ní orógùn
Ade gbá mi ní orógùn.
Ade
Ade
gbá
hit
mi
1SG.O
PREP
orógùn
spatula
‘Ade hit me with a spatula.’
HIT an Alternation:
Fi/ní alternation
(57)
Ade fi igi kàn mí
Ade fi igi kàn mí.
Ade
Ade
fi
take
igi
stick
kàn
touch
1SG.O
‘Ade touched me with a stick.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1 fi+2 V 3
(58)
Ade kàn mí ní igi
Ade kàn mí ní igi.
Ade
Ade
kàn
touch
1SG.O
PREP
igi
stick
‘Ade touched me with a stick.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Fi/ní alternation
(59)
Ade fi igi bà mi
Ade fi igi bà mi.
Ade
Ade
fi
take
igi
stick
touch
mi
1SG.O
‘Ade touched me with a stick.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1 fi+2 V 3
(60)
Ade bà mí ní orí
Ade bà mí ní orí.
Ade
Ade
touch
1SG.O
PREP
orí
head
‘Ade touched my head (lit. Ade touched me on the head).’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Possessive alternation
(61)
Ade fi ò̩be̩ gé etíi Bó̩lá
Ade fi ò̩be̩ gé etíi Bó̩lá.
Ade
Ade
fi
take
ò̩be̩
knife
cut
etíi
ear.POSS
Bó̩lá
Bola
‘Ade cut Bola's ear with a knife.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(62)
Ade gé Bó̩lá ní ò̩be̩
Ade gé Bó̩lá ní ò̩be̩.
Ade
Ade
cut
Bó̩lá
Bola
PREP
ò̩be̩
knife
‘Ade cut Bola with a knife.’
CUT an Alternation:
Fi/ní alternation
(63)
etíi Bó̩lá gé
Etíi Bó̩lá gé.
etíi
ear.POSS
Bó̩lá
Bola
cut
‘Bola's ear was cut.’
CUT an Alternation:
Inchoative-causative
(64)
Ade gé Bó̩lá ní etí
Ade gé Bó̩lá ní etí.
Ade
Ade
cut
Bó̩lá
Bola
PREP
etí
ear
‘Ade cut Bola's ear.’
CUT an Alternation:
Possessive alternation
(65)
Ade gba ìwé náà
Ade gba ìwé náà.
Ade
Ade
gba
take
ìwé
book
náà
DEF
‘Ade took the book. / Ade collected the book.’
TAKE the Verb form gbà
(66)
Ade gba ìwé náà ní ilé-ìwé
Ade gba ìwé náà ní ilé-ìwé.
Ade
Ade
gba
take
ìwé
book
náà
DEF
PREP
ilé-ìwé
house-book
‘Ade took the book from the school. / Ade collected the book from the school.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1 V 2 ní+3
(67)
Ade ya as̩o̩o̩ Bó̩lá
Ade ya as̩o̩o̩ Bó̩lá.
Ade
Ade
ya
tear
as̩o̩o̩
cloth.POSS
Bó̩lá
Bola
‘Ade tore Bola's cloth.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(68)
Ade ya Bó̩lá ní as̩o̩
Ade ya Bó̩lá ní as̩o̩.
Ade
Ade
ya
tear
Bó̩lá
Bola
PREP
as̩o̩
cloth
‘Ade tore Bola's cloth.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Possessive alternation
(69)
As̩o̩ Bó̩lá ya
As̩o̩ Bó̩lá ya.
as̩o̩
cloth
Bó̩lá
Bola
ya
tear
‘Bola's cloth tore. / Bola's cloth was torn.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Inchoative-causative
(70)
oje-ò̩gè̩dè̩ náà bó as̩o̩ò̩ mi
Oje-ò̩gè̩dè̩ náà bó as̩o̩ò̩ mi.
oje-ò̩gè̩dè̩
sap-banana
náà
DEF
peel
as̩o̩ò̩
cloth.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘The banana sap peeled (off) my cloth. / The banana sap bleached my cloth.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(71)
oje-ò̩gè̩dè̩ náà bó mi ní as̩o̩o̩
Oje-ò̩gè̩dè̩ náà bó mi ní as̩o̩.
oje-ò̩gè̩dè̩
sap-banana
náà
DEF
peel
mi
1SG.O
PREP
as̩o̩
cloth
‘The banana sap peeled (off) my cloth. / The banana sap bleached my cloth.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Possessive alternation
(72)
as̩o̩ò̩ mi bó
As̩o̩ò̩ mi bó.
