Preposition-dropping U

Description

A prepositional argument of the basic frame becomes a prepositionless object of the alternate frame.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
THINK rònú R
(15)
Ade
Ade
ronú
think
nípa
PREP
ò̩rò̩
word
náà
DEF
‘Ade thought about the matter (lit. Ade thinks about the word).’
ASK FOR to̩ro̩ R
(31)
Ade
Ade
to̩ro̩
ask
owó
money
PREP
o̩wó̩ò̩
hand.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade asked for money from me. / Ade begged me for some money.’
APPEAR farahàn R
(159)
Ade
Ade
farahàn
take.body.show
fún
PREP
mi
1SG.O
‘Ade appeared to me.’
EAT je̩ N
(1)
Ade
Ade
je̩
eat
è̩wà
beans
‘Ade ate beans.’
(173)
Ade
Ade
je̩
eat
ónje̩è̩
food.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade ate my food.’
HUG dìrò̩mó̩ N
(3)
Adé
Ade
dìrò̩mó̩
hug
ìyáa
mother.POSS
rè̩
3SG.POSS
‘Ade hugged his mother.’
LOOK AT N
(4)
Ade
Ade
wo
look
Bó̩lá
Bola
‘Ade looked at Bola.’
SEE N
(5)
Ade
Ade
see
ilé
house
náà
DEF
‘Ade saw the house.’
SMELL rùn N
(7)
ó
3SG.S
run
smell
o̩wó̩o̩
hand.POSS
rè̩
3SG.POSS
look
‘He smelled his hand.’
(183)
Ajá
dog
náà
DEF
run
smell
o̩wó̩o̩
hand.POSS
rè̩
3SG.POSS
‘The dog smelled its/his/her hand.’
FEAR bè̩rù N
(9)
Ade
Ade
bè̩rù
fear
omi-òkun
water-ocean
‘Ade feared the ocean.’
FRIGHTEN dé̩rùbà N
(11)
Ade
Ade
dé̩rùba
frighten
Bó̩lá
Bola
‘Ade frightened Bola.’
LIKE fé̩ràn N
(12)
olùkó̩ni
teacher
náà
DEF
fé̩ràn
like
o̩mo̩dé
little.children
‘The teacher likes little children.’
KNOW mò̩ N
(13)
Ade
Ade
mo̩
know
àwo̩n
PL
òbíi
parents.POSS
rè̩
3SG.POSS
‘Ade knows his parents.’
SEARCH FOR N
(18)
o̩de̩
hunter
náà
DEF
ń
PROG
look
ìgbín
snail
‘The hunter is looking for snails. / The hunter is searching for snails.’
WASH fò̩ N
(19)
Adé
Ade
fo̩
wash
o̩wó̩o̩
hand.POSS
rè̩
3SG.POSS
méjèèjì
two.two
‘Ade washed both his two hands.’
WASH wè̩ N
(20)
Ade
Ade
we̩
bathe
o̩mo̩
child
náà
DEF
‘Ade bathe the child.’
DRESS múra N
(22)
Ade
Ade
múra
dress
fún
PREP
Bó̩lá
Bola
‘Ade dressed Bola.’
HELP ràn...ló̩wó̩ N
(24)
o̩de̩
hunter
kan
INDEF
ran
render
aláboyún
pregnant.one
náà
DEF
ló̩wó̩
PREP.hand
‘A hunter helped the pregnant woman.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) N
(25)
Ade
Ade
shave
irun-abíyá
hair-armpit
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade shaved my armpit.’
FOLLOW tè̩lé N
(27)
mo
1SG.S
tè̩lé
follow
Ade
Ade
‘I followed Ade. / I accompanied Ade.’
MEET pàdé N
(28)
Ade
Ade
pàdé
meet
Bó̩lá
Bola
‘Ade mets Bola.’
TALK bá...sò̩rò̩ N
(30)
Ade
Ade
join
Bó̩lá
Bola
sò̩rò̩
talk
‘Ade talked to Bola.’
SHOUT AT kígbe N
(34)
Ade
Ade
kígbe
cry.noise
mó̩
PREP
O̩ló̩run
God
‘Ade shouted at God.’
TELL so̩ (1) N
(35)
Ade
Ade
so̩
tell
ò̩rò̩
word
náà
DEF
fún
PREP
mi
1SG.O
‘Ade told me about the matter. / Ade informed me of the matter.’
