Directional Object U

Description

One of the participants is marked with the directional suffix -u and the accusative suffix -ta, resulting in the directional benefactive (i.e. oblique) marker -tau.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
LOOK AT bitchu R
(113)
Juan
Juan
uusi-ta
child-acc
bitchu
look_at
‘Juan is looking at the child.’
(212)
Juan
Juan
espeko-po
mirror-loc
au
refl
bitchu
see
‘Juan looks at himself in the mirror.’
ASK FOR a’awa R
(205)
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
unna
much
tomi-ta
money-acc
a'awa
ask_for
‘The child asks for a lot of money.’
TELL teuwa N
(341)
u
det
yoeme
man
uusi
child
beeme-ta-u
girl-acc-dir
eteori-ta
story-acc
teuwa-k
tell-pfv
‘The man told a story to the girl.’
EAT bwa’e M
(2)
Juan
Juan
mansana-ta
apple-acc
bwa'e
eat
‘Juan is eating an apple.’
(77)
bempo
3pl
muni-m
bean-pl
bwa'e
eat
‘They are eating beans.’
SING bwiika M
(78)
Maria
Maria
bwiika-m
song-pl
bwiika
sing
‘Maria is singing songs.’
FEAR majae N
(11)
u
det
ili
small
uusi
child
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
majae
fear
‘The child is afraid of the dog.’
(114)
u
det
yoeme
man
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
majae
fear
‘The man fears the dog. / The man is afraid of the dog.’
HUG ibakta N
(3)
Juan
Juan
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
ibakta-k
hug-pfv
‘Juan hugged Maria.’
(165)
Juan
Juan
into
and
Maria
Maria
emo
refl
ibakta-k
hug-pfv
‘Juan and Maria hugged each other.’
SEE bitcha N
(56)
in
1sg.pos
wawai
relative
ne
1sg
pueplo-u
town-dir
bit-bae
see-des
‘I'm going to see my relative in town.’
(105)
u
det
yoeme
man
uusi-ta
child-acc
bicha-k
see-pfv
‘The man saw the child.’
SMELL jukta N
(111)
chu'u
dog
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
jukta
smell
‘The dog is smelling/sniffing Maria.’
(112)
ume
det.pl
chu'u-m
dog-pl
emo
3pl.refl
juk~jukta-k
rdp:iter~smell-pfv
‘The dogs are smelling themselves.’
LIKE tu’ure N
(17)
inepo
1sg.subj
ju-ka
det-acc
kari
house
bwe'u-ta
big-acc
tu'ure
like
‘I like the big house.’
(18)
inepo
1sg.subj
Diana-ta
Diana-acc
tu'ure
like
‘I like Diana.’
(73)
Maria
Maria
Juan-ta
Juan-acc
tu'ure
like
‘Maria likes Juan.’
(369)
Maria
Maria
jamut-ta
woman-acc
ko'ari-m
skirt-pl
tu'uli-ria
like-appl
‘Maria likes the woman's skirt.’
KNOW ta’a
(55)
inepo
1sg.subj
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
ta'a
know
‘I know Maria.’
(104)
ju
det
yoeme
man
uusi-ta
child-acc
ta'a-n
know-ipfv
‘The man knows the child.’
(171)
Joan
Juan
into
and
Maria
Maria
emo
refl
ta'a-k
know-pfv
‘Juan and Maria met (lit. Juan and Maria knew each other.).’
(310)
inepo
1sg.subj
Joan-ta
Juan-acc
ta'a-k
know-pfv
‘I knew Juan. / I met Juan.’
SEARCH FOR jariwa N
(21)
inepo
1sg.subj
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
jariwa
search_for
‘I am searching for my dog.’
(74)
ume
det.pl
yoeme-m
man-pl
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
jariwa
search_for
‘The men are looking for the child.’
WASH baksia N
(57)
Marta
Marta
sanaba_beea-ta
corn_leaf-acc
baksia
wash
‘Marta is washing the corn leaf.’