as̩o̩ò̩
cloth.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
peel
‘My cloth peeled (off). / My cloth was bleached.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Inchoative-causative
(73)
obìrin náà pa ojúu rè̩ mó̩
Obìrin náà pa ojúu rè̩ mó̩.
obìrin
woman
náà
DEF
pa
V1
ojúu
eye.POSS
rè̩
3SG.POSS
mó̩
V2
‘The woman hid her face.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(74)
obìrin náà fi ojúu rè̩ pamó̩
Obìrin náà fi ojúu rè̩ pamó̩.
obìrin
woman
náà
DEF
fi
take
ojúu
eye.POSS
rè̩
3SG.POSS
pamó̩
hide
‘The woman hid her face.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Fi alternation
(75)
Ade fi ilée rè̩ hàn mí
Ade fi ilée rè̩ hàn mí.
Ade
Ade
fi
take
ilée
house.POSS
rè̩
3SG.POSS
hàn
show
1SG.O
‘Ade showed his house to me. / Ade showed me his house.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1 fi+2 V 3
(76)
Ade hàn mí ní èèmò̩
Ade hàn mí ní èèmò̩.
Ade
Ade
hàn
show
1SG.O
PREP
èèmò̩
abominable
‘Ade showed me the abominable.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Fi/ní alternation
(77)
o̩bá fún o̩de̩ náà ní o̩mo̩ rè̩
O̩bá fún o̩de̩ náà ní o̩mo̩ rè̩.
o̩bá
king
fún
give
o̩de̩
hunter
náà
DEF
PREP
o̩mo̩
child
rè̩
3SG.POSS
‘The king gave his child to the hunter.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1 V 2 ní+3
(78)
o̩bá fi o̩mo̩ rè̩ fún o̩de̩
O̩bá fi o̩mo̩ rè̩ fún o̩de̩.
o̩bá
king
fi
take
o̩mo̩
child
rè̩
3SG.POSS
fún
give
o̩de̩
hunter
‘The king gave his child to the hunter.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Ní/fi alternation
(79)
Ade fi owó ráns̩é̩
Ade fi owó ráns̩é̩.
Ade
Ade
fi
take
owó
money
ráns̩é̩
send
‘Ade sent some money.’
SEND an Alternation:
Recipient-dropping alternation
(80)
Ade fi owó ráns̩é̩ sí mi
Ade fi owó ráns̩é̩ sí mi.
Ade
Ade
fi
take
owó
money
ráns̩é̩
send
PREP
mi
1SG.O
‘Ade sent some money to me.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1 fi+2 V sí+3
(81)
Ade gbé e̩rù náà
Ade gbé e̩rù náà.
Ade
Ade
gbé
carry
e̩rù
load
náà
DEF
‘Ade carried the load.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(82)
Ade ju òkúta kan
Ade ju òkúta kan.
Ade
Ade
ju
throw
òkúta
rock
kan
INDEF
‘Ade threw a rock.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(83)
Ade ju òkúta kan sí inúu ilé
Ade ju òkúta kan sí inúu ilé.
Ade
Ade
ju
throw
òkúta
rock
kan
INDEF
PREP
inúu
interior.POSS
ilé
house
‘Ade threw a rock into the house.’
THROW the Verb form
(84)
Ade ju òkúta kan bá mi
Ade ju òkúta kan bá mi.
Ade
Ade
ju
throw
òkúta
rock
kan
INDEF
meet
mi
1SG.O
‘Ade threw a rock at me. / Ade struck me with a rock.’
THROW the Verb form
(85)
Ade fi okùn de e̩sè̩ mi
Ade fi okùn de e̩sè̩ mi.
Ade
Ade
fi
take
okùn
rope
de
tie
e̩sè̩
leg
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade tied my legs with a rope.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1 fi+2 V 3
(86)
Ade fi okùn so e̩sè̩ mi
Ade fi okùn so e̩sè̩ mi.
Ade
Ade
fi
take
okùn
rope
so
tie
e̩sè̩
leg
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade ties my legs with a rope.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1 fi+2 V 3
(87)
Ade de e̩sè̩ mi ní okùn
Ade de e̩sè̩ mi ní okùn.
Ade
Ade
de
tie
e̩sè̩
leg
mi
1SG.POSS
PREP
okùn
rope
‘Ade tied my legs with a rope.’
TIE an Alternation:
Fi/ní alternation
(88)
o̩kàn mí dè
O̩kàn mí dè.
o̩kàn
heart
1SG.POSS
tie
‘My heart is tied. / I am confident.’
