Examples of Yaqui

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
Inepo soto'ita mesapo mana.
inepo
1sg.subj
soto'i-ta
pot-acc
mesa-po
table-loc
mana
put
‘I am putting the pot on the table.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc LOC3 V
(2)
Juan mansanata bwa'e.
Juan
Juan
mansana-ta
apple-acc
bwa'e
eat
‘Juan is eating an apple.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(3)
Juan Mariata ibaktak.
Juan
Juan
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
ibakta-k
hug-pfv
‘Juan hugged Maria.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(4)
Empo tomita etbwa.
empo
2sg.subj
tomi-ta
money-acc
etbwa
steal
‘You are stealing money.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(5)
Inepo tomita essok.
inepo
1sg.subj
tomi-ta
money-acc
esso-k
hide-pfv
‘I hid the money.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(6)
Kat soto'i-ta kuta-e beba!
kat
neg
soto'i-ta
pot-acc
kuta-e
stick-instr
beba
hit
‘Do not hit the pot with the stick!’
HIT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(7)
Nim ji'are Alma tea.
nim
1sg.pos
ji'are
girlfriend
Alma
Alma
tea
be_called
‘My girlfriend's name is Alma.’
BE NAMED a Coding frame:
1-nom 2 V
(8)
Jabetau empo chaae?
jabe-ta-u
someone-acc-dir
empo
2sg.subj
chaae
shout
‘Whom are you shouting at?’
SCREAM an Alternation:
Directional Object
(9)
Ili uusi jamut ili uusita tejwa ...
ili
small
uusi
child
jamut
female
ili
small
uusi-ta
child-acc
tejwa
tell
‘The girl says to the boy...’
SAY the Verb form tejwa
(10)
Jabeta empo tejwa?
jabe-ta
someone-acc
empo
2sg.subj
tejwa
tell
‘To whom are you talking?’
SAY a Coding frame:
1-nom UTT2 (3-acc) V
(11)
U ili uusi chu'uta majae.
u
det
ili
small
uusi
child
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
majae
fear
‘The child is afraid of the dog.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(12)
Ume ili uusim ju'upat ja'amu.
ume
det.pl
ili
little
uusi-m
child-pl
ju'upa-t
tree-loc
ja'amu
climb
‘The children are climbing at the tree.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-loc) V
(13)
U ili uusi tebaure.
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
tebaure
be_hungry
‘The child is hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(14)
U jamut ousi kupikte.
u
det
jamut
woman
ousi
much
kupikte
blink.intr
‘The woman blinks too much.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(15)
Loola ousi tompo wante.
Loola
Lola
ousi
int
tom-po
stomach-loc
wante
feel_pain
‘Lola is feeling much pain in her stomach.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(16)
Joan jiba aache.
Joan
Juan
jiba
always
aache
laugh
‘Juan always laughs.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(17)
Inepo juka kari bwe'uta tu'ure.
inepo
1sg.subj
ju-ka
det-acc
kari
house
bwe'u-ta
big-acc
tu'ure
like
‘I like the big house.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(18)
Inepo Dianata tu'ure.
inepo
1sg.subj
Diana-ta
Diana-acc
tu'ure
like
‘I like Diana.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(19)
U miisi ili uusita gomgomta.
u
det
miisi
cat
ili
small
uusi-ta
child-acc
gom~gomta
rdp:hab~frighten
‘The cat frightens the little boy.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(20)
U ili uusi gomtek.
u
det
ili
small
uusi
child
gomte-k
frighten.intr-pfv
‘The little boy is afraid.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Equipollent Noncausal
(21)
Inepo chu'uta jariwa.
inepo
1sg.subj
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
jariwa
search_for
‘I am searching for my dog.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(22)
U jamut o'outa jajase.
u
det
jamut
woman
o'ou-ta
male-acc
jajase
follow
‘The woman follows the man.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(23)
In maala yo'owe neu bwiika.
in
1sg.pos
maala
mother
yo'owe
old
ne-u
1sg-dir
bwiika
sing
‘My grandmother sings to me.’
SING an Alternation:
Directional Object
(24)
In sai Bikampo jo'ak.
in
1sg.pos
sai
brother
Bikam-po
Vicam-loc
jo'ak
live
‘My brother lives in Vicam.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(25)
Bikammeu yuke.
Bikam-me-u
Vicam-nmlz-dir
yuke
rain
‘It is raining in Vicam. / It is raining over there in Vicam.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
(1-dir) V
(26)
Aapo bachita tuuse.
aapo
3sg.subj
bachi-ta
corn-acc
tuuse
grind
‘He is grinding corn.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(27)
U kaba'i yoemta yumtak.
u
det
kaba'i
horse
yoem-ta
man-acc
yumta-k
push-pfv
‘The horse collided with the man. / The horse ran into the man.’
PUSH the Verb form yu’a
(28)
Joan kaita ea.
Joan
Juan
kai-ta
neg-acc
ea
think
‘Juan does not think. \ lit. Juan think nothing.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(29)
U bwa'ame pojte.
u
det
bwa'a-me
eat-nmlz
pojte
boil
‘The food is boiling.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(30)
U uusi kaa malawa jikkaja.
u
det
uusi
child
kaa
neg
malawa
mother
jikkaja
hear
‘The boy does not hear his mother.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(31)
In sai karota techoapo go'okta.
in
1sg.pos
sai
brother
karo-ta
car-acc
techoa-po
mud-loc
go'okta
sink.trns
‘My brother is sinking the car in the mud.’
SINK an Alternation:
Equipollent Causal
(32)
Ino ne bekta.
ino
1sg.refl
ne
1sg
bekta
shave
‘I am shaving (myself).’
SHAVE (self) a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(33)
Inepo na'asota besumak.
inepo
1sg.subj
na'aso-ta
orange-acc
besuma-k
peel-pfv
‘I peeled an orange.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(34)
Manweta kari beetek.
Manwe-ta
Manuel-poss
kari
house
beete-k
burn.intr-pfv
‘Manuel's house burned.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(35)
U jamut chu'uta suma.
u
det
jamut
woman
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
suma
tie
‘The woman ties the dog.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dir 3-acc V
(36)
U jamut soto'ipo ba'am to'a.
u
det
jamut
woman
soto'i-po
pot-loc
ba'am
water
to'a
pour
‘The woman pours water in the pot.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-loc V
(37)
Soto'ita ne ba'atapunia.
soto'i-ta
pot-acc
ne
1sg
ba'a-tapunia
water-fill
‘I am filling the pot with water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Object incorporation
(38)
U jamut ili uusita pisammea patta.
u
det
jamut
woman
ili
small
uusi-ta
child-acc
pisam-mea
blanket-instr
patta
cover
‘The woman covers the child with a blanket.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(39)
Ba'am ne mesapo go'otak.
ba'am
water
ne
1sg
mesa-po
table-loc
go'ota-k
throw.pl-pfv
‘I threw the water on the table.’
SINK the Verb form go’okte
(40)
U bake'o masota nu'upa .
u
det
bake'o
cowboy
maso-ta
deer-acc
nu'upa
bring
‘The cowboy brings a deer.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dir 3-acc V
(41)
U yoeme jamutta kaba'ita miikak.
u
det
yoeme
man
jamut-ta
woman-acc
kaba'i-ta
horse-acc
miika-k
give-pfv
‘The man gave the woman a horse.’
GIVE the Verb form maka
(42)
Wajpo weamaka ne ousi chubaktek.
wajpo
while
weamaka
field
ne
1sg
ousi
int
chubakte-k
feel_cold-pfv
‘While I was on the field, I felt cold.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(43)
Joanta ne Potammeu bittua.
Joan-ta
Juan-acc
ne
1sg
Potam-me-u
Potam-nmlz-dir
bittua
send
‘I am sending Juan to Potam.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dir 3-acc V
(44)
Jamut jissobaita yoemta bittua.
jamut
woman
jissobai-ta
grilled_meat-acc
yoem-ta
man-acc
bittua
show
‘The woman shows the man the grilled meat.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-acc V
(45)
U jamut karipo jita tu'ute.
u
det
jamut
woman
kari-po
house-loc
jita
something
tu'ute
wipe
‘The woman is cleaning her house.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(46)
U jamut bukita tu'ute.
u
det
jamut
woman
buki-ta
child-acc
tu'ute
wipe
‘The woman is cleaning the baby.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(47)
U yoeme o'omtilataka samita chona.
u
det
yoeme
man
o'omtilataka
angrily
sami-ta
wall-acc
chona
hit
‘The man beats the wall angrily.’
HIT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(48)
Manwe wakasta chukta.
Manwe
Manuel
wakas-ta
meat-acc
chukta
cut.trns
‘Manuel cuts the meat.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(49)
Joan juyapo bakotta me'a.
Joan
Juan
juya-po
scrub-loc
bakot-ta
snake-acc
me'a
kill
‘Juan is killing the snake on the field.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(50)
Joan espekota jamtak.
Joan
Juan
espeko-ta
mirror-acc
jamta-k
break.trns-pfv
‘Juan broke the mirror.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(51)
U jamut bwiapo yejte.
u
det
jamut
woman
bwia-po
scrub-loc
yejte
sit
‘The woman is sitting on the field.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(52)
U yoeme jamuttau jachin jiia.
u
det
yoeme
man
jamut-ta-u
woman-acc-dir
jachin
something
jiia
say
‘The man is saying something to the woman.’
SAY an Alternation:
Directional Object
(53)
In asoa au tebaure tiia.
in
1sg.pos
asoa
son
au
refl
tebaure
be_hungry
tiia
say.trns
‘My son says that he is hungry.’
SAY a Coding frame:
1-nom UTT2 (3-acc) V
(54)
U yoeme jachin jiia.
u
det
yoeme
man
jachin
something
jiia
tell
‘The man is talking.’