(107)
Juan
Juan
karo-ta
car-acc
baksia-k
wash-pfv
‘Juan washed the car.’
(177)
ju
det
yoeme
man
emo
refl
baksia-k
wash-pfv
‘The man washed (himself).’
(216)
Juan
Juan
au
refl
baksia
wash
‘Juan is washing himself.’
DRESS a’ana
(116)
u
det
jamut
woman
uusi-ta
child-acc
a'ana
dress
‘The woman is dressing the child.’
(117)
aapo
3sg.subj
emo
refl
a'ana
dress
‘He is getting dressed.’
(385)
u
det
jamut
woman
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
baato
baptism
betchi'ibo
for
a'ana-k
dress-pfv
‘The woman dressed the child for the baptism. / The woman dressed the child in order to attend the baptism.’
SHAVE (self) bekta N
(32)
ino
1sg.refl
ne
1sg
bekta
shave
‘I am shaving (myself).’
(173)
u
det
yoeme
man
au
refl
bekta-k
shave-pfv
‘The man shaved himself.’
HELP ania N
(106)
ne
1sg
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
ania-k
help-pfv
‘I helped Maria.’
FOLLOW jajase N
(22)
u
det
jamut
woman
o'ou-ta
male-acc
jajase
follow
‘The woman follows the man.’
(76)
u
det
bake'o
cowboy
kaba'i-ta
horse-acc
jajase
follow
‘The cowboy is following the horse.’
MEET tea (2) N
(118)
Juan
Juan
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
tea-k
meet-pfv
‘Juan met Maria.’
(170)
Juan
Juan
into
and
Maria
Maria
emo
refl
tea-k
meet-pfv
‘Juan and Maria met each other.’
SHOUT AT chaae (1) N
(8)
jabe-ta-u
someone-acc-dir
empo
2sg.subj
chaae
shout
‘Whom are you shouting at?’
(66)
nim
1sg.pos
maala
mother
chu'u-ta-u
dog-acc-dir
chaae
scream
‘My mother is screaming out for the dog. / My mother is calling the dog.’
SAY tejwa M
(10)
jabe-ta
someone-acc
empo
2sg.subj
tejwa
tell
‘To whom are you talking?’
(53)
in
1sg.pos
asoa
son
au
refl
tebaure
be_hungry
tiia
say.trns
‘My son says that he is hungry.’
(101)
jaisa
what
jiia
say
u
det
yoeme
man
‘What is the man saying ?’
BE NAMED tea (1)
(7)
nim
1sg.pos
ji'are
girlfriend
Alma
Alma
tea
be_called
‘My girlfriend's name is Alma.’
BUILD yaa N
(61)
itepo
1pl
kari-ta
house-acc
yaa
make
‘We are making the house.’
(110)
Juan
Juan
mesa-ta
table-acc
yaa-k
make-pfv
‘Juan made a table.’
(120)
Juan
Juan
kari-ta
house-acc
yaa-k
make-pfv
‘Juan built a house.’
(315)
Joan
Juan
tabla-mak
wood-instr
kari-ta
house-acc
yaa-k
make-pfv
‘Juan made a house by using wood. / Juan built a house out of wood.’
(316)
Joan
Juan
semento-kari-ta
cement-house-acc
yaa-k
make-pfv
‘Juan made a cement house.’
BREAK jamta N
(50)
Joan
Juan
espeko-ta
mirror-acc
jamta-k
break.trns-pfv
‘Juan broke the mirror.’
(99)
Juan
Juan
teta-e
stone-instr
bentana-ta
window-acc
jamta-k
break.trns-pfv
‘Juan broke the window with a stone.’
KILL me’a N
(49)
Joan
Juan
juya-po
scrub-loc
bakot-ta
snake-acc
me'a
kill
‘Juan is killing the snake on the field.’
(98)
Juan
Juan
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
me'a-k
kill-pfv
‘Juan killed the dog.’
(167)
Juan
Juan
au
refl
me'a-k
kill-pfv
‘Juan killed himself.’