TIE an Alternation:
Inchoative-causative
(89)
Ade fi owó sí àpò mi
Ade fi owó sí àpò mi.
Ade
Ade
fi
take
owó
money
put
àpò
pocket
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade put some money in my pocket.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1 V 2 LOC3
(90)
Ade fi owó sí mi ní àpò
Ade fi owó sí mi ní àpò.
Ade
Ade
fi
take
owó
money
put
mi
1SG.O
PREP
àpò
pocket
‘Ade put some money in my pocket.’
PUT an Alternation:
Possessive alternation
(91)
Ade da epo sí inúu garawa
Ade da epo sí inúu garawa.
Ade
Ade
da
pour
epo
oil
PREP
inúu
interior.POSS
garawa
bushel
‘Ade poured some oil into a bushel.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1 V 2 LOC3
(92)
Ade ro̩ epo sí inú ìgò
Ade ro̩ epo sí inú ìgò.
Ade
Ade
ro̩
pour
epo
oil
PREP
inú
interior
ìgò
bottle
‘Ade poured some oil into a bottle.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1 V 2 LOC3
(93)
Ade da epo lé oríi mi
Ade da epo lé oríi mi.
Ade
Ade
da
pour
epo
oil
PREP
oríi
head.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade poured some oil on my head.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1 V 2 LOC3
(94)
Ade da epo lé mi ní orí
Ade da epo lé mi ní orí.
Ade
Ade
da
pour
epo
oil
PREP
mi
1SG.O
PREP
orí
head
‘Ade poured some oil on my head.’
POUR an Alternation:
Possessive alternation
(95)
epo náà dà
Epo náà dà.
epo
oil
náà
DEF
pour
‘The oil poured.’
POUR an Alternation:
Inchoative-causative
(96)
Ade fi as̩o̩ bò mí
Ade fi as̩o̩ bò mí.
Ade
Ade
fi
take
as̩o̩
cloth
cover
1SG.O
‘Ade covered me with a (piece of) cloth.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1 fi+2 V 3
(97)
Ade fi fìlà dé oríì mi
Ade fi fìlà dé oríì mi.
Ade
Ade
fi
take
fìlà
cap
cover
oríì
head.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade covered my head with a cap. / Ade placed a cap on my head.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1 fi+2 V 3
(98)
às̩íríì mí bò
Às̩íríì mí bò.
às̩íríì
secret.POSS
1SG.POSS
cover
‘My secret was covered. / My secret is unexposed.’
COVER an Alternation:
Inchoative-causative
(99)
Ade fi fìlà dé mi ní orí
Ade fi fìlà dé mi ní orí.
Ade
Ade
fi
take
fìlà
cap
cover
mi
1SG.O
PREP
orí
head
‘Ade covered my head with a cap. / Ade placed a cap on my head.’
COVER an Alternation:
Possessive alternation
(100)
Ade dé mi ní fìlà
Ade dé mi ní fìlà.
Ade
Ade
cover
mi
1SG.O
PREP
fìlà
cap
‘Ade covered me with a cap. / Ade placed a cap on my head.’
COVER an Alternation:
Fi/ní alternation
(101)
Ade po̩n omi kún garawa náà
Ade po̩n omi kún garawa náà.
Ade
Ade
po̩n
pour
omi
water
kún
full
garawa
bushel
náà
DEF
‘Ade filled the bushel with water.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1 V 2 3
(102)
Ade ro̩ omi kún ìgò náà
Ade ro̩ omi kún ìgò náà.
Ade
Ade
ro̩
pour
omi
water
kún
full
ìgò
bottle
náà
DEF
‘Ade filled the bottle with water.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1 V 2 3
(103)
Ade kó àgbàdo sí inúu o̩kò̩
Ade kó àgbàdo sí inúu o̩kò̩.
Ade
Ade
pack
àgbàdo
corn
PREP
inúu
interior.POSS
o̩kò̩
vehicle
‘Ade loaded the corn into the vehicle. / Ade loaded the vehicle with corn.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1 V 2 LOC3
(104)
Ade kó àgbàdo lé oríi o̩kò̩
Ade kó àgbàdo lé oríi o̩kò̩.
Ade
Ade
pack
àgbàdo
corn
PREP
oríi
head.POSS
o̩kò̩
vehicle
‘Ade loaded the corn onto the vehicle. / Ade loaded the vehicle with corn.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1 V 2 LOC3
(105)
Ade kó as̩o̩ lé oríi mi
Ade kó as̩o̩ lé oríi mi.