NAME so̩ (2) N
(37)
ìyáà
mother.POSS
1SG.POSS
so̩
name
1SG.O
PREP
Adé
Ade
‘My mother named me Ade. / My mother called me Ade.’
BUILD kó̩ N
(39)
Ade
Ade
fi
take
amò̩
clay
kó̩
build
ilé
house
náà
DEF
‘Ade built the house with clay.’
BREAK fó̩ N
(42)
Ade
Ade
fi
take
irin
iron
fó̩
break
kòkò
pot
omi
water
náà
DEF
‘Ade broke the water pot with an iron.’
KILL pa N
(47)
o̩ló̩pàá
police
náà
DEF
pa
kill
adigunjalè
armed.robber
kan
INDEF
‘The police man killed an armed robber.’
(179)
onís̩ègùn
doctor
náà
DEF
pa
kill
o̩mo̩ò̩
child.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘The doctor killed my child.’
BEAT N
(49)
Ade
Ade
lu
beat
o̩mo̩
child
wa
1PL.POSS
‘Ade beat our child.’
HIT gbá N
(175)
Ade
Ade
gbá
hit
oríi
head.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade hit my head.’
TOUCH kàn N
(57)
Ade
Ade
fi
take
igi
stick
kàn
touch
1SG.O
‘Ade touched me with a stick.’
CUT N
(61)
Ade
Ade
fi
take
ò̩be̩
knife
cut
etíi
ear.POSS
Bó̩lá
Bola
‘Ade cut Bola's ear with a knife.’
(176)
Ade
Ade
cut
e
3SG.O
‘Ade cut it.’
TAKE gbà N
(66)
Ade
Ade
gba
take
ìwé
book
náà
DEF
PREP
ilé-ìwé
house-book
‘Ade took the book from the school. / Ade collected the book from the school.’
TEAR ya N
(67)
Ade
Ade
ya
tear
as̩o̩o̩
cloth.POSS
Bó̩lá
Bola
‘Ade tore Bola's cloth.’
PEEL N
(70)
oje-ò̩gè̩dè̩
sap-banana
náà
DEF
peel
as̩o̩ò̩
cloth.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘The banana sap peeled (off) my cloth. / The banana sap bleached my cloth.’
HIDE pa...mó̩ N
(73)
obìrin
woman
náà
DEF
pa
V1
ojúu
eye.POSS
rè̩
3SG.POSS
mó̩
V2
‘The woman hid her face.’
SHOW hàn N
(75)
Ade
Ade
fi
take
ilée
house.POSS
rè̩
3SG.POSS
hàn
show
1SG.O
‘Ade showed his house to me. / Ade showed me his house.’
GIVE fún N
(77)
o̩bá
king
fún
give
o̩de̩
hunter
náà
DEF
PREP
o̩mo̩
child
rè̩
3SG.POSS
‘The king gave his child to the hunter.’
SEND ráns̩é̩ N
(80)
Ade
Ade
fi
take
owó
money
ráns̩é̩
send
PREP
mi
1SG.O
‘Ade sent some money to me.’
CARRY gbé N
(81)
Ade
Ade
gbé
carry
e̩rù
load
náà
DEF
‘Ade carried the load.’
THROW N
(82)
Ade
Ade
ju
throw
òkúta
rock
kan
INDEF
‘Ade threw a rock.’
TIE N
(85)
Ade
Ade
fi
take
okùn
rope
de
tie
e̩sè̩
leg
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade tied my legs with a rope.’
PUT fi N
(89)
Ade
Ade
fi
take
owó
money
put
àpò
pocket
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade put some money in my pocket.’
(195)
Adé
Ade
fi
take
owó
money
PREP
oríi
head.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade put money on my head.’
(196)
Adé
Ade
fi
put
owó
money
PREP
mi
1SG.O
PREP
orí
head
‘Ade put money on my head.’
POUR N
(91)
Ade
Ade
da
pour
epo
oil
PREP
inúu
interior.POSS
garawa
bushel
‘Ade poured some oil into a bushel.’
(93)
Ade
Ade
da
pour
epo
oil
PREP
oríi
head.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade poured some oil on my head.’
COVER N
(96)
Ade
Ade
fi
take
as̩o̩
cloth
cover
1SG.O
‘Ade covered me with a (piece of) cloth.’
FILL po̩n...kún N
(101)
Ade
Ade
po̩n
pour
omi
water
kún
full
garawa
bushel
náà
DEF
‘Ade filled the bushel with water.’