(307)
Joan
Juan
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
teta-e
stone-instr
me'a-k
kill-pfv
‘Juan killed the dog with a stone.’
HIT beeba M
(6)
kat
neg
soto'i-ta
pot-acc
kuta-e
stick-instr
beba
hit
‘Do not hit the pot with the stick!’
(47)
u
det
yoeme
man
o'omtilataka
angrily
sami-ta
wall-acc
chona
hit
‘The man beats the wall angrily.’
(63)
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
beeba-k
hit-pfv
‘The little child hit the dog.’
(164)
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
kuta-e
stick-instr
yee
people
beba-k
hit-pfv
‘The child hit (people) with a stick.’
(284)
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
kuta-e
stick-instr
beeba-k
hit-pfv
‘The child hit the dog with a stick.’
BEAT tasta R
(160)
Juan
Juan
mesa-ta
table-acc
tasta-k
beat.trns-pfv
‘Juan beat the table.’
TOUCH bwibwise N
(62)
Juan
Juan
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
bwi~bwise
rdp:iter~touch
‘Juan is touching Maria.’
CUT chukta N
(48)
Manwe
Manuel
wakas-ta
meat-acc
chukta
cut.trns
‘Manuel cuts the meat.’
TAKE nu’e R
(121)
Juan
Juan
tomi-ta
money-acc
nu'u-ka
take-pfv
‘Juan took the money.’
TEAR siuta
(290)
Kajlos
Carlos
supem
shirt
siuta-k
tear.trns-pfv
‘Carlos tore off his shirt.’
PEEL besuma N
(33)
inepo
1sg.subj
na'aso-ta
orange-acc
besuma-k
peel-pfv
‘I peeled an orange.’
(301)
itepo
1pl
abai-m
corn-pl
besuma
peel
‘We are peeling the corns.’
HIDE esso M
(5)
inepo
1sg.subj
tomi-ta
money-acc
esso-k
hide-pfv
‘I hid the money.’
(65)
Maria
Maria
lipro-m
book-pl
esso-k
hide-pfv
‘Maria hid the book.’
SHOW bittua (2) M
(44)
jamut
woman
jissobai-ta
grilled_meat-acc
yoem-ta
man-acc
bittua
show
‘The woman shows the man the grilled meat.’
(95)
Maria
Maria
dibuujo-m
draw-pl
Juan-ta
Juan-acc
bit-tua-k
see-caus-pfv
‘Maria showed drawings to Juan.’
(155)
Maria
Maria
dibuujo-m
drawing-pl
yee
people
bitchu-tua-k
see-caus-pfv
‘Maria showed drawings (to people).’
(299)
Joan
Juan
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
Peo-ta
Pedro-acc
dibuujom
drawing.acc
bit-tua-k
see-caus-pfv
‘Juan made Maria show drawings to Peter.’
(327)
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
uusi
child
beeme-ta
girl-acc
libro-m
book-pl
maejtra-ta
teacher-acc
bit-tua-k
see-caus-pfv
‘The man made the girl show the book to the teacher.’
(479)
u
det
yoeme
man
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
jiosiam
book.acc
bittua-k
show-pfv
‘The man showed a book to the child.’
(480)
u
det
yoeme
man
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
jiosiam
book.acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
bittua-k
show-pfv
‘The man showed the woman the child's book.’
GIVE maka M
(92)
Juan
Juan
libro-m
book-pl
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
maka-k
give-pfv
‘Juan gave Maria a book.’
(232)
ne
1sg
libro-m
book-pl
Juan-ta
Juan-acc
maka-k
give-pfv
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
betchi'ibo
for
‘I gave Juan the book for Maria.’
SEND bittua (1) N
(43)
Joan-ta
Juan-acc
ne
1sg
Potam-me-u
Potam-nmlz-dir
bittua
send
‘I am sending Juan to Potam.’
(94)
Maria-ta-u
Maria-acc-dir
ne
1sg
libro-m
book-pl
bittua-k
send-pfv
‘I sent the book to Maria.’