SAY the Verb form tejwa
(55)
Inepo Mariata ta'a.
inepo
1sg.subj
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
ta'a
know
‘I know Maria.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(56)
In wawai ne pueplou bitbae.
in
1sg.pos
wawai
relative
ne
1sg
pueplo-u
town-dir
bit-bae
see-des
‘I'm going to see my relative in town.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(57)
Marta sanaba beata baksia.
Marta
Marta
sanaba_beea-ta
corn_leaf-acc
baksia
wash
‘Marta is washing the corn leaf.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(58)
U ili yoeme bawepo baima.
u
det
ili
small
yoeme
man
bawe-po
river-loc
baima
wash.refl
‘The small man is washing himself (his hands) in the river.’
WASH the Verb form baksia
(59)
U jamut pajkoau siika.
u
det
jamut
woman
pajkoa-u
party-dir
siika
go
‘The woman goes to the party.’
GO a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-dir) V
(60)
U yoeme ji'ibweje.
u
det
yoeme
man
ji'i-bweje
something-dig
‘The man is digging.’
DIG an Alternation:
Intransitivizer incorporation: ji'i
(61)
Itepo karita yaa.
itepo
1pl
kari-ta
house-acc
yaa
make
‘We are making the house.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(62)
Juan Mariata bwibwise.
Juan
Juan
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
bwi~bwise
rdp:iter~touch
‘Juan is touching Maria.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(63)
U ili uusi chu'uta bebak.
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
beeba-k
hit-pfv
‘The little child hit the dog.’
HIT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(64)
Ne baasota mesapo manak.
ne
1sg
baaso-ta
glass-acc
mesa-po
table-loc
mana-k
put-pfv
‘I put the glass on the table.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc LOC3 V
(65)
Maria liprom essok.
Maria
Maria
lipro-m
book-pl
esso-k
hide-pfv
‘Maria hid the book.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(66)
Nim maala chu'utau chaae.
nim
1sg.pos
maala
mother
chu'u-ta-u
dog-acc-dir
chaae
scream
‘My mother is screaming out for the dog. / My mother is calling the dog.’
SCREAM an Alternation:
Directional Object
(67)
U ili uusi jamut eteorita neu etejok.
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
jamut
woman
eteori-ta
story-acc
ne-u
1sg-dir
etejo-k
tell-pfv
‘The little girl told me a story.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dir 3-acc V
(68)
U ili uusi achaiwatau tomita a'awak.
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
achai-wa-ta-u
father-poss-acc-dir
tomi-ta
money-acc
a'awa-k
ask_for-pfv
‘The little child asked money from his father.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Directional Object
(69)
Juan ja'amuk.
Juan
Juan
ja'amu-k
climb-pfv
‘Juan climbed.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-loc) V
(70)
Nee puusim kupiktak.
nee
1sg
puusi-m
eye-pl
kupikta-k
blink.trns-pfv
‘I blinked my eyes.’
BLINK an Alternation:
Equipollent Applicative
(71)
Ne mampo wante.
ne
1sg
mam-po
hand-loc
wante
feel_pain
‘I am feeling pain in my hand. / My hand is hurting.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(72)
Melquiades a'ache.
Melquiades
Melquiades
a'~ache
rdp:hab~laugh
‘Melquiades laughs. / Melquiades is laughing.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(73)
Maria Juan-ta tu'ure.
Maria
Maria
Juan-ta
Juan-acc
tu'ure
like
‘Maria likes Juan.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(74)
Ume yoemem ili uusita jariwa.
ume
det.pl
yoeme-m
man-pl
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
jariwa
search_for
‘The men are looking for the child.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(75)
Wepul jiosata ne librompo siutak.
wepul
one
jiosia-ta
page-acc
ne
1sg
librom-po
book-loc
siuta-k
tear.trns-pfv
‘I tore one page from the book.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Locative
(76)
U bake'o kaba'ita jajase.
u
det
bake'o
cowboy
kaba'i-ta
horse-acc
jajase
follow
‘The cowboy is following the horse.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(77)
Bempo munim bwa'e.
bempo
3pl
muni-m
bean-pl
bwa'e
eat
‘They are eating beans.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(78)
Maria bwiikam bwiika.
Maria
Maria
bwiika-m
song-pl
bwiika
sing
‘Maria is singing songs.’
SING a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(79)
Juan Peesiopo jo'ak.
Juan
Juan
Peesio-po
Hermosillo-loc
jo'a-k
house-pfv
‘Juan lives in Hermosillo (lit. Juan is housed in Hermosillo.).’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(80)
Yuke.
yuke
rain
‘It is raining.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
(1-dir) V
(81)
Juan Mariata ba'au yu'ak.
Juan
Juan
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
ba'a-u
water-dir
yu'a-k
push-pfv
‘Juan pushed Maria into the water.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-dir V
(82)
Juan pelootam roaro'akta.
Juan
Juan
peloota-m
ball-pl
roa~ro'akta
rdp:iter~roll.trns
‘Juan rolls the ball.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Equipollent Causal
(83)
U yoeme jachin ea.
u
det
yoeme
man
jachin
how
ea
think
‘The man thinks.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(84)
Maria munim bwasa.
Maria
Maria
muni-m
bean-pl
bwasa
cook.trns
‘Maria is cooking beans.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(85)
Juan Mariata jikkaja.
Juan
Juan
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
jikkaja
hear
‘Juan is hearing Maria.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(86)
Juan karita beetak.
Juan
Juan
kari-ta
house-acc
beeta-k
burn.trns-pfv
‘Juan burned the house.’
BURN an Alternation:
Equipollent Causal
(87)
Juan kaba'ita jupau sumak.
Juan
Juan
kaba'i-ta
horse-acc
jupa-u
tree-dir
suma-k
tie-pfv
‘Juan tied the horse to the tree.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dir 3-acc V
(88)
Ne picheta tapunia.
ne
1sg
piche-ta
jar-acc
tapunia
fill
‘I am filling the jar.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(89)
Tinata ne ba'amea tapunia.
tina-ta
deposit-acc
ne
1sg
ba'a-mea
water-instr
tapunia
fill
‘I am filling the deposit with water.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(90)
Aapo soto'ita patta.
aapo
3sg.subj
soto'i-ta
pot-acc
patta
cover
‘He is covering the pot.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(91)
Neu sewam nu'upak.
ne-u
1sg-dir
sewa-m
flower-pl
nu'upa-k
bring-pfv
‘Somebody brought me flowers.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dir 3-acc V
(92)
Juan librom mariata makak.
Juan
Juan
libro-m
book-pl
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
maka-k
give-pfv
‘Juan gave Maria a book.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-acc V
(93)
Ne ousi chubakte.
ne
1sg
ousi
int
chubakte
feel_cold
‘I am freezing (lit. I am feeling very cold.).’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(94)
Mariatau ne librom bittuak.
Maria-ta-u
Maria-acc-dir
ne
1sg
libro-m
book-pl
bittua-k
send-pfv
‘I sent the book to Maria.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dir 3-acc V
(95)
Maria dibuujom Juanta bittuak.
Maria
Maria
dibuujo-m
draw-pl
Juan-ta
Juan-acc
bit-tua-k
see-caus-pfv
‘Maria showed drawings to Juan.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-acc V
(96)
Aapo karota tu'ute.
aapo
3sg.subj
karo-ta
car-acc
tu'ute
wipe
‘He is wiping the car.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(97)
Juan librom bibliotekau tojak.
Juan
Juan
libro-m
book-pl
biblioteka-u
library-dir
toja-k
carry-pfv
‘Juan took the books to the library.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-dir V
(98)
Juan chu'uta me'ak.
Juan
Juan
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
me'a-k
kill-pfv
‘Juan killed the dog.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(99)
Juan tetae bentanata jamtak.
Juan
Juan
teta-e
stone-instr
bentana-ta
window-acc
jamta-k
break.trns-pfv
‘Juan broke the window with a stone.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(100)
Maria weapo yejtek.
Maria
Maria
wea-po
floor-loc
yejte-k
sit-pfv
‘Maria sat down on the floor.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(101)
Jaisa jiia u yoeme?
jaisa
what
jiia
say
u
det
yoeme
man
‘What is the man saying ?’
SAY a Coding frame:
1-nom UTT2 (3-acc) V
(102)
Aapo jamutta teuwaria.
aapo
3sg.subj
jamut-ta
woman-acc
teuwa-ria
tell-appl
‘He is saying the time/hour for the woman (in her place).’
SAY an Alternation:
Applicative
(103)
E'e ti neu jiiak.
e'e
no
ti
thus
ne-u
1sg-dir
jiia-k
say-pfv
‘He said 'no' to me.’
SAY the Verb form tejwa
(104)
Ju yoeme uusita ta'an.
ju
det
yoeme
man
uusi-ta
child-acc
ta'a-n
know-ipfv
‘The man knows the child.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(105)
U yoeme uusita bichak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uusi-ta
child-acc
bicha-k
see-pfv
‘The man saw the child.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(106)
Ne Mariata aniak.
ne
1sg
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
ania-k
help-pfv
‘I helped Maria.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(107)
Juan karota baksiak.
Juan
Juan
karo-ta
car-acc
baksia-k
wash-pfv
‘Juan washed the car.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(108)
Juan merkadou siikak.
Juan
Juan
merkado-u
market-dir
siika-k
go-pfv
‘Juan went to the market.’
GO a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-dir) V
(109)
U jamut bwiata bewje.
u
det
jamut
woman
bwia-ta
ground-acc
bweje
dig
‘The woman is digging the ground.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(110)
Juan mesata yaak.
Juan
Juan
mesa-ta
table-acc
yaa-k
make-pfv
‘Juan made a table.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(111)
Chu'u Mariata jukta.
chu'u
dog
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
jukta
smell
‘The dog is smelling/sniffing Maria.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(112)
Ume chu'um emo jukjuktak.
ume
det.pl
chu'u-m
dog-pl
emo
3pl.refl
juk~jukta-k
rdp:iter~smell-pfv
‘The dogs are smelling themselves.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(113)
Juan uusita bitchu.