WINK s̩é̩jú N
(107)
Ade
Ade
s̩é̩jú
break.eye
PREP
wúndíá
virgin
náà
DEF
‘Ade blinked at the damsel.’
COUGH wúkó̩ N
(108)
Ade
Ade
PROG
wúkó̩
dig.cough
‘Ade is coughing.’
CLIMB gùn N
(110)
Ade
Ade
gun
climb
e̩s̩iìn
horse.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade climbed my horse. / Ade climbed onto my horse.’
RUN sáré N
(112)
Ade
Ade
sáré
run.race
‘Ade ran.’
SIT jókòó N
(114)
Ade
Ade
jókòó
sit
PREP
è̩báa
edge.POSS
odò
river
‘Ade sat by the shore.’
(115)
Ade
Ade
jókòó
sit
PREP
orí
head
àga-ìkàwé
table-reading
‘Ade sat on the reading desk.’
JUMP fòsókè N
(117)
Ade
Ade
fòsókè
fly.PREP.up
‘Ade jumped (up).’
SING ko̩rin N
(119)
Ade
Ade
ko̩rin
sing.song
‘Ade sang. / Ade sang a song.’
GO lo̩ N
(120)
Ade
Ade
lo̩
go
PREP
oko
farm
‘Ade went to the farm.’
LEAVE fi...sílè̩ N
(121)
Ade
Ade
fi
take
èkó
Lagos
sílè̩
PREP.ground
‘Ade left Lagos. / Ade left the city of Lagos.’
LIVE gbé (2) N
(122)
Ade
Ade
PROG
gbé
live
PREP
èkó
Lagos
‘Ade lives in Lagos. / Ade lives in the city of Lagos.’
LAUGH ré̩rìín N
(123)
Ade
Ade
ré̩rìín
laugh.laughter
‘Ade laughed.’
SCREAM ho̩n N
(124)
Bó̩lá
Bola
ho̩n
scream
‘Bola screamed.’
FEEL COLD móòtútù N
(125)
Ade
Ade
PROG
móòtútù
catch.cold
‘Ade feels cold.’
DIE N
(127)
ajá
dog
náà
DEF
die
‘The dog died. / The dog is dead.’
PLAY s̩eré N
(128)
o̩mo̩
child
náà
DEF
PROG
s̩eré
play
‘The child is playing. / The child plays.’
BE SAD banújé̩ N
(129)
Ade
Ade
banújé̩
make.belly.spoil
‘Ade is sad. / Ade feels sad.’
BE HUNGRY pebi N
(131)
o̩mo̩
child
náà
DEF
PROG
pebi
kill.hunger
‘The child is hungry. / The child feels hunger.’
ROLL N
(134)
garawa
bushel
náà
DEF
roll
‘The bushel rolled.’
SINK rì (2) N
(135)
ìgò
bottle
náà
DEF
sink
‘The bottle sank.’
BURN N
(136)
ilée
house.POSS
wó̩n
3PL.POSS
burn
‘Their house burnt. / Their house was burnt.’
BE DRY gbe̩ (3) N
(138)
ìkòkò
pot
omi
water
náà
DEF
gbe̩
dry
‘The water pot is dry.’
RAIN rò̩jò N
(140)
ó
3SG.S
PROG
rò̩jò
pour.rain
‘It is raining.’
GRIND lò̩ (2) N
(141)
Ade
Ade
lo̩
grind
ata
pepper
náà
DEF
‘Ade ground the pepper.’
WIPE N
(143)
Ade
Ade
nu
wipe
è̩ko̩
pap
e̩nu
mouth
o̩mo̩
child
náà
DEF
(nù)
(away)
‘Ade wiped off the pap on the child's mouth.’
DIG gbé̩ N
(144)
Ade
Ade
gbé̩
dig
ihò
hole
òkété
giant_rat
‘Ade dug for a giant rat.’
PUSH N
(145)
Ade
Ade
ti
push
Bó̩lá
Bola
‘Ade pushed Bola. / Ade gave Bola a push.’
BRING mú...wá N
(147)
Ade
Ade
grab
ìwé
book
kan
INDEF
come
‘Ade brought a book.’
STEAL N
(149)
Ade
Ade
steal
owóò
money.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade stole my money.’
TEACH kó̩ (2) N
(152)
olùkó̩ni
teacher
kó̩
teach
wa
1PL.O
PREP
ìwé
book
‘The teacher taught us.’