CARRY toja N
(97)
Juan
Juan
libro-m
book-pl
biblioteka-u
library-dir
toja-k
carry-pfv
‘Juan took the books to the library.’
THROW watta N
(303)
sankoa-ta
garbage-acc
ne
1sg
mekka
far
watta-k
throw.trns-pfv
‘I threw the litter far away.’
TIE suma N
(35)
u
det
jamut
woman
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
suma
tie
‘The woman ties the dog.’
(87)
Juan
Juan
kaba'i-ta
horse-acc
jupa-u
tree-dir
suma-k
tie-pfv
‘Juan tied the horse to the tree.’
(240)
Juan
Juan
kaba'i-ta
horse-acc
jupa-u
tree-dir
wikia-e
rope-instr
suma-k
tie-pfv
‘Juan tied the horse to the tree with a rope.’
PUT mana N
(1)
inepo
1sg.subj
soto'i-ta
pot-acc
mesa-po
table-loc
mana
put
‘I am putting the pot on the table.’
(64)
ne
1sg
baaso-ta
glass-acc
mesa-po
table-loc
mana-k
put-pfv
‘I put the glass on the table.’
POUR to’a
(36)
u
det
jamut
woman
soto'i-po
pot-loc
ba'am
water
to'a
pour
‘The woman pours water in the pot.’
(243)
pichel-po
jar-loc
iliiki
few
ba'am
water
to'a
pour
‘Pour some water on the jar.’
COVER patta N
(38)
u
det
jamut
woman
ili
small
uusi-ta
child-acc
pisam-mea
blanket-instr
patta
cover
‘The woman covers the child with a blanket.’
(90)
aapo
3sg.subj
soto'i-ta
pot-acc
patta
cover
‘He is covering the pot.’
(245)
u
det
jamut
woman
rebo'osa-m-mea
shawl-pl-instr
au
refl
patta
cover
‘The woman is covering herself with the shawl.’
(246)
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
sabana-m-mea
sheet-pl-instr
patta
cover
‘Cover the child with the sheets!’
(248)
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
achai-wa-ta
father-poss-acc
betchi'ibo
for
au
refl
patta-k
cover-pfv
‘The child covered himself for the father.’
FILL tapunia M
(88)
ne
1sg
piche-ta
jar-acc
tapunia
fill
‘I am filling the jar.’
(89)
tina-ta
deposit-acc
ne
1sg
ba'a-mea
water-instr
tapunia
fill
‘I am filling the deposit with water.’
LOAD pu'akta
(124)
karo-po
car-loc
maleta-m
case-pl
ne
1sg
pu'akta
load.trns
‘I am loading cases onto the car.’
BLINK kupikte R
(14)
u
det
jamut
woman
ousi
much
kupikte
blink.intr
‘The woman blinks too much.’
(286)
ne
1sg
kupikte-k
blink.intr-pfv
‘I blinked.’
CLIMB ja’amu M
(12)
ume
det.pl
ili
little
uusi-m
child-pl
ju'upa-t
tree-loc
ja'amu
climb
‘The children are climbing at the tree.’
(69)
Juan
Juan
ja'amu-k
climb-pfv
‘Juan climbed.’
(214)
escalea-m
stair-pl
ne
1sg
ja'amu-la
climb-ptcp
‘I climb the stairs.’
RUN buite N
(126)
Juan
Juan
buite-k
run-pfv
‘Juan ran.’
(157)
Juan
Juan
goi
two
kilometro-m
kilometer-pl
bui~buite-k
rdp:iter~run-pfv
‘Juan ran two kilometers.’
(320)
u
det
sontao
soldier
kawi-u
mountain-dir
bichaa
towards
buite
run
‘The soldier runs towards the mountain.’
SIT yejte N
(51)
u
det
jamut
woman
bwia-po
scrub-loc
yejte
sit
‘The woman is sitting on the field.’
(100)
Maria
Maria
wea-po
floor-loc
yejte-k
sit-pfv
‘Maria sat down on the floor.’
(127)
u
det
yoeme
man
kuta-t
log-loc
yejte
sit
‘The man sits on the log.’
