bittua (1)

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The difference between the meanings SHOW and SEND in Yaqui is determined by the coding frame that is required. SEND allows as its basic coding frame the directional benefactive, while SHOW requires a double object construction.

The example 94 shows a different coding frame for SEND because the recipient is ANIMATE. If it the case, the 2-participant requires the combination of ACC-+DIR in order to mark an animated sending recipient. Other cases do not require the accusative, as example 43.

Coding frame

Examples

(43)
Joanta ne Potammeu bittua.
Joan-ta
Juan-acc
ne
1sg
Potam-me-u
Potam-nmlz-dir
bittua
send
‘I am sending Juan to Potam.’
(94)
Mariatau ne librom bittuak.
Maria-ta-u
Maria-acc-dir
ne
1sg
libro-m
book-pl
bittua-k
send-pfv
‘I sent the book to Maria.’

Verb meaning , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# SEND Coding set Argument type
1 sender NP-nom A
2 sending recipient NP-dir X
3 sent thing NP-acc P

Alternations

Alternation name Occurs Examples
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y
C
R y
(490)
‘Flowers can be sent.’
U
R n
(493)
‘Juan sends something to someone.’
U
N n
C
R It is a derived causative verb. y
(325)
‘The man made the girl send the book to the teacher.’
C
R y
(489)
‘Juan sent Pedro's documents to Potam.’
U
N already includes a directional object n
C
R y
(492)
‘The letter has been sent. / The sent letter.’
C
R y
(491)
‘The letter was sent there.’
C
N y
C
N y