Ade
Ade
pack
as̩o̩
cloth
PREP
oríi
head.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade loaded the clothes onto my head. / Ade loaded me with clothes.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1 V 2 LOC3
(106)
Ade kó as̩o̩ lé mi ní orí
Ade kó as̩o̩ lé mi ní orí.
Ade
Ade
pack
as̩o̩
cloth
PREP
mi
1SG.O
PREP
orí
head
‘Ade loaded the clothes onto my head.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Possessive alternation
(107)
Ade s̩é̩jú sí wúndíá náà
Ade s̩é̩jú sí wúndíá náà.
Ade
Ade
s̩é̩jú
break.eye
PREP
wúndíá
virgin
náà
DEF
‘Ade blinked at the damsel.’
WINK a Coding frame:
1 V sí+2
(108)
Ade ń wúkó̩
Ade ń wúkó̩.
Ade
Ade
PROG
wúkó̩
dig.cough
‘Ade is coughing.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1 V
(109)
ikó̩ ń wú Ade
Ikó̩ ń wú Ade.
ikó̩
cough
PROG
dig
Ade
Ade
‘Ade is coughing.’
COUGH an Alternation:
Symmetrical alternation
(110)
Ade gun e̩s̩iìn mi
Ade gun e̩s̩iìn mi.
Ade
Ade
gun
climb
e̩s̩iìn
horse.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade climbed my horse. / Ade climbed onto my horse.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(111)
Ade gùn mí ní e̩s̩in̩
Ade gùn mí ní e̩s̩in̩.
Ade
Ade
gùn
climb
1SG.O
PREP
e̩s̩in̩
horse
‘Ade climbed my horse.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Possessive alternation
(112)
Ade sáré
Ade sáré.
Ade
Ade
sáré
run.race
‘Ade ran.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1 V
(113)
Ade sá
Ade sá.
Ade
Ade
run
‘Ade ran.’
RUN the Verb form sáré
(114)
Ade jókòó sí è̩báa odò
Ade jókòó sí è̩báa odò.
Ade
Ade
jókòó
sit
PREP
è̩báa
edge.POSS
odò
river
‘Ade sat by the shore.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1 V LOC2
(115)
Ade jókòó lé orí àga-ìkàwé
Ade jókòó lé orí àga-ìkàwé.
Ade
Ade
jókòó
sit
PREP
orí
head
àga-ìkàwé
table-reading
‘Ade sat on the reading desk.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1 V LOC2
(116)
Ade jókòó
Ade jókòó.
Ade
Ade
jókòó
sit
‘Ade sat (down).’
SIT the Verb form jókòó
(117)
Ade fòsókè
Ade fòsókè.
Ade
Ade
fòsókè
fly.PREP.up
‘Ade jumped (up).’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1 V
(118)
Ade bé̩sílè̩
Ade bé̩sílè̩.
Ade
Ade
bé̩sílè̩
dive.PREP.ground
‘Ade jumped (down).’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1 V
(119)
Ade ko̩rin
Ade ko̩rin.
Ade
Ade
ko̩rin
sing.song
‘Ade sang. / Ade sang a song.’
SING a Coding frame:
1 V
(120)
Ade lo̩ sí oko
Ade lo̩ sí oko.
Ade
Ade
lo̩
go
PREP
oko
farm
‘Ade went to the farm.’
GO a Coding frame:
1 V sí+2
(121)
Ade fi èkó sílè̩
Ade fi èkó sílè̩.
Ade
Ade
fi
take
èkó
Lagos
sílè̩
PREP.ground
‘Ade left Lagos. / Ade left the city of Lagos.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(122)
Ade ń gbé ní èkó
Ade ń gbé ní èkó.
Ade
Ade
PROG
gbé
live
PREP
èkó
Lagos
‘Ade lives in Lagos. / Ade lives in the city of Lagos.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1 V ní+2
(123)
Ade ré̩rìín
Ade ré̩rìín.
Ade
Ade
ré̩rìín
laugh.laughter
‘Ade laughed.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1 V
(124)
Bó̩lá ho̩n
Bó̩lá ho̩n.
Bó̩lá
Bola
ho̩n
scream
‘Bola screamed.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1 V
(125)
Ade ń móòtútù
Ade ń móòtútù.
Ade
Ade
PROG
móòtútù
catch.cold
‘Ade feels cold.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1 V
(126)
òtútù ń mú Ade
Òtútù ń mú Ade.