JUMP chepte
(128)
inepo
1sg.subj
chepte
jump
‘I jump.’
GO siika N
(59)
u
det
jamut
woman
pajkoa-u
party-dir
siika
go
‘The woman goes to the party.’
(108)
Juan
Juan
merkado-u
market-dir
siika-k
go-pfv
‘Juan went to the market.’
(261)
Juan
Juan
siika
go
‘Juan left.’
LEAVE watakte N
(130)
Melquiades
Melquiades
watakte-k
leave-pfv
‘Melquiades left. / Melquiades has gone.’
(263)
Melquiades
Melquiades
Suichi-u
Vicam-dir
watakte-k
leave-pfv
‘Melquiades left towards Vicam.’
LIVE jo’a N
(24)
in
1sg.pos
sai
brother
Bikam-po
Vicam-loc
jo'ak
live
‘My brother lives in Vicam.’
(79)
Juan
Juan
Peesio-po
Hermosillo-loc
jo'a-k
house-pfv
‘Juan lives in Hermosillo (lit. Juan is housed in Hermosillo.).’
(266)
Juan
Juan
jo'a-k
live-pfv
‘Juan lives. / Juan has a house.’
LAUGH aache R
(16)
Joan
Juan
jiba
always
aache
laugh
‘Juan always laughs.’
(72)
Melquiades
Melquiades
a'~ache
rdp:hab~laugh
‘Melquiades laughs. / Melquiades is laughing.’
FEEL PAIN wante N
(15)
Loola
Lola
ousi
int
tom-po
stomach-loc
wante
feel_pain
‘Lola is feeling much pain in her stomach.’
(71)
ne
1sg
mam-po
hand-loc
wante
feel_pain
‘I am feeling pain in my hand. / My hand is hurting.’
FEEL COLD chubakte N
(42)
wajpo
while
weamaka
field
ne
1sg
ousi
int
chubakte-k
feel_cold-pfv
‘While I was on the field, I felt cold.’
(93)
ne
1sg
ousi
int
chubakte
feel_cold
‘I am freezing (lit. I am feeling very cold.).’
DIE muuke N
(132)
u
det
chu'u
dog
muuke
die
‘The dog is dying.’
PLAY yeewe N
(260)
Juan
Juan
yeewe
play
‘Juan is playing.’
BE SAD rojikte N
(134)
Juan
Juan
rojikte
be_sad
‘Juan is feeling sad.’
(278)
ne
1sg
nim
1sg.pos
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
betchi'ibo
for
rojikte
be_sad
‘I am feeling sad because of my dog.’
BE HUNGRY tebaure N
(13)
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
tebaure
be_hungry
‘The child is hungry.’
ROLL ro’akte N
(292)
u
det
teta
stone
ro'akte
roll.intr
‘The rock rolls. / The rock is rolling.’
SINK go’okte N
(280)
u
det
kaba'i
horse
techoa-po
mud-loc
go'okte
sink.intr
‘The horse is sinking in the mud.’
(298)
u
det
barko
boat
go'okte-k
sink.intr-pfv
‘The boat sank.’
BURN beete N
(34)
Manwe-ta
Manuel-poss
kari
house
beete-k
burn.intr-pfv
‘Manuel's house burned.’
(140)
u
det
kari
house
beete
burn.intr
‘The house is burning.’
(302)
ume
det.pl
kuta-m
firewood-pl
kaa
neg
tu'isi
well
beete
burn.intr
‘The firewood does not burn well.’
BE DRY waake N
(136)
u
det
ju'upa
mesquite
waake
be_dry
‘The mesquite is drying.’
RAIN yuke N
(25)
Bikam-me-u
Vicam-nmlz-dir
yuke
rain
‘It is raining in Vicam. / It is raining over there in Vicam.’
(80)
yuke
rain
‘It is raining.’
BE A HUNTER amureo N
(137)
Joan
Juan
amu-reo
hunt-nmlz
‘Juan is a hunter.’