Juan
Juan
uusi-ta
child-acc
bitchu
look_at
‘Juan is looking at the child.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(114)
U yoeme chu'uta majae.
u
det
yoeme
man
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
majae
fear
‘The man fears the dog. / The man is afraid of the dog.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(115)
U yoeme majae.
u
det
yoeme
man
majae
fear
‘The man is fearing. / The man is afraid.’
FEAR the Verb form majae
(116)
U jamut uusita a'ana.
u
det
jamut
woman
uusi-ta
child-acc
a'ana
dress
‘The woman is dressing the child.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(117)
Aapo emo a'ana.
aapo
3sg.subj
emo
refl
a'ana
dress
‘He is getting dressed.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(118)
Juan mariata teak.
Juan
Juan
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
tea-k
meet-pfv
‘Juan met Maria.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(119)
Juan Mariatau etejok.
Juan
Juan
Maria-ta-u
Maria-acc-dir
etejo-k
talk-pfv
‘Juan talked to Maria.’
TALK an Alternation:
Directional Object
(120)
Juan karita yaak.
Juan
Juan
kari-ta
house-acc
yaa-k
make-pfv
‘Juan built a house.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(121)
Juan tomita nu'uka.
Juan
Juan
tomi-ta
money-acc
nu'u-ka
take-pfv
‘Juan took the money.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(122)
Juan mariata tominu'uka.
Juan
Juan
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
tomi-nu'u-ka
money-take-pfv
‘Juan takes the money from Maria. \ lit. Juan money-takes from Maria.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Object incorporation
(123)
In maala uusita pu'akta.
in
1sg.pos
maala
mother
uusi-ta
child-acc
pu'akta
load.trns
‘My mom is carrying the child.’
LOAD the Verb form pu'akta
(124)
Karopo maletam ne pu'akta.
karo-po
car-loc
maleta-m
case-pl
ne
1sg
pu'akta
load.trns
‘I am loading cases onto the car.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-loc V
(125)
Ne tatasek.
ne
1sg
ta~tase-k
rdp:iter~cough-pfv
‘I coughed.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(126)
Juan buitek.
Juan
Juan
buite-k
run-pfv
‘Juan ran.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(127)
U yoeme kutat yejte.
u
det
yoeme
man
kuta-t
log-loc
yejte
sit
‘The man sits on the log.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(128)
Inepo chepte.
inepo
1sg.subj
chepte
jump
‘I jump.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(129)
Wakas korata chepta.
wakas
cow
kora-ta
fence-acc
chepta
jump
‘The cow jumps over the fence.’
JUMP an Alternation:
Equipollent Applicative
(130)
Melquiades wataktek.
Melquiades
Melquiades
watakte-k
leave-pfv
‘Melquiades left. / Melquiades has gone.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-dir) V
(131)
U jamut chachaek.
u
det
jamut
woman
cha~chae-k
rdp~scream-pfv
‘The woman screamed.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(132)
U chu'u muuke.
u
det
chu'u
dog
muuke
die
‘The dog is dying.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(133)
Ne karota yeewa.
ne
1sg
karo-ta
car-acc
yeewa
play.trns
‘I am playing (with a toy) car.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Equipollent Applicative
(134)
Juan rojikte.
Juan
Juan
rojikte
be_sad
‘Juan is feeling sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(135)
Juan tajo'ota waacha.
Juan
Juan
tajo'o-ta
clothes-acc
waacha
dry
‘Juan is drying the clothes.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Equipollent Causal
(136)
U ju'upa waake.
u
det
ju'upa
mesquite
waake
be_dry
‘The mesquite is drying.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(137)
Joan amureo.
Joan
Juan
amu-reo
hunt-nmlz
‘Juan is a hunter.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(138)
Maria lingonokta yee mamajta.
Maria
Maria
lingo-nok-ta
foreign-speak-acc
yee
people
ma~majta
rdp~teach
‘Maria teaches (people) English.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3 V
(139)
U baaso jamtek.
u
det
baaso
glass
jamte-k
break.intr-pfv
‘The glass broke.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Equipollent Noncausal
(140)
U kari beete.
u
det
kari
house
beete
burn.intr
‘The house is burning.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(141)
U yoeme gomtek.
u
det
yoeme
man
gomte-k
frighten.intr-pfv
‘The man got frightened.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Equipollent Noncausal
(142)
Ume supem siute.
ume
det.pl
supe-m
shirt-pl
siute
tear.intr
‘The shirt is tearing off.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Equipollent Noncausal
(143)
Maria ili uusita bankot yechak.
Maria
Maria
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
banko-t
bench-loc
yecha-k
sit-pfv
‘Maria seated the child on the bench.’
SIT an Alternation:
Equipollent Causal
(144)
Juan barkota go'oktak.
Juan
Juan
barko-ta
boat-acc
go'okta-k
sink.trns-pfv
‘Juan sank the boat.’
SINK an Alternation:
Equipollent Causal
(145)
Juan net tatasek.
Juan
Juan
ne-t
1sg-loc
ta~tase-k
rdp~cough-pfv
‘Juan coughed on me.’
COUGH an Alternation:
Locative
(146)
Tiibu wakas soba'ita sipa.
Tiibu
Tiburcio
wakas
cow
soba'i-ta
grilled_meat-acc
sipa
freeze
‘Tiburcio is freezing the grilled beef.’
FEEL COLD the Verb form chubakte
(147)
Na'asota beabesuma.
na'aso-ta
orange-acc
bea-besuma
skin-peel
‘Peel the skin off the orange.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Object incorporation
(148)
Juan mambaksia.
Juan
Juan
mam-baksia
hand-wash
‘Juan is washing his hands.’
WASH an Alternation:
Object incorporation
(149)
Ne kobawante.
ne
1sg
koba-wante
head-feel_pain
‘I am feeling pain in my head (lit. I am feeling head-pain.).’
FEEL PAIN an Alternation:
Object incorporation
(150)
Ume sabanam kaa yee papatta.
ume
det.pl
sabana-m
sheet-pl
kaa
neg
yee
people
pa~patta
rdp~cover
‘These sheets do not cover (people).’
COVER an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(151)
U yoeme jita bektak.
u
det
yoeme
man
jita
something
bekta-k
shave-pfv
‘The man shaved (something).’
SHAVE (self) an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(152)
Junu yee aania.
junu
that
yee
people
a~ania
rdp:hab~help
‘That helps.’
HELP an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(153)
Juan yee jajjase.
Juan
Juan
yee
people
ja~jjase
rdp:hab~follow
‘Juan chases (people).’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(154)
U uusi unna jita a'awak.
u
det
uusi
child
unna
much
jita
something
a'awa-k
ask_for-pfv
‘The child asked for a lot.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(155)
Maria dibuujom yee bitchutuak.
Maria
Maria
dibuujo-m
drawing-pl
yee
people
bitchu-tua-k
see-caus-pfv
‘Maria showed drawings (to people).’
SHOW an Alternation:
Causative
(156)
U jamut ili uusita chachaek.
u
det
jamut
woman
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
cha~chae-k
rdp~shout-pfv
‘The woman shouted at the little child.’
SHOUT AT the Verb form chaae (1)
(157)
Juan goi kilometrom buitek.
Juan
Juan
goi
two
kilometro-m
kilometer-pl
bui~buite-k
rdp:iter~run-pfv
‘Juan ran two kilometers.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(158)
Juan kaa bicha.
Juan
Juan
kaa
neg
bicha
see
‘Juan can not see.’
SEE the Verb form bitcha
(159)
Juan etejok.
Juan
Juan
etejo-k
talk-pfv
‘Juan talked.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(160)
Juan mesata tastak.
Juan
Juan
mesa-ta
table-acc
tasta-k
beat.trns-pfv
‘Juan beat the table.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(161)
Juan mesatat tastek.
Juan
Juan
mesa-ta-t
table-acc-loc
taste-k
beat.intr-pfv
‘Juan beat (at) the table.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Locative
(162)
Maria bwiika.
Maria
Maria
bwiika
sing
‘Maria is singing. / Maria sings.’
SING the Verb form bwiika
(163)
Juan pelootampo yeewe.
Juan
Juan
pelootam-po
ball-loc
yeewe
play
‘Juan is playing soccer.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Locative
(164)
U ili uusi kutae yee bebak.
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
kuta-e
stick-instr
yee
people
beba-k
hit-pfv
‘The child hit (people) with a stick.’
HIT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(165)
Juan into maria emo ibaktak.
Juan
Juan
into
and
Maria
Maria
emo
refl
ibakta-k
hug-pfv
‘Juan and Maria hugged each other.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(166)
Maria yee ibaktala.
Maria
Maria
yee
people
ibakta-la
hug-ptcp
‘Maria is hugging around.’
HUG an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(167)
Juan au me'ak.
Juan
Juan
au
refl
me'a-k
kill-pfv
‘Juan killed himself.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(168)
Ne Peesiopo ta'a.
ne
1sg
Peesio-po
Hermosillo-loc
ta'a
know
‘I know Hermosillo (lit. I know about Hermosillo.).’
KNOW an Alternation:
Locative
(169)
Maria yee tutu'ulila.
Maria
Maria
yee
people
tu~tu'uli-la
rdp:hab~like-ptcp
‘Maria has liked people/someone.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(170)
Juan into Maria emo teak.
Juan
Juan
into
and
Maria
Maria
emo
refl
tea-k
meet-pfv
‘Juan and Maria met each other.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(171)
Joan into Maria emo ta'ak.
Joan
Juan
into
and
Maria
Maria
emo
refl
ta'a-k
know-pfv
‘Juan and Maria met (lit. Juan and Maria knew each other.).’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(172)
U yeeka yuktuak.
u
det
yeeka
wind
yuk-tua-k
rain-caus-pfv
‘The wind caused it to rain.’
RAIN an Alternation:
Causative
(173)
U yoeme au bektak.
u
det
yoeme
man
au
refl
bekta-k
shave-pfv
‘The man shaved himself.’