òtútù
cold
PROG
catch
Ade
Ade
‘Ade feels cold.’
FEEL COLD an Alternation:
Symmetrical alternation
(127)
ajá náà kú
Ajá náà kú.
ajá
dog
náà
DEF
die
‘The dog died. / The dog is dead.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1 V
(128)
o̩mo̩ náà ń s̩eré
O̩mo̩ náà ń s̩eré.
o̩mo̩
child
náà
DEF
PROG
s̩eré
play
‘The child is playing. / The child plays.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1 V
(129)
Ade banújé̩
Ade banújé̩.
Ade
Ade
banújé̩
make.belly.spoil
‘Ade is sad. / Ade feels sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1 V
(130)
inú Ade bàjé̩
Inú Ade bàjé̩.
inú
belly
Ade
Ade
bàjé̩
spoil
‘Ade is sad. / Ade feels sad.’
BE SAD an Alternation:
Symmetrical alternation
(131)
o̩mo̩ náà ń pebi
O̩mo̩ náà ń pebi.
o̩mo̩
child
náà
DEF
PROG
pebi
kill.hunger
‘The child is hungry. / The child feels hunger.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1 V
(132)
ebi ń pa o̩mo̩ náà
Ebi ń pa o̩mo̩ náà.
ebi
hunger
PROG
pa
kill
o̩mo̩
child
náà
DEF
‘The child is hungry. / The child feels hunger.’
BE HUNGRY an Alternation:
Symmetrical alternation
(133)
Ade yí garawa náà
Ade yí garawa náà.
Ade
Ade
roll
garawa
bushel
náà
DEF
‘Ade rolled the bushel.’
ROLL the Verb form
(134)
garawa náà yí
Garawa náà yí.
garawa
bushel
náà
DEF
roll
‘The bushel rolled.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1 V
(135)
ìgò náà rì
Ìgò náà rì.
ìgò
bottle
náà
DEF
sink
‘The bottle sank.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1 V
(136)
Ilée wó̩n jó
Ilée wó̩n jó.
ilée
house.POSS
wó̩n
3PL.POSS
burn
‘Their house burnt. / Their house was burnt.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1 V
(137)
Ilée wó̩n jóná
Ilée wó̩n jóná.
ilée
house.POSS
wó̩n
3PL.POSS
jóná
burn.fire
‘Their house burnt. / Their house was burnt.’
BURN the Verb form
(138)
ìkòkò omi náà gbe̩
Ìkòkò omi náà gbe̩.
ìkòkò
pot
omi
water
náà
DEF
gbe̩
dry
‘The water pot is dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1 V
(139)
òjò ń rò̩
Òjò ń rò̩.
òjò
rain
PROG
rò̩
fall
‘It is raining.’
RAIN the Verb form rò̩jò
(140)
ó ń rò̩jò
Ó ń rò̩jò.
ó
3SG.S
PROG
rò̩jò
pour.rain
‘It is raining.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
V
(141)
Ade lo̩ ata náà
Ade lo̩ ata náà.
Ade
Ade
lo̩
grind
ata
pepper
náà
DEF
‘Ade ground the pepper.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(142)
Ade fi o̩lo̩ lo̩ ata náà
Ade fi o̩lo̩ lo̩ ata náà.
Ade
Ade
fi
take
o̩lo̩
grinding_stone
lo̩
grind
ata
pepper
náà
DEF
‘Ade ground the pepper with a grinding stone.’
GRIND the Verb form lò̩ (2)
(143)
Ade nu è̩ko̩ e̩nu o̩mo̩ náà (nù)
Ade nu è̩ko̩ e̩nu o̩mo̩ náà (nù).
Ade
Ade
nu
wipe
è̩ko̩
pap
e̩nu
mouth
o̩mo̩
child
náà
DEF
(nù)
(away)
‘Ade wiped off the pap on the child's mouth.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(144)
Ade gbé̩ ihò òkété
Ade gbé̩ ihò òkété.
Ade
Ade
gbé̩
dig
ihò
hole
òkété
giant_rat
‘Ade dug for a giant rat.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(145)
Ade ti Bó̩lá
Ade ti Bó̩lá.
Ade
Ade
ti
push
Bó̩lá
Bola
‘Ade pushed Bola. / Ade gave Bola a push.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(146)
Ade ti Bó̩lá sí kòtò
Ade ti Bó̩lá sí kòtò.
Ade
Ade
ti
push
Bó̩lá
Bola
PREP
kòtò
pit
‘Ade pushed Bola into a pit.’