STEAL etbwa
(4)
empo
2sg.subj
tomi-ta
money-acc
etbwa
steal
‘You are stealing money.’
GRIND tuuse
(26)
aapo
3sg.subj
bachi-ta
corn-acc
tuuse
grind
‘He is grinding corn.’
PUSH yu’a
(81)
Juan
Juan
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
ba'a-u
water-dir
yu'a-k
push-pfv
‘Juan pushed Maria into the water.’
BOIL pojte
(29)
u
det
bwa'a-me
eat-nmlz
pojte
boil
‘The food is boiling.’
COOK bwasa
(84)
Maria
Maria
muni-m
bean-pl
bwasa
cook.trns
‘Maria is cooking beans.’
(294)
in
1sg.pos
maala
mother
wakas-ta
meat-acc
bwasa
cook.trns
‘My mother is cooking the meat.’
HEAR jikkaja
(30)
u
det
uusi
child
kaa
neg
malawa
mother
jikkaja
hear
‘The boy does not hear his mother.’
(85)
Juan
Juan
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
jikkaja
hear
‘Juan is hearing Maria.’
BRING nu'upa
(40)
u
det
bake'o
cowboy
maso-ta
deer-acc
nu'upa
bring
‘The cowboy brings a deer.’
(91)
ne-u
1sg-dir
sewa-m
flower-pl
nu'upa-k
bring-pfv
‘Somebody brought me flowers.’
(305)
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
jamut
woman
jiosiam
book.acc
maejtro-ta-u
teacher-acc-dir
nu'upa-k
bring-pfv
‘The little girl brought the book to the teacher.’
WIPE tu’ute
(46)
u
det
jamut
woman
buki-ta
child-acc
tu'ute
wipe
‘The woman is cleaning the baby.’
(96)
aapo
3sg.subj
karo-ta
car-acc
tu'ute
wipe
‘He is wiping the car.’
DIG bweje
(109)
u
det
jamut
woman
bwia-ta
ground-acc
bweje
dig
‘The woman is digging the ground.’
(313)
u
det
jamut
woman
bwia-ta
ground-acc
bweje
dig
papaa-m
potato-pl
jariwa-kai
look_for-ptcp
‘The woman is digging the ground looking for potatoes.’
TEACH majta
(138)
Maria
Maria
lingo-nok-ta
foreign-speak-acc
yee
people
ma~majta
rdp~teach
‘Maria teaches (people) English.’
FRIGHTEN gomta N
(19)
u
det
miisi
cat
ili
small
uusi-ta
child-acc
gom~gomta
rdp:hab~frighten
‘The cat frightens the little boy.’
(285)
u
det
chu'u
dog
yoem-ta
man-acc
gomta-k
frighten-pfv
‘The dog frightened the man.’
THINK ea M
(28)
Joan
Juan
kai-ta
neg-acc
ea
think
‘Juan does not think. \ lit. Juan think nothing.’
(83)
u
det
yoeme
man
jachin
how
ea
think
‘The man thinks.’
PUT joa M
(519)
liprom
book.pl
ne
1sg.subj
mesa-po
table-loc
joa-k
put-pfv
‘I put the books on the table. / I placed the books on the table.’
COUGH tase
(125)
ne
1sg
ta~tase-k
rdp:iter~cough-pfv
‘I coughed.’
SCREAM chaae (2) R
(131)
u
det
jamut
woman
cha~chae-k
rdp~scream-pfv
‘The woman screamed.’
(208)
Juan
Juan
chae
shout
‘Juan is shouting. / Juan is screaming.’
TALK etejo (2) R
(159)
Juan
Juan
etejo-k
talk-pfv
‘Juan talked.’
TELL etejo (1) N
(67)
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
jamut
woman
eteori-ta
story-acc
ne-u
1sg-dir
etejo-k
tell-pfv
‘The little girl told me a story.’
(318)
achai-m
mister-pl
emo-u
2pl.refl-dir
ne
1sg
etejo-bae
tell-des
‘Gentlemen, I want to tell you (...).’