SHAVE (self) a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(174)
U yoeme kobata au bektariak.
u
det
yoeme
man
koba-ta
head-acc
au
refl
bekta-ria-k
shave-appl-pfv
‘The man shaved his head.’
SHAVE (self) an Alternation:
Applicative
(175)
U chu'u jita jukjukta.
u
det
chu'u
dog
jita
something
juk~jukta
rdp:iter~smell
‘The dog is smelling (something).’
SMELL an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(176)
Maria yee majta.
Maria
Maria
yee
people
majta
teach
‘Maria teaches (people).’
TEACH an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(177)
Ju yoeme emo baksiak.
ju
det
yoeme
man
emo
refl
baksia-k
wash-pfv
‘The man washed (himself).’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(178)
Baasota ne manak.
baaso-ta
glass-acc
ne
1sg
mana-k
put-pfv
‘I put the glass there.’
PUT the Verb form mana
(179)
Juan ji’ibwa'a.
Juan
Juan
ji'i-bwa'a
something-eat
‘Juan is eating.’
EAT an Alternation:
Intransitivizer incorporation: ji'i
(180)
U mansana bwa'atuk.
u
det
mansana
apple
bwa'a-tu-k
eat-inch-pfv
‘The apple is gone.’
EAT an Alternation:
Middle
(181)
U wakas aa bwa'atu.
u
det
wakas
cow
aa
can
bwa'a-tu
eat-inch
‘This food is easy to eat (lit. This cow (meat) is easy to eat.).’
EAT an Alternation:
Middle
(182)
Maria ibaktari.
Maria
Maria
ibakta-ri
hug-res
‘Maria is being hugged.’
HUG an Alternation:
Resultative
(183)
U mansana bwa'ari.
u
det
mansana
apple
bwa'a-ri
eat-res
‘The apple is gone (lit. The apple is eaten.).’
EAT an Alternation:
Resultative
(184)
Juan uusitau bitchu.
Juan
Juan
uusi-ta-u
child-acc-dir
bitchu
see
‘Juan sees the child.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Directional Object
(185)
Juan tu'isi bittu.
Juan
Juan
tu'isi
well
bit-tu
see-inch
‘Juan looks good.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Middle
(186)
U kawi kaa tu'isi bittu.
u
det
kawi
mountain
kaa
neg
tu'isi
well
bit-tu
see-inch
‘The mountain is not well-seen. / The mountain is not easy to see.’
SEE an Alternation:
Middle
(187)
Maria majairi.
Maria
Maria
majai-ri
fear-res
‘Maria is afraid.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Resultative
(188)
Maria yee majaila.
Maria
Maria
yee
people
majai-la
fear-ptcp
‘Maria has been afraid.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(189)
U yoeme chu'utat gomtek.
u
det
yoeme
man
chu'u-ta-t
dog-acc-loc
gomte-k
frighten.intr-pfv
‘The man got scared of the dog.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Locative
(190)
Yee gomtari.
yee
people
gomta-ri
frighten-res
‘The people are scared. / Someone frightened the people.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Resultative
(191)
Ne Juanta betchi'ibo gomtek.
ne
1sg
Juan-ta
Juan-acc
betchi'ibo
for
gomte-k
frighten.intr-pfv
‘I got frightened because of Juan.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Equipollent Noncausal
(192)
Ne Juanta Mariata gomtariak.
ne
1sg
Juan-ta
Juan-acc
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
gomta-ria-k
frighten-appl-pfv
‘I frightened Juan for Maria.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Applicative
(193)
Maria tutu'uliri.
Maria
Maria
tu~tu'uli-ri
rdp:hab~like-res
‘Maria has been liked.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Resultative
(194)
U ta'ari.
u
det
ta'a-ri
know-res
‘The stuff/person is known.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Resultative
(195)
Juan Mariatat ea.
Juan
Juan
Maria-ta-t
Maria-acc-loc
ea
think
‘Juan is thinking (sexually) of Maria. / Juan is having sex with Maria.’
THINK an Alternation:
Locative
(196)
Jita eeri.
jita
something
ee-ri
think-res
‘That is what I think.’
THINK an Alternation:
Resultative
(197)
Ume yoemem siime karipo jita jariwa.
ume
det.pl
yoeme-m
man-pl
siime
all
kari-po
house-loc
jita
something
jariwa
search_for
‘The men searched all the house.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(198)
Im karo kaa baksiatu.
im
1sg.pos
karo
car
kaa
neg
baksia-tu
wash-inch
‘My car does not wash well.’
WASH an Alternation:
Middle
(199)
Im karo baksia'ari.
im
1sg.pos
karo
car
baksia'a-ri
wash-res
‘My car is washed.’
WASH an Alternation:
Resultative
(200)
I saabu kaa tu'isi jita babaksia.
i
dem
saabu
soap
kaa
neg
tu'isi
good
jita
something
ba~baksia
rdp~wash
‘This soap does not wash well.’
WASH an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(201)
Juan ne aniak jiyokapo.
Juan
Juan
ne
1sg
ania-k
help-pfv
jiyoka-po
paint-loc
‘Juan helped me to paint.’
HELP an Alternation:
Locative
(202)
Juan Mariatamak emo teak.
Juan
Juan
Maria-ta-mak
Maria-acc-com
emo
refl
tea-k
meet-pfv
‘Juan and Maria met each other.’
MEET the Verb form tea (2)
(203)
Juan aapelau teak.
Juan
Juan
aapelau
by_himself
tea-k
meet-pfv
‘Juan realized something by himself.’
MEET the Verb form tea (2)
(204)
U ili uusi achaiwatau tomita a'aula.
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
achai-wa-ta-u
father-poss-acc-dir
tomi-ta
money-acc
a'au-la
ask_for-ptcp
‘The child asked money from his father.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Directional Object
(205)
U ili uusi unna tomita a'awa.
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
unna
much
tomi-ta
money-acc
a'awa
ask_for
‘The child asks for a lot of money.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(206)
Ne tomita a'awak nim maalata betchi'ibo.
ne
1sg
tomi-ta
money-acc
a'awa-k
ask_for-pfv
nim
1sg.pos
maala-ta
mother-acc
betchi'ibo
for
‘I asked for money from my mother.’
ASK FOR the Verb form a’awa
(207)
Ne tomita nim maalata a'auriak.
ne
1sg
tomi-ta
money-acc
nim
1sg.pos
maala-ta
mother-acc
a'au-ria-k
ask_for-appl-pfv
‘I asked for money from my mother.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Applicative
(208)
Juan chae.
Juan
Juan
chae
shout
‘Juan is shouting. / Juan is screaming.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(209)
Juan Mariata teuwak.
Juan
Juan
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
teuwa-k
tell-pfv
‘Juan spoke to Maria. / Juan told something to Maria.’
TELL the Verb form teuwa
(210)
U chu'u Tobim teatuawa.
u
det
chu'u
dog
Tobi-m
Tobi-acc
tea-tua-wa
be_called-caus-pass
‘The dog was named Tobi.’
BE NAMED an Alternation:
Causative
(211)
U chu'u tobimtea.
u
det
chu'u
dog
tobi-tea
tobi-be_called
‘The dog's name is Tobi.’
BE NAMED an Alternation:
Object incorporation
(212)
Juan espekopo au bitchu.
Juan
Juan
espeko-po
mirror-loc
au
refl
bitchu
see
‘Juan looks at himself in the mirror.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(213)
U chu'u yee jukjukta.
u
det
chu'u
dog
yee
people
juk~jukta
rdp~smell
‘The dog is smelling somebody. / The dog is sniffing.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(214)
Escaleam ne ja'amula.
escalea-m
stair-pl
ne
1sg
ja'amu-la
climb-ptcp
‘I climb the stairs.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-loc) V
(215)
Inepo mamni piso ja'amuk.
inepo
1sg.subj
mamni
five
piso
floor
ja'amu-k
climb-pfv
‘I climbed to the fifth floor.’
CLIMB the Verb form ja’amu
(216)
Juan au baksia.
Juan
Juan
au
refl
baksia
wash
‘Juan is washing himself.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(217)
Juan tu'isi au a'anatua.
Juan
Juan
tu'isi
well
au
refl
a'ana-tua
dress-caus
‘Juan dresses well.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Causative
(218)
Ino ne bektak pajko betchi'ibo.
ino
1sg.refl
ne
1sg
bekta-k
shave-pfv
pajko
feast
betchi'ibo
for
‘I shaved (myself) for the feast.’
SHAVE (self) the Verb form bekta
(219)
Ne tejwa.
ne
1sg
tejwa
tell
‘Speak to me. / Tell me (something).’
TELL the Verb form teuwa
(220)
Juan karita ne yaariak.
Juan
Juan
kari-ta
house-acc
ne
1sg
yaa-ria-k
make-appl-pfv
‘Juan built me a house.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Applicative
(221)
U mesatastek.
u
det
mesa-taste-k
table-beat.intr-pfv
‘The table was beaten.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Object incorporation
(222)
Juan into Maria emo bwibwise.
Juan
Juan
into
and
Maria
Maria
emo
refl
bwi~bwise
rdp:iter~touch
‘Juan and Maria are touching each other.’
TOUCH the Verb form bwibwise
(223)
Juan jita bwibwise.
Juan
Juan
jita
something
bwi~bwise
rdp:iter~touch
‘Juan is touching something.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(224)
Juan au bwibwise.
Juan
Juan
au
refl
bwi~bwise
rdp:iter~touch
‘Juan is touching himself.’
TOUCH the Verb form bwibwise
(225)
Ume kuchi'im tu'isi jita chukchukta.
ume
det.pl
kuchi'i-m
knife-pl
tu'isi
well
jita
something
chuk~chukta
rdp~cut.trns
‘Those knives cut well.’
CUT an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(226)
Mariata tomipo anu'e!
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
tomi-po
money-loc
a=nu'e
3sg=take
‘Take Maria's money!’