PUSH the Verb form
(147)
Ade mú ìwé kan wá
Ade mú ìwé kan wá.
Ade
Ade
grab
ìwé
book
kan
INDEF
come
‘Ade brought a book.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(148)
Ade mú ìwé kan wá fún Bó̩lá
Ade mú ìwé kan wá fún Bó̩lá.
Ade
Ade
grab
ìwé
book
kan
INDEF
come
fún
PREP
Bó̩lá
Bola
‘Ade brought a book to Bola.’
BRING the Verb form mú...wá
(149)
Ade jí owóò mi
Ade jí owóò mi.
Ade
Ade
steal
owóò
money.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade stole my money.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(150)
Ade jí mi ní owó
Ade jí mi ní owó.
Ade
Ade
steal
mi
1SG.O
PREP
owó
money
‘Ade stole my money.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Possessive alternation
(151)
olùkó̩ni kó̩ wa
Olùkó̩ni kó̩ wa.
olùkó̩ni
teacher
kó̩
teach
wa
1PL.O
‘The teacher taught us.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Theme-dropping alternation
(152)
olùkó̩ni kó̩ wa ní ìwé
Olùkó̩ni kó̩ wa ní ìwé.
olùkó̩ni
teacher
kó̩
teach
wa
1PL.O
PREP
ìwé
book
‘The teacher taught us.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1 V 2 ní+3
(153)
Ade gbó̩ ìwàásù náà
Ade gbó̩ ìwàásù náà.
Ade
Ade
gbó̩
hear
ìwàásù
sermon
náà
DEF
‘Ade heard the sermon.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(154)
Ade se è̩pà fún wa
Ade se è̩pà fún wa.
Ade
Ade
se
cook
è̩pà
peanuts
fún
PREP
wa
1PL.O
‘Ade cooked some peanuts for us to eat.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(155)
Ade dáná fún wa
Ade dáná fún wa.
Ade
Ade
dáná
cook
fún
PREP
wa
1PL.O
‘Ade cooked for us. / Ade cooked for us to eat.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1 V
(156)
è̩pà náà sè
È̩pà náà sè.
è̩pà
peanuts
náà
DEF
cook
‘The peanuts were cooked.’
COOK an Alternation:
Inchoative-causative
(157)
Ade se è̩pà náà
Ade se è̩pà náà.
Ade
Ade
se
cook
è̩pà
peanuts
náà
DEF
‘Ade cooked the peanuts.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(158)
omi náà ń hó
Omi náà ń hó.
omi
water
náà
DEF
PROG
boil
‘The water is boiling.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1 V
(159)
Ade farahàn fún mi
Ade farahàn fún mi.
Ade
Ade
farahàn
take.body.show
fún
PREP
mi
1SG.O
‘Ade appeared to me.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1 V fún+2
(160)
Ade farahàn mi
Ade farahàn mi.
Ade
Ade
farahàn
take.body.show
mi
1SG.O
‘Ade appeared to me.’
APPEAR an Alternation:
Preposition-dropping
(161)
Ade farahàn
Ade farahàn.
Ade
Ade
farahàn
take.body.show
‘Ade appeared.’
APPEAR the Verb form farahàn
(162)
ìyá-àgbà ń s̩àárè̩
Ìyá-àgbà ń s̩àárè̩.
ìyá-àgbà
mother-elder
PROG
s̩àárè̩
do.sickness
‘Grandmother is ill.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
1 V
(163)
àárè̩ ń s̩e ìyá-àgbà
Àárè̩ ń s̩e ìyá-àgbà.
àárè̩
sickness
PROG
s̩e
do
ìyá-àgbà
mother-elder
‘Grandmother is ill.’
BE ILL an Alternation:
Symmetrical alternation
(164)
Ade sunkún
Ade sunkún.
Ade
Ade
sunkún
ooze.lamentation
‘Ade cried.’
CRY a Coding frame:
1 V
(165)
Ade s̩ubú
Ade s̩ubú.
Ade
Ade
s̩ubú
fall
‘Ade fell.’
FALL a Coding frame:
1 V
(166)
Ade fi màrìwò s̩e apè̩rè̩
Ade fi màrìwò s̩e apè̩rè̩.
Ade
Ade
fi
take
màrìwò
palmfrond
s̩e
make
apè̩rè̩
basket
‘Ade made a basket out of palm frond.’
MAKE a Coding frame:
1 fi+2 V 3
(167)
Adé s̩e apè̩rè̩ náà ní ti oní màrìwò
Adé s̩e apè̩rè̩ náà ní ti oní màrìwò.