HEAR gbó̩ N
(153)
Ade
Ade
gbó̩
hear
ìwàásù
sermon
náà
DEF
‘Ade heard the sermon.’
COOK N
(154)
Ade
Ade
se
cook
è̩pà
peanuts
fún
PREP
wa
1PL.O
‘Ade cooked some peanuts for us to eat.’
(157)
Ade
Ade
se
cook
è̩pà
peanuts
náà
DEF
‘Ade cooked the peanuts.’
BOIL N
(158)
omi
water
náà
DEF
PROG
boil
‘The water is boiling.’
BE ILL s̩àárè̩ N
(162)
ìyá-àgbà
mother-elder
PROG
s̩àárè̩
do.sickness
‘Grandmother is ill.’
CRY sunkún N
(164)
Ade
Ade
sunkún
ooze.lamentation
‘Ade cried.’
FALL s̩ubú N
(165)
Ade
Ade
s̩ubú
fall
‘Ade fell.’
MAKE s̩e N
(166)
Ade
Ade
fi
take
màrìwò
palmfrond
s̩e
make
apè̩rè̩
basket
‘Ade made a basket out of palm frond.’
GET gbà (2) N
(168)
Ade
Ade
gba
receive
owó
money
náà
DEF
‘Ade received the money.’
WANT fé̩ N
(170)
mo
1SG.S
fé̩
want
èyí
this
‘I want this (one).’
NAME N
(186)
ìyáà
mother.POSS
1SG.POSS
call
1SG.O
PREP
Adé
Ade
‘My mother called me Ade. / My mother named me Ade.’
BREAK kán N
(41)
Ade
Ade
kán
break
egungun
bone
e̩sè̩
leg
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade broke my leg.’
BREAK N
(188)
Ade
Ade
break
egungun
bone
e̩sè̩è̩
leg.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade broke my leg (lit. Ade broke the bone of my leg).’
BEAT N
(191)
Ade
Ade
na
beat
o̩mo̩
child
wa
1PL.POSS
‘Ade beat our child.’
MEET N
(197)
Adé
Ade
meet
Bó̩lá
Bola
‘Ade met Bola.’
SHOUT AT jágbe N
(198)
Adé
Ade
jágbe
shout
mó̩
PREP
wa
1PL.O
‘Ade shouted at us.’
HIT ko̩lù N
(54)
Ade
Ade
fi
take
kè̩ké̩e̩
bicycle.POSS
rè̩
3SG.POSS
ko̩lù
hit
1SG.O
‘Ade hit me with his bicycle.’
TOUCH N
(59)
Ade
Ade
fi
take
igi
stick
touch
mi
1SG.O
‘Ade touched me with a stick.’
TIE so (3) N
(86)
Ade
Ade
fi
take
okùn
rope
so
tie
e̩sè̩
leg
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade ties my legs with a rope.’
POUR ro̩ N
(92)
Ade
Ade
ro̩
pour
epo
oil
PREP
inú
interior
ìgò
bottle
‘Ade poured some oil into a bottle.’
(202)
Adé
Ade
ro̩
pour
epo
oil
PREP
oríi
head.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade poured oil on my head.’
COVER N
(97)
Ade
Ade
fi
take
fìlà
cap
cover
oríì
head.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade covered my head with a cap. / Ade placed a cap on my head.’
FILL ro̩...kún N
(102)
Ade
Ade
ro̩
pour
omi
water
kún
full
ìgò
bottle
náà
DEF
‘Ade filled the bottle with water.’
LOAD N
(103)
Ade
Ade
pack
àgbàdo
corn
PREP
inúu
interior.POSS
o̩kò̩
vehicle
‘Ade loaded the corn into the vehicle. / Ade loaded the vehicle with corn.’
(104)
Ade
Ade
pack
àgbàdo
corn
PREP
oríi
head.POSS
o̩kò̩
vehicle
‘Ade loaded the corn onto the vehicle. / Ade loaded the vehicle with corn.’
(105)
Ade
Ade
pack
as̩o̩
cloth
PREP
oríi
head.POSS
mi
1SG.POSS
‘Ade loaded the clothes onto my head. / Ade loaded me with clothes.’
JUMP bé̩sílè̩ N
(118)
Ade
Ade
bé̩sílè̩
dive.PREP.ground
‘Ade jumped (down).’
COOK dáná N
(155)
Ade
Ade
dáná
cook
fún
PREP
wa
1PL.O
‘Ade cooked for us. / Ade cooked for us to eat.’