TAKE an Alternation:
Locative
(227)
Wepul jiosiata ne librom siutariak.
wepul
one
jiosia-ta
page-acc
ne
1sg
librom
book
siuta-ria-k
tear.trns-appl-pfv
‘I tore one page from the book.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Applicative
(228)
Maria Juanta librom essoriak.
Maria
Maria
Juan-ta
Juan-acc
libro-m
book-pl
esso-ria-k
hide-appl-pfv
‘Maria hid the book from Juan.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Applicative
(229)
Maria eusek.
Maria
Maria
euse-k
hide-pfv
‘Maria hid.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Equipollent Noncausal
(230)
Maria Juanta eusiak.
Maria
Maria
Juan-ta
Juan-acc
eusia-k
hide-pfv
‘Maria hid from Juan.’
HIDE the Verb form esso
(231)
Joan maasoamureo.
Joan
Juan
maaso-amu-reo
deer-hunt-nmlz
‘Juan is a deer-hunter.’
BE A HUNTER an Alternation:
Object incorporation
(232)
Ne librom Juanta makak Mariata betchi'ibo.
ne
1sg
libro-m
book-pl
Juan-ta
Juan-acc
maka-k
give-pfv
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
betchi'ibo
for
‘I gave Juan the book for Maria.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-acc V
(233)
Librom ne yee miikak.
libro-m
book-pl
ne
1sg
yee
people
miika-k
give-pfv
‘I gave away the books.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(234)
Juan bibliotekata unna jita mamaka.
Juan
Juan
biblioteka-ta
library-acc
unna
much
jita
something
ma~maka
rdp~give
‘Juan gives a lot (of things) to the library.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(235)
Maria librom makri.
Maria
Maria
libro-m
book-pl
mak-ri
give-res
‘Maria has been given a book.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Resultative
(236)
Librom makri.
libro-m
book-pl
mak-ri
give-res
‘Someone was given a book.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Resultative
(237)
Juan librom tojak.
Juan
Juan
libro-m
book-pl
toja-k
carry-pfv
‘Juan carried the book(s).’
CARRY the Verb form toja
(238)
Juan korbatata sumak.
Juan
Juan
korbata-ta
tie-acc
suma-k
tie-pfv
‘Juan knotted his tie.’
TIE the Verb form suma
(239)
Juan kaba'ita wikiae sumak.
Juan
Juan
kaba'i-ta
horse-acc
wikia-e
rope-instr
suma-k
tie-pfv
‘Juan tied the horse with a rope.’
TIE the Verb form suma
(240)
Juan kaba'ita jupau wikiae sumak.
Juan
Juan
kaba'i-ta
horse-acc
jupa-u
tree-dir
wikia-e
rope-instr
suma-k
tie-pfv
‘Juan tied the horse to the tree with a rope.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dir 3-acc V
(241)
I wikia kaa tu'isi jita susuma.
i
dem
wikia
rope
kaa
neg
tu'isi
well
jita
something
su~suma
rdp~tie
‘This rope does not tie well.’
TIE the Verb form suma
(242)
I pichel kaa tu'isi jita yeu toto'a.
i
dem
pichel
jar
kaa
neg
tu'isi
well
jita
something
yeu
down
to~to'a
rdp:hab~pour
‘This jar does not pour well.’
POUR the Verb form to’a
(243)
Pichelpo iliiki ba'am to'a.
pichel-po
jar-loc
iliiki
few
ba'am
water
to'a
pour
‘Pour some water on the jar.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-loc V
(244)
Goi ili jamuchim tutukabeak in jo'apo to'e.
goi
two
ili
little
jamuch-im
woman-pl
tutukabeak
yesterday_at_night
in
1sg.pos
jo'a-po
house-loc
to'e
pour
‘Yesterday, two girls stayed at my home (to sleep). \ lit. Two little girls yesterday laid at my home.’
POUR an Alternation:
Equipollent Noncausal
(245)
U jamut rebo'osammea au patta.
u
det
jamut
woman
rebo'osa-m-mea
shawl-pl-instr
au
refl
patta
cover
‘The woman is covering herself with the shawl.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(246)
Ili uusita sabanammea patta!
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
sabana-m-mea
sheet-pl-instr
patta
cover
‘Cover the child with the sheets!’
COVER a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(247)
U ili uusi jaibu pattari.
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
jaibu
already
patta-ri
cover-res
sabanam-mea
sheet-instr
‘The child is already covered with the sheet.’
COVER an Alternation:
Resultative
(248)
U ili uusi achaiwata betchi'ibo au pattak.
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
achai-wa-ta
father-poss-acc
betchi'ibo
for
au
refl
patta-k
cover-pfv
‘The child covered himself for the father.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(249)
U jamut ili uusita soto'ita tapuniatuak.
u
det
jamut
woman
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
soto'i-ta
pot-acc
tapunia-tua-k
fill-caus-pfv
‘The woman made the child fill the pot.’
FILL an Alternation:
Causative
(250)
U pueplo ba'ammea tapuni.
u
det
pueplo
town
ba'am-mea
water-instr
tapun-i
fill-res
‘The town is covered with water (lit. The town is filled with water.).’
FILL an Alternation:
Resultative
(251)
U yuku pueplota keepatapuniak.
u
det
yuku
rain
pueplo-ta
town-acc
keepa-tapunia-k
drizzling-fill-pfv
‘The storm caused the town to be covered in drizzling.’
FILL an Alternation:
Object incorporation
(252)
Ili uusita nee pu'aktaria.
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
nee
1sg.obj
pu'akta-ria
load.trns-appl
‘Carry my child for me.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Applicative
(253)
U karo samimmea pu'aktituawa.
u
det
karo
car
samim-mea
hay-instr
pu'akti-tua-wa
load-caus-pass
‘The car is being loaded with hay.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Causative
(254)
Juan neu kupiktek.
Juan
Juan
ne-u
1sg-dir
kupikte-k
blink.intr-pfv
‘Juan blinked at me.’
BLINK an Alternation:
Directional Object
(255)
Ne puusim juantau kupiktak.
ne
1sg
puusi-m
eye-pl
Juan-ta-u
Juan-acc-dir
kupikta-k
blink.trns-pfv
‘I blinked (my eyes) at Juan.’
BLINK an Alternation:
Directional Object
(256)
Inepo wakabwitapo cheptek.
inepo
1sg.subj
waka-bwita-po
cow-dung-loc
chepte-k
jump-pfv
‘I stepped into the cow's dung.’
JUMP an Alternation:
Locative
(257)
Inepo wakabwitata cheptak.
inepo
1sg.subj
waka-bwita-ta
cow-dung-acc
chepta-k
jump-pfv
‘I jumped over the cow's dung.’
JUMP an Alternation:
Equipollent Applicative
(258)
Juan wepul partidota yeewek.
Juan
Juan
wepul
one
partido-ta
game-acc
yeewe-k
play-pfv
‘Juan played a game.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Equipollent Applicative
(259)
Juan Mariata yeutuak.
Juan
Juan
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
yeu-tua-k
play-caus-pfv
‘Juan made Maria play.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Causative
(260)
Juan yeewe.
Juan
Juan
yeewe
play
‘Juan is playing.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(261)
Juan siika.
Juan
Juan
siika
go
‘Juan left.’
GO a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-dir) V
(262)
Juan mariatamak siika.
Juan
Juan
Maria-ta-mak
Maria-acc-com
siika
go
‘Juan went with Maria.’
GO the Verb form siika
(263)
Melquiades Suichiu wataktek.
Melquiades
Melquiades
Suichi-u
Vicam-dir
watakte-k
leave-pfv
‘Melquiades left towards Vicam.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-dir) V
(264)
Melquiades Hermosiopo yeu wataktek.
Melquiades
Melquiades
Hermosio-po
Hermosillo-loc
yeu
out
watakte-k
leave-pfv
‘Melquiades left Hermosillo.’
LEAVE an Alternation:
Locative
(265)
Melquiades kamionpo wataktek.
Melquiades
Melquiades
kamion-po
bus-loc
watakte-k
leave-pfv
‘Melquiades left by bus.’
LEAVE an Alternation:
Locative
(266)
Juan jo'ak.
Juan
Juan
jo'a-k
live-pfv
‘Juan lives. / Juan has a house.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(267)
Im yee atbwawak.
im
here
yee
people
atbwa-wa-k
laugh-pass-pfv
‘They laughed at someone here.’
LAUGH the Verb form aache
(268)
Melquiades Mariatau aache.
Melquiades
Melquiades
Maria-ta-u
Maria-acc-dir
aache
laugh
‘Melquiades is laughing at Maria.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Directional Object
(269)
Maria Melquiadesta aattua.
Maria
Maria
Melquiades-ta
Melquiades-acc
aat-tua
laugh-caus
‘Maria is making Melquiades laugh. / Maria makes Melquiades laugh.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Causative
(270)
Juan Mariatat chae.
Juan
Juan
Maria-ta-t
Maria-acc-loc
chae
scream
‘Juan is screaming at Maria.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
Locative
(271)
Bwa'ame ne tompo wantitua.
bwa'ame
food
ne
1sg
tom-po
stomach-loc
wanti-tua
feel_pain-caus
‘The food made me feel pain in the stomach. / The food caused my tummy to ache.’
FEEL PAIN an Alternation:
Causative
(272)
Ne chubaktituak.
ne
1sg
chubakti-tua-k
feel_cold-caus-pfv
‘Something caused me to feel cold.’
FEEL COLD an Alternation:
Causative
(273)
U jeeka ne chubachubaktitua.
u
det
jeeka
wind
ne
1sg
chuba~chubakti-tua
rdp~feel_cold-caus
‘The wind caused me to feel cold.’
FEEL COLD an Alternation:
Causative
(274)
U jeeka yee chubachubaktitua.
u
det
jeeka
wind
yee
people
chuba~chubakti-tua
rdp:hab~feel_cold-caus
‘The wind causes (everybody) to feel cold.’