Adé
Ade
s̩e
make
apè̩rè̩
basket
náà
DEF
PREP
ti
that
oní
one.of
màrìwò
palmfrond
‘Ade made the basket out of palm frond.’
MAKE an Alternation:
Fi/ní alternation
(168)
Ade gba owó náà
Ade gba owó náà.
Ade
Ade
gba
receive
owó
money
náà
DEF
‘Ade received the money.’
GET a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(169)
Ade gba owó náà ní o̩wó̩ò̩ mi
Ade gba owó náà ní o̩wó̩ò̩ mi.
Ade
Ade
gba
receive
owó
money
náà
DEF
PREP
o̩wó̩ò̩
hand.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade received the money from me.’
GET the Verb form gbà (2)
(170)
mo fé̩ èyí
Mo fé̩ èyí.
mo
1SG.S
fé̩
want
èyí
this
‘I want this (one).’
WANT a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(171)
mo fé̩ gba èyí
Mo fé̩ gba èyí.
mo
1SG.S
fé̩
want
gba
receive
èyí
this
‘I want to have this (one). / I want this (one).’
WANT the Verb form fé̩
(172)
mo fé̩ láti gba èyí
Mo fé̩ láti gba èyí.
mo
1SG.S
fé̩
want
láti
INF
gba
receive
èyí
this
‘I want to have this (one). / I want this (one).’
WANT the Verb form fé̩
(173)
Ade je̩ ónje̩è̩ mi
Ade je̩ ónje̩è̩ mi.
Ade
Ade
je̩
eat
ónje̩è̩
food.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade ate my food.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(174)
Ade je̩ mí ní ónj́e̩
Ade je̩ mí ní ónj́e̩.
Ade
Ade
je̩
eat
1SG.O
PREP
ónj́e̩
food
‘Ade ate my food.’
EAT an Alternation:
Possessive alternation
(175)
Ade gbá oríi mi
Ade gbá oríi mi.
Ade
Ade
gbá
hit
oríi
head.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade hit my head.’
HIT a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(176)
Ade gé e
Ade gé e.
Ade
Ade
cut
e
3SG.O
‘Ade cut it.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(177)
Ade s̩é̩jú
Ade s̩é̩jú.
Ade
Ade
s̩é̩jú
break.eye
‘Ade blinked.’
WINK the Verb form s̩é̩jú
(178)
Ade lo̩
Ade lo̩.
Ade
Ade
lo̩
go
‘Ade went.’
GO an Alternation:
Oblique-dropping
(179)
onís̩ègùn náà pa o̩mo̩ò̩ mi
Onís̩ègùn náà pa o̩mo̩ò̩ mi.
onís̩ègùn
doctor
náà
DEF
pa
kill
o̩mo̩ò̩
child.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘The doctor killed my child.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(180)
onís̩ègùn náà pa mí ní o̩mo̩
Onís̩ègùn náà pa mí ní o̩mo̩.
onís̩ègùn
doctor
náà
DEF
pa
kill
1SG.O
PREP
o̩mo̩
child
‘The doctor killed my child.’
KILL an Alternation:
Possessive alternation
(181)
Ade ko̩ oriìn mi
Ade ko̩ oriìn mi.
Ade
Ade
ko̩
sing
oriìn
song.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade sang my song.’
SING the Verb form ko̩rin
(182)
Ade ko̩ mí ní orin
Ade ko̩ mí ní orin.
Ade
Ade
ko̩
sing
1SG.O
PREP
orin
song
‘Ade sang my song.’
SING an Alternation:
Possessive alternation
(183)
Ajá náà run o̩wó̩o̩ rè̩
Ajá náà run o̩wó̩o̩ rè̩.
Ajá
dog
náà
DEF
run
smell
o̩wó̩o̩
hand.POSS
rè̩
3SG.POSS
‘The dog smelled its/his/her hand.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(184)
Adé múra
Adé múra.
Adé
Ade
múra
dress
‘Ade dressed.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Oblique-dropping
(185)
Adé pàdé Bó̩lá ní ilé
Adé pàdé Bó̩lá ní ilé.
Adé
Ade
pàdé
meet
Bó̩lá
Bola
PREP
ilé
home
‘Ade met Bola at home.’
MEET the Verb form pàdé
(186)
Ìyáà mí pè mí ní Adé.
Ìyáà mí pè mí ní Adé.