FEEL COLD an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(275)
Mariata uusim apo'ik muucha.
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
uusi-m
child-pl
apo'ik
3sg.pos
muucha
die.trns
‘Maria is dying for her children.’
DIE an Alternation:
Equipollent Applicative
(276)
U yoeme uka jamutta muktua.
u
det
yoeme
man
u-ka
det-acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
muk-tua
die-caus
‘The man let the woman die.’
DIE an Alternation:
Causative
(277)
Maria Juanta rojiktituak.
Maria
Maria
Juan-ta
Juan-acc
rojikti-tua-k
be_sad-caus-pfv
‘Maria made Juan sad.’
BE SAD an Alternation:
Causative
(278)
Ne nim chu'uta betchi'ibo rojikte.
ne
1sg
nim
1sg.pos
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
betchi'ibo
for
rojikte
be_sad
‘I am feeling sad because of my dog.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(279)
Bwitiwame Juanta tebaurituak.
bwiti-wa-me
run-pass-nmlz
Juan-ta
Juan-acc
tebauri-tua-k
be_hungry-caus-pfv
‘Running caused Juan to be hungry.’
BE HUNGRY an Alternation:
Causative
(280)
U kaba'i techoapo go'okte.
u
det
kaba'i
horse
techoa-po
mud-loc
go'okte
sink.intr
‘The horse is sinking in the mud.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(281)
U ta'a sewam yee wawaacharia.
u
det
ta'a
sun
sewa-m
flower-pl
yee
people
wa~waacha-ria
rdp~be_dry-appl
‘The sun dries the flowers (for someone).’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(282)
U tajo'o wachari.
u
det
tajo'o
clothes
waacha-ri
dry-res
‘The clothes are dry.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Resultative
(283)
U ta'a kaa tu'isi jita wawaacha.
u
det
ta'a
sun
kaa
neg
tu'isi
well
jita
something
wa~waacha
rdp~be_dry
‘The sun does not dry well.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(284)
U ili uusi chu'uta kutae beebak.
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
kuta-e
stick-instr
beeba-k
hit-pfv
‘The child hit the dog with a stick.’
HIT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(285)
U chu'u yoemta gomtak.
u
det
chu'u
dog
yoem-ta
man-acc
gomta-k
frighten-pfv
‘The dog frightened the man.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(286)
Ne kupiktek.
ne
1sg
kupikte-k
blink.intr-pfv
‘I blinked.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(287)
Joan tomita joarapo etbwak.
Joan
Juan
tomi-ta
money-acc
joara-po
house-loc
etbwa-k
steal-pfv
‘Juan stole money from the house.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Locative
(288)
Joan Mariata tomita etbwariak.
Joan
Juan
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
tomi-ta
money-acc
etbwa-ria-k
steal-appl-pfv
‘Juan stole money from Maria.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Applicative
(289)
Joanta ne atbwak.
Joan-ta
Juan-acc
ne
1sg
atbwa-k
make_fun_of-pfv
‘I made fun of Juan.’
LAUGH the Verb form aache
(290)
Kajlos supem siutak.
Kajlos
Carlos
supem
shirt
siuta-k
tear.trns-pfv
‘Carlos tore off his shirt.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(291)
Tetata ne ro'akta.
teta-ta
stone-acc
ne
1sg
ro'akta
roll.trns
‘I am rolling the rock. / I roll the rock.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Equipollent Causal
(292)
U teta ro'akte.
u
det
teta
stone
ro'akte
roll.intr
‘The rock rolls. / The rock is rolling.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(293)
Ume munim tu'isi bwase.
ume
det.pl
muni-m
bean-pl
tu'isi
well
bwase
cook.intr
‘Beans cook well.’
COOK an Alternation:
Equipollent Noncausal
(294)
In maala wakasta bwasa.
in
1sg.pos
maala
mother
wakas-ta
meat-acc
bwasa
cook.trns
‘My mother is cooking the meat.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(295)
U wakas unna bwase.
u
det
wakas
meat
unna
much
bwase
cook.intr
‘The meat is cooking too much.’
COOK an Alternation:
Equipollent Noncausal
(296)
U bwa'ame jaibu bwasi.
u
det
bwa'a-me
eat-nmlz
jaibu
already
bwas-i
cook-res
‘Food is already cooked.’
COOK an Alternation:
Resultative
(297)
Jaboiwa kaa jikkaja.
jaboiwa
grandfather
kaa
neg
jikkaja
hear
‘(His) Grandfather does not hear.’
HEAR the Verb form jikkaja
(298)
U barko go'oktek.
u
det
barko
boat
go'okte-k
sink.intr-pfv
‘The boat sank.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(299)
Joan Mariata Peota dibuujom bittuak.
Joan
Juan
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
Peo-ta
Pedro-acc
dibuujom
drawing.acc
bit-tua-k
see-caus-pfv
‘Juan made Maria show drawings to Peter.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-acc V
(300)
Bwiata ne bektabae.
bwia-ta
ground-acc
ne
1sg
bekta-bae
shave-des
‘I will plow the ground (lit. I will shave the ground (in order to sow something).).’
SHAVE (self) the Verb form bekta
(301)
Itepo abaim besuma.
itepo
1pl
abai-m
corn-pl
besuma
peel
‘We are peeling the corns.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(302)
Ume kutam kaa tu'isi beete.
ume
det.pl
kuta-m
firewood-pl
kaa
neg
tu'isi
well
beete
burn.intr
‘The firewood does not burn well.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(303)
Sankoata ne mekka wattak.
sankoa-ta
garbage-acc
ne
1sg
mekka
far
watta-k
throw.trns-pfv
‘I threw the litter far away.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(304)
Jume'e na'asom kom watte.
jume'e
dem:pl
na'asom
oranges.acc
kom
down
watte
throw.intr
‘Those oranges are falling down.’
THROW an Alternation:
Equipollent Noncausal
(305)
U ili uusi jamut jiosiam maejtrotau nu'upak.
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
jamut
woman
jiosiam
book.acc
maejtro-ta-u
teacher-acc-dir
nu'upa-k
bring-pfv
‘The little girl brought the book to the teacher.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dir 3-acc V
(306)
Joan kutachukte.
Joan
Juan
kuta-chukte
firewood-cut.intr
‘Juan is cutting firewood.’
CUT an Alternation:
Object incorporation
(307)
Joan chu'uta tetae me'ak.
Joan
Juan
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
teta-e
stone-instr
me'a-k
kill-pfv
‘Juan killed the dog with a stone.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(308)
U yoeme bu'uk teuwa.
u
det
yoeme
man
bu'uk
overmuch
teuwa
tell
‘The man is talking too much.’
TELL the Verb form teuwa
(309)
Joan a'abo wee-tiia.
Joan
Juan
a'abo
toward.here
wee-tiia
walk.sg-say.trns
‘Juan says he is coming.’
SAY the Verb form tejwa
(310)
Inepo Joanta ta'ak.
inepo
1sg.subj
Joan-ta
Juan-acc
ta'a-k
know-pfv
‘I knew Juan. / I met Juan.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(311)
Si ketgo jamuchim batwepo jipaksia.
si
int
ketgo
early
jamuch-im
woman-pl
batwe-po
river-loc
ji-baksia
something-wash
‘Women wash early (in the morning) in the river.’
WASH an Alternation:
Intransitivizer incorporation: ji'i
(312)
U jamut paapam jariwaka jibweje.
u
det
jamut
woman
paapa-m
potato-pl
jariwa-ka
look_for-ptcp
ji-bweje
something-dig
‘The woman is digging looking for potatoes.’
DIG an Alternation:
Intransitivizer incorporation: ji'i
(313)
U jamut bwiata bweje papaam jariwakai.
u
det
jamut
woman
bwia-ta
ground-acc
bweje
dig
papaa-m
potato-pl
jariwa-kai
look_for-ptcp
‘The woman is digging the ground looking for potatoes.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(314)
U bepa'aria bwiae yaari.
u
det
bepa'aria
ceiling
bwia-e
earth-instr
yaa-ri
make-res
‘The ceiling is made of earth.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Resultative
(315)
Joan tablamak karita yaak.
Joan
Juan
tabla-mak
wood-instr
kari-ta
house-acc
yaa-k
make-pfv
‘Juan made a house by using wood. / Juan built a house out of wood.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(316)
Joan sementokarita yaak.
Joan
Juan
semento-kari-ta
cement-house-acc
yaa-k
make-pfv
‘Juan made a cement house.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(317)
Chu'um ne majaetua.
chu'u-m
dog-pl
ne
1sg
majae-tua
fear-caus
‘I frightened the dogs. \ lit. I made the dogs to fear.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Causative
(318)
Achaim, emou ne etejobae.
achai-m
mister-pl
emo-u
2pl.refl-dir
ne
1sg
etejo-bae
tell-des
‘Gentlemen, I want to tell you (...).’
TELL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dir 3-acc V
(319)
In maala in jakamak binwa etejo.
in
1sg.pos
maala
mother
in
1sg.pos
jaka-mak
older_aunt-com
binwa
a_while
etejo
talk
‘My mom is talking to my aunt for long.’
TALK the Verb form etejo (2)
(320)
U sontao kawiu bichaa buite.
u
det
sontao
soldier
kawi-u
mountain-dir
bichaa
towards
buite
run
‘The soldier runs towards the mountain.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(321)
U yoeme jamutta uka ili uusita pisammea paktatuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
jamut-ta
woman-acc
uka
det.acc
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
pisam-mea
blanket-instr
patta-tua-k
cover-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman cover the boy with the blanket.’