ìyáà
mother.POSS
1SG.POSS
call
1SG.O
PREP
Adé
Ade
‘My mother called me Ade. / My mother named me Ade.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1 V 2 ní+3
(187)
Ìyáà mí fi Adé pè mí.
Ìyáà mí fi Adé pè mí.
ìyáà
mother.POSS
1SG.POSS
fi
take
Adé
Ade
call
1SG.O
‘My mother called me Ade. / My mother named me Ade.’
NAME an Alternation:
Ní/fi alternation
(188)
Ade dá egungun e̩sè̩ mi.
Ade dá egungun e̩sè̩è̩ mi.
Ade
Ade
break
egungun
bone
e̩sè̩è̩
leg.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade broke my leg (lit. Ade broke the bone of my leg).’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(189)
Egungun e̩sè̩ mi dá
Egungun e̩sè̩è̩ mi dá.
Egungun
bone
e̩sè̩è̩
leg.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
break
‘My leg bone broke.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Inchoative-causative
(190)
Ade dá mi ní egungun e̩sè̩
Ade dá mi ní egungun e̩sè̩.
Ade
Ade
break
mi
1SG.POSS
PREP
egungun
bone
e̩sè̩
leg
‘Ade broke my leg bone.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Possessive alternation
(191)
Ade na o̩mo̩ wa
Ade na o̩mo̩ wa.
Ade
Ade
na
beat
o̩mo̩
child
wa
1PL.POSS
‘Ade beat our child.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(192)
Ade fi e̩gba na o̩mo̩ wa
Ade fi e̩gba na o̩mo̩ wa.
Ade
Ade
fi
take
e̩gba
whip
na
beat
o̩mo̩
child
wa
1PL.POSS
‘Ade beat our child with a whip.’
BEAT the Verb form
(193)
Ade na o̩mo̩ wa ní e̩gba
Ade na o̩mo̩ wa ní e̩gba.
Ade
Ade
na
beat
o̩mo̩
child
wa
1PL.POSS
PREP
e̩gba
whip
‘Ade beat our child with a whip.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Fi/ní alternation
(194)
Ade nà wa ní o̩mo̩
Ade nà wa ní o̩mo̩.
Ade
Ade
beat
wa
1PL.POSS
PREP
o̩mo̩
child
‘Ade beat our child.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Possessive alternation
(195)
Adé fi owó lé orí mi.
Adé fi owó lé oríì mi.
Adé
Ade
fi
take
owó
money
PREP
oríi
head.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade put money on my head.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1 V 2 LOC3
(196)
Adé fi owó lé mi ní orí
Adé fi owó lé mi ní orí.
Adé
Ade
fi
put
owó
money
PREP
mi
1SG.O
PREP
orí
head
‘Ade put money on my head.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1 V 2 LOC3
(197)
Adé bá Bó̩lá
Adé bá Bó̩lá.
Adé
Ade
meet
Bó̩lá
Bola
‘Ade met Bola.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(198)
Adé jágbe mó̩ wa
Adé jágbe mó̩ wa.
Adé
Ade
jágbe
shout
mó̩
PREP
wa
1PL.O
‘Ade shouted at us.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1 V mó̩+2
(199)
ó bà mí
ó bà mí.
ó
3SG.S
touch
1SG.O
‘It touched me.’
TOUCH the Verb form
(200)
Ade bà mí ní igi
Ade bà mí ní igi.
Ade
Ade
touch
1SG.O
PREP
igi
stick
‘Ade touched me with a stick.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Fi/ní alternation
(201)
Adé so e̩sè̩ mi ní okùn
Adé so e̩sè̩ mi ní okùn.
Adé
Ade
so
tie
e̩sè̩
leg
mi
1SG.POSS
PREP
okùn
rope
‘Ade tied my legs with a rope.’
TIE an Alternation:
Fi/ní alternation
(202)
Adé ro̩ epo lé oríi mi
Adé ro̩ epo lé oríi mi.
Adé
Ade
ro̩
pour
epo
oil
PREP
oríi
head.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade poured oil on my head.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1 V 2 LOC3
(203)
Adé ro̩ epo lé mi ní orí
Adé ro̩ epo lé mi ní orí.
Adé
Ade
ro̩
pour
epo
oil
PREP
mi
1SG.O
PREP
orí
head
‘Ade poured oil on my head.’
POUR an Alternation:
Possessive alternation
(204)
Ade bò mí ní as̩o̩.
Ade
Ade
cover
ISG.O
PREP
as̩o̩
cloth
‘Ade covered me with a (piece of) cloth.’
COVER an Alternation:
Fi/ní alternation