COVER an Alternation:
Causative
(322)
U yoeme jamutta uka baasota ba'ammea tapuniatuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
jamut-ta
woman-acc
uka
det.acc
baaso-ta
glass-acc
ba'am-mea
water-instr
tapunia-tua-k
fill-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman fill the glass with water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Causative
(323)
U yoeme jamutta karopo pajata pu'aktatuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
jamut-ta
woman-acc
karo-po
car-loc
paja-ta
hay-acc
pu'akta-tua-k
load.trns-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman load the hay on the car.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Causative
(324)
U yoeme jamutta baasopo ba'am to'otuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
jamut-ta
woman-acc
baaso-po
glass-loc
ba'am
water
to'o-tua-k
pour.rdp-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman pour the water into the glass.’
POUR an Alternation:
Causative
(325)
U yoeme uka uusi beemeta maejtratau liprom bittuatebok.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
uusi
child
beeme-ta
girl-acc
maejtra-ta-u
teacher-acc-dir
libro-m
book-pl
bittua-tebo-k
send-ind.caus-pfv
‘The man made the girl send the book to the teacher.’
SEND an Alternation:
Causative
(326)
U yoeme uka uusi beemeta maejtrota liprom maktuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
uusi
child
beeme-ta
girl-acc
maejtro-ta
teacher-acc
lipro-m
book-pl
mak-tua-k
give-caus-pfv
‘The man made the girl give the teacher the book.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Causative
(327)
U yoeme uka uusi beemeta librom maejtrata bittuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
uusi
child
beeme-ta
girl-acc
libro-m
book-pl
maejtra-ta
teacher-acc
bit-tua-k
see-caus-pfv
‘The man made the girl show the book to the teacher.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-acc V
(328)
U yoeme uka uusi beemeta maejtrata librom essotuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
uusi
child
beeme-ta
girl-acc
maejtra-ta
teacher-acc
libro-m
book-pl
esso-tua-k
hide-caus-pfv
‘The man made the girl hide the book from the teacher.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Causative
(329)
U yoeme uka uusi beemeta librom jiosiota siutatuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
u-ka
det-acc
uusi
child
beeme-ta
girl-acc
libro-m
book-pl
jiosia-ta
page-acc
siuta-tua-k
tear.trns-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman tear the page from the book.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Causative
(330)
U yoeme uka uusi beemeta mesapo jaimachirata tu'utetuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
uusi
child
beeme-ta
girl-acc
mesa-po
table-loc
jaimachira-ta
dirt-acc
tu'ute-tua-k
wipe-caus-pfv
‘The man made the girl wipe the dirt from the table.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Causative
(331)
U yoeme uka uusita nabasommea panim chuktatuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
u-ka
det-acc
uusi-ta
child-acc
nabasom-mea
knife-instr
pan-im
bread-pl
chukta-tua-k
cut.trns-caus-pfv
‘The man made the boy cut the bread with a knife.’
CUT an Alternation:
Causative
(332)
U yoeme uka uusita bakotta kutae bwistuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
uusi-ta
child-acc
bakot-ta
snake-acc
kuta-e
stick-instr
bwis-tua-k
touch-caus-pfv
‘The man made the boy touch the snake with the stick.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Causative
(333)
U yoeme uka uusita bakotta kutae bebtuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
uusi-ta
child-acc
bakot-ta
snake-acc
kuta-e
stick-instr
beb-tua-k
hit-caus-pfv
‘The man made the boy hit the snake with a stick.’
HIT an Alternation:
Causative
(334)
U yoeme uka uusita bakotta kutae me'etuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
uusi-ta
child-acc
bakot-ta
snake-acc
kuta-e
stick-instr
me'e-tua-k
kill-caus-pfv
‘The man made the boy kill the snake with a stick.’
KILL an Alternation:
Causative
(335)
U yoeme uka uusita bentaanata tetae jamtatuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
u-ka
det-acc
uusi-ta
child-acc
bentana-ta
window-acc
teta-e
stone-instr
jamta-tua-k
break.trns-caus-pfv
‘The man made the boy break the window with a stone.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Causative
(336)
U yoeme uka uusita karita saamimmea yaatuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
uusi-ta
child-acc
kari-ta
house-acc
saamim-mea
adobe-instr
yaa-tua-k
make-caus-pfv
‘The man made the boy build a house with adobe.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Causative
(337)
U yoeme uka uusita karisaamita yaatuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
uusi-ta
child-acc
karisaami-ta
adobe_house-acc
yaa-tua-k
make-caus-pfv
‘The man made the boy build a house of adobe.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Causative
(338)
U yoeme uka uusi beemeta uusitau kaa suak ti jiutuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
u-ka
det-acc
uusi
child
beeme-ta
girl-acc
uusi-ta-u
child-acc-dir
kaa
neg
suak
smart
ti
thus
jiu-tua-k
name-caus-pfv
‘The man made the girl name the boy a dumb.’
BE NAMED the Verb form tea (1)
(339)
U yoeme uka jamutta uusi beemetau kaita teuwatuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
uusi
child
beeme-ta-u
girl-acc-dir
kaita
nothing
teuwa-tua-k
tell-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman say nothing to the girl.’
TELL an Alternation:
Causative
(340)
U yoeme uka jamutta uusi beemetat chachaaetuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
uusi
child
beeme-ta-t
girl-acc-loc
cha-chaae-tua-k
rdp:hab-shout-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman shout at the girl.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
Causative
(341)
U yoeme uusi beemetau etejoita teuwak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uusi
child
beeme-ta-u
girl-acc-dir
eteori-ta
story-acc
teuwa-k
tell-pfv
‘The man told a story to the girl.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-dir V
(342)
U yoeme uka jamutta o'outa tomita betchi'ibo a'autuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
o'ou-ta
male-acc
tomi-ta
money-acc
betchi'ibo
for
a'au-tua-k
ask_for-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman ask the male for money.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Causative
(343)
U yoeme uka jamutta uusitau jamutta betana a eteuriatuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
uusi-ta-u
child-acc-dir
beeme-ta
girl-acc
betana
about
a
3sg.obj
eteu-ria-tua-k
tell-appl-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman tell the boy about the girl.’
TELL an Alternation:
Causative
(344)
U yoeme uka jamutta uusita ta'atuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
uusi-ta
child-acc
ta'a-tua-k
know-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman know the child.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Causative
(345)
U yoeme uka jamutta uusita bitchutuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
uusi-ta
child-acc
bitchu-tua-k
see-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman see the boy.’
SEE an Alternation:
Causative
(346)
U yoeme uka jamutta uusita gomtatuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
uusi-ta
child-acc
gomta-tua-k
frighten.trns-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman to frighten the boy.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Causative
(347)
U yoeme uka jamutta o'outa majaetuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
o'ou-ta
male-acc
majae-tua-k
fear-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman fear the (other) man.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Causative
(348)
U yoeme uka jamutta o'outa tu'urituak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
o'ou-ta
male-acc
tu'uri-tua-k
like-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman like (the other) male.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Causative
(349)
U yoeme uka jamutta uusita jariutuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
uusi-ta
child-acc
jariu-tua-k
search_for-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman search for the child.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Causative
(350)
U yoeme uka jamutta uusi beemetamak emo nau teutuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
uusi
child
beeme-ta-mak
girl-acc-com
emo
refl
nau
together
teu-tua-k
meet-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman meet the girl.’
MEET an Alternation:
Causative
(351)
U yoeme uka jamutta uusi beemeta jajatuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
uusi
child
beeme-ta
girl-acc
jaja-tua-k
follow-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman follow the girl.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Causative
(352)
U yoeme uka jamutta uusi beemeta aniatuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
uusi
child
beeme-ta
girl-acc
ania-tua-k
help-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman help the girl.’
HELP an Alternation:
Causative
(353)
U yoeme uka jamuta paanim bwa'atuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
jamu-ta
woman-acc
paanim
bread
bwa'a-tua-k
eat-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman eat the bread.’
EAT an Alternation:
Causative
(354)
U yoeme uka jamutta uka ili uusita a'anatuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
uka
det.acc
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
a'ana-tua-k
dress-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman dress the child.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Causative
(355)
U yoeme uka jamutta tastuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
tas-tua-k
cough-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman cough.’
COUGH an Alternation:
Causative
(356)
U yoeme uka jamutta kauta ja'amutuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
kawi-t
mountain-loc
ja'amu-tua-k
climb-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman climb up the hill.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Causative
(357)
U yoeme uka jamutta betuk bwiapo yejtetuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
betuk
down
bwia-po
ground-loc
yejte-tua-k
sit-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman sit down on the floor.’
SIT an Alternation:
Causative
(358)
U yoeme uka ili uusita pisopo buibuitituak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
piso-po
floor-loc
bui-buiti-tua-k
rdp:iter-run-caus-pfv
‘The man made the child run on the floor.’
RUN an Alternation:
Causative
(359)
U yoeme uka ili uusita cheptituak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
chepti-tua-k
jump-caus-pfv
‘The man made the child jump.’
JUMP an Alternation:
Causative
(360)
U yoeme uka jamutta pueplopo jo'atuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
pueplo-po
town-loc
jo'a-tua-k
live-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman live in the town.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Causative
(361)
U yoeme uka jamutta wepul bwiikam bwiiktuak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
wepul
one
bwiika-m
song-pl
bwiik-tua-k
sing-caus-pfv
‘The man made the woman sing a song.’
SING an Alternation:
Causative
(362)
U ili uusi chu'uta wakasta juktatua.
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
wakas-ta
cow-acc
jukta-tua
smell-caus
‘The child makes the dog smell the cow.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Causative
(363)
U sewa juktai.
u
det
sewa
flower
jukta-i
smell-res
‘The smelled flower. / The flower was smelled.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Resultative
(364)
U sewa aa juktatu.
u
det
sewa
flower
aa
can
jukta-tu
smell-inch
‘The flower can be smelled.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Middle
(365)
U sewa juktawa.
u
det
sewa
flower
jukta-wa
smell-pass
‘The flower was smelled.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Passive
(366)
Maria yee majae.
Maria
Maria
yee
people
majae
fear
‘Maria is feeling fear (because of the people).’
FEAR an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(367)
Chu'u majaetu.
chu'u
dog
majae-tu
fear-inch
‘Someone is scared because of the dog (lit. The fearsome dog (causes someone to be scared).).’
FEAR an Alternation:
Middle
(368)
U yoeme yee gomtak.
u
det
yoeme
man
yee
people
gomta-k
frighten.trns-pfv
‘The man frightened people.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(369)
Maria jamutta ko'arim tu'uliria.
Maria
Maria
jamut-ta
woman-acc
ko'ari-m
skirt-pl
tu'uli-ria
like-appl
‘Maria likes the woman's skirt.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(370)
Maria aa tu'ulitu.
Maria
Maria
aa
can
tu'uli-tu
like-inch
‘Maria is likeable (for someone). / Maria allows (someone) to woo her.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Middle
(371)
Maria tu'uliwa (Joanta betchi'ibo).
Maria
Maria
tu'uli-wa
like-pass
Joan-ta
Juan-gen
betchi'ibo
for
‘Maria is liked so that she will be Juan's (girlfriend).’
LIKE an Alternation:
Passive
(372)
U yoeme uka jamutta uusita ta'aria.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
uusi-ta
child-acc
ta'a-ria
know-appl
‘The man knows the woman's child.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Applicative
(373)
Aa jita ta'atu.
aa
can
jita
something
ta'a-tu
know-inch
‘It can be known.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Middle
(374)
Yee ta'awa.
yee
people
ta'a-wa
know-pass
‘The known people. / The known things.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Passive
(375)
Ne yee ta'a.
ne
1sg.subj
yee
people
ta'a
know
‘I know someone/people.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(376)
U yoeme jita ea.
u
det
yoeme
man
jita
something
ea
think
‘The man is thinking (of doing) something. / The man pretends to do something.’
THINK an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(377)
Jita eewa.
jita
something
ee-wa
think-pass
‘Something is thought.’
THINK an Alternation:
Passive
(378)
U yoeme Joanta uusita jariuria.
u
det
yoeme
man
Joan-ta
Juan-acc
uusi-ta
child-acc
jariu-ria
search_for-appl
‘The man is searching for the boy for Juan. / The man is searching for Juan for the boy.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Applicative
(379)
Inepo chu'utat jita jariwa.
inepo
1sg.subj
chu'u-ta-t
dog-acc-loc
jita
something
jariwa
search_for
‘I am searching for something on the dog.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Locative
(380)
U chu'u ousi jariuwak.
u
det
chu'u
dog
ousi
int
jariu-wa-k
search_for-pass-pfv
‘The dog was searched for too much.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Passive
(381)
U chu'u ousi jariuri.
u
det
chu'u
dog
ousi
int
jariu-ri
search_for-res
‘The searched for dog. / The dog was searched.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Resultative
(382)
Marta sanaba beeata Joanta baksiaria.
Marta
Marta
sanaba_beea-ta
corn_leaf-acc
Joan-ta
Juan-acc
baksia-ria
wash-appl
‘Maria is washing the corn leaves for Juan.’
WASH an Alternation:
Applicative
(383)
Joan ili uusita karota baksiatua.
Joan
Juan
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
karo-ta
car-acc
baksia-tua
wash-caus
‘Juan made the child wash the car.’
WASH an Alternation:
Causative
(384)
Ume puatom baksiawak.
ume
det.pl
puato-m
dish-pl
baksia-wa-k
wash-pass-pfv
‘The dishes were washed.’
WASH an Alternation:
Passive
(385)
U jamut ili uusita baato betchi'ibo a'anak.
u
det
jamut
woman
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
baato
baptism
betchi'ibo
for
a'ana-k
dress-pfv
‘The woman dressed the child for the baptism. / The woman dressed the child in order to attend the baptism.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(386)
U jamut ili uusita o'outa a'anariak.
u
det
jamut
woman
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
o'ou-ta
male-acc
a'ana-ria-k
dress-appl-pfv
‘The woman dressed the child for the man.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Applicative
(387)
U tajo'oria tu'isi a'anatu.
u
det
tajo'oria
clothes
tu'isi
well
a'ana-tu
dress-inch
‘Clothes dress well.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Middle
(388)
U ili uusi a'anawak.
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
a'ana-wa-k
dress-pass-pfv
‘The child was dressed.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Passive
(389)
Maria yee a'ana.
Maria
Maria
yee
people
a'ana
dress
‘Maria dresses the people. / Maria is a dressmaker. / Maria sews.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(390)
U jamut o'outa kobata bektatuak.
u
det
jamut
woman
o'ou-ta
male-acc
koba-ta
head-acc
bekta-tua-k
shave-caus-pfv
‘The woman made the man shave his head.’
SHAVE (self) an Alternation:
Causative
(391)
U jamut o'outa bektak.
u
det
jamut
woman
o'ou-ta
male-acc
bekta-k
shave-pfv
‘The woman shaved the man.’
SHAVE (self) the Verb form bekta
(392)
Joan kobat au bektak.
Joan
Juan
koba-t
head-loc
au
refl
bekta-k
shave-pfv
‘Juan shaved his head.’
SHAVE (self) an Alternation:
Locative
(393)
Kobapo ne ino bektak.
koba-po
head-loc
ne
1sg.subj
ino
1sg.refl
bekta-k
shave-pfv
‘I shaved on my head. / I shaved my own head.’
SHAVE (self) an Alternation:
Locative
(394)
Bo'am kaa tu'isi bektatu.
bo'am
hair
kaa
neg
tu'isi
well
bekta-tu
shave-inch
‘Hair does not shave well.’
SHAVE (self) an Alternation:
Middle
(395)
Ume bo'am bektawa.
ume
det.pl
bo'am
hair
bekta-wa
shave-pass
‘The hair is being shaved.’
SHAVE (self) an Alternation:
Passive
(396)
Ume bo'am jaibu bektari.
ume
det.pl
bo'am
hair
jaibu
already
bekta-ri
shave-res
‘The hair is already shaved.’
SHAVE (self) an Alternation:
Resultative
(397)
Ume macham jaibu bektari.
ume
det.pl
macham
legs
jaibu
already
bekta-ri
shave-res
‘The legs are already shaved.’
SHAVE (self) an Alternation:
Resultative
(398)
Maria jamutta o'outa aniaria.
Maria
Maria
jamut-ta
woman-acc
o'ou-ta
male-acc
ania-ria
help-appl
‘Maria is helping the woman for the man.’
HELP an Alternation:
Applicative
(399)
Ume jamuchim aniawak.
ume
det.pl
jamuch-im
woman-pl
ania-wa-k
help-pass-pfv
‘The women were helped.’
HELP an Alternation:
Passive
(400)
U yoeme uka jamutta ili uusita jajariak.
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
jaja-ria-k
follow-appl-pfv
‘The man followed the woman for the child.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Applicative
(401)
U jamut yoemta uusi jajariak.
u
det
jamut
woman
yoem-ta
man-gen
uusi
child
jaja-ria-k
follow-appl-pfv
‘The woman followed the child of the man.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Applicative
(402)
U baakot jajjawa.
u
det
baakot
snake
ja-jja-wa
rdp:hab-follow-pass
‘The snake is being followed. / The snake is being haunted.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Passive
(403)
Joan yee tea.
Joan
Juan
yee
people
tea
meet
‘Juan is meeting people.’
MEET an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(404)
Inepo enchi Mariata eteutuak.
inepo
1sg.subj
enchi
2sg.obj
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
eteu-tua-k
talk-caus-pfv
‘I made you talk to Maria.’
TALK an Alternation:
Causative
(405)
U eteori jaibu eteuwak.
u
det
eteori
story
jaibu
already
eteu-wa-k
talk-pass-pfv
‘The story has already been told.’
TELL an Alternation:
Passive
(406)
U eteori jaibu eteuri.
u
det
eteori
story
jaibu
already
eteu-ri
talk-res
‘The story is already told.’
TELL an Alternation:
Resultative
(407)
Joan eteoritat jita etejok.
Joan
Juan
eteori-ta-t
story-acc-loc
jita
something
etejo-k
talk-pfv
‘Juan talked about a (specific part of the) story.’
TELL an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(408)
Joan eteoripo jita etejok.
Joan
Juan
eteori-po
story-loc
jita
something
etejo-k
talk-pfv
‘Juan talked about the story.’
TELL an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(409)
U yoeme jamutta ili uusim teuwaria.
u
det
yoeme
man
jamut-ta
woman-acc
ili
little
uusi-m
child-pl
teuwa-ria
name-appl
‘The man called the children of the woman.’
BE NAMED an Alternation:
Applicative
(410)
Joan Pepepo nee tetewa.
Joan
Juan
Pepe-po
Pepe-loc
nee
1sg.obj
te-tewa
rdp:hab-name
‘Juan calls me Pepe.’
BE NAMED an Alternation:
Locative
(411)
Joan yee tetewa.
Joan
Juan
yee
people
te-tewa
rdp:hab-name
‘Juan names the people.’
BE NAMED an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(412)
Wakas aa yaatu.
wakas
meat
aa
can
yaa-tu
make-inch
‘Meat can be made. / Meat can be prepared/cooked.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Middle
(413)
U kari yaawa.
u
det
kari
house
yaa-wa
make-pass
‘The house is being made.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Passive
(414)
Joan yee yaa.
Joan
Juan
yee
people
yaa
make
‘Juan is taking pictures.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Undetermined object
(415)
Joan karita bentanata jamtariak.
Joan
Juan
kari-ta
house-acc
bentana-ta
window-acc
jamta-ria-k
break.trns-appl-pfv
‘Juan broke the window of the house.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Applicative
(416)
Melquiades lentem Jesusta jamtariak.
Melquiades
Melquiades
lentem
eyeglasses
Jesus-ta
Jesus-gen
jamta-ria-k
break.trns-appl-pfv
‘Melquiades broke the eyeglasses of Jesus.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Applicative
(417)
U kari bentana jamtek.
u
det
kari
house
bentana
window
jamte-k
break.intr-pfv
‘The window of the house broke.’