Intransitivizer incorporation: ji'i C

Description

The verb takes a prefix ji'i- (which is related to the word jita 'something'). By using it, the verb becomes intransitive.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
DIG bweje R
(109)
u
det
jamut
woman
bwia-ta
ground-acc
bweje
dig
‘The woman is digging the ground.’
(313)
u
det
jamut
woman
bwia-ta
ground-acc
bweje
dig
papaa-m
potato-pl
jariwa-kai
look_for-ptcp
‘The woman is digging the ground looking for potatoes.’
EAT bwa’e R
(2)
Juan
Juan
mansana-ta
apple-acc
bwa'e
eat
‘Juan is eating an apple.’
(77)
bempo
3pl
muni-m
bean-pl
bwa'e
eat
‘They are eating beans.’
SHAVE (self) bekta N
(32)
ino
1sg.refl
ne
1sg
bekta
shave
‘I am shaving (myself).’
(173)
u
det
yoeme
man
au
refl
bekta-k
shave-pfv
‘The man shaved himself.’
SING bwiika N
(78)
Maria
Maria
bwiika-m
song-pl
bwiika
sing
‘Maria is singing songs.’
LOOK AT bitchu N
(113)
Juan
Juan
uusi-ta
child-acc
bitchu
look_at
‘Juan is looking at the child.’
(212)
Juan
Juan
espeko-po
mirror-loc
au
refl
bitchu
see
‘Juan looks at himself in the mirror.’
FEAR majae N
(11)
u
det
ili
small
uusi
child
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
majae
fear
‘The child is afraid of the dog.’
(114)
u
det
yoeme
man
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
majae
fear
‘The man fears the dog. / The man is afraid of the dog.’
HUG ibakta N
(3)
Juan
Juan
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
ibakta-k
hug-pfv
‘Juan hugged Maria.’
(165)
Juan
Juan
into
and
Maria
Maria
emo
refl
ibakta-k
hug-pfv
‘Juan and Maria hugged each other.’
SEE bitcha N
(56)
in
1sg.pos
wawai
relative
ne
1sg
pueplo-u
town-dir
bit-bae
see-des
‘I'm going to see my relative in town.’
(105)
u
det
yoeme
man
uusi-ta
child-acc
bicha-k
see-pfv
‘The man saw the child.’
SMELL jukta N
(111)
chu'u
dog
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
jukta
smell
‘The dog is smelling/sniffing Maria.’
(112)
ume
det.pl
chu'u-m
dog-pl
emo
3pl.refl
juk~jukta-k
rdp:iter~smell-pfv
‘The dogs are smelling themselves.’
FRIGHTEN gomta N
(19)
u
det
miisi
cat
ili
small
uusi-ta
child-acc
gom~gomta
rdp:hab~frighten
‘The cat frightens the little boy.’
(285)
u
det
chu'u
dog
yoem-ta
man-acc
gomta-k
frighten-pfv
‘The dog frightened the man.’
LIKE tu’ure N
(17)
inepo
1sg.subj
ju-ka
det-acc
kari
house
bwe'u-ta
big-acc
tu'ure
like
‘I like the big house.’
(18)
inepo
1sg.subj
Diana-ta
Diana-acc
tu'ure
like
‘I like Diana.’
(73)
Maria
Maria
Juan-ta
Juan-acc
tu'ure
like
‘Maria likes Juan.’
(369)
Maria
Maria
jamut-ta
woman-acc
ko'ari-m
skirt-pl
tu'uli-ria
like-appl
‘Maria likes the woman's skirt.’
KNOW ta’a N
(55)
inepo
1sg.subj
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
ta'a
know
‘I know Maria.’
(104)
ju
det
yoeme
man
uusi-ta
child-acc
ta'a-n
know-ipfv
‘The man knows the child.’
(171)
Joan
Juan
into
and
Maria
Maria
emo
refl
ta'a-k
know-pfv
‘Juan and Maria met (lit. Juan and Maria knew each other.).’
(310)
inepo
1sg.subj
Joan-ta
Juan-acc
ta'a-k
know-pfv
‘I knew Juan. / I met Juan.’
THINK ea N
(28)
Joan
Juan
kai-ta
neg-acc
ea
think
‘Juan does not think. \ lit. Juan think nothing.’
(83)
u
det
yoeme
man
jachin
how
ea
think
‘The man thinks.’
SEARCH FOR jariwa N
(21)
inepo
1sg.subj
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
jariwa
search_for
‘I am searching for my dog.’
(74)
ume
det.pl
yoeme-m
man-pl
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
jariwa
search_for
‘The men are looking for the child.’
WASH baksia N
(57)
Marta
Marta
sanaba_beea-ta
corn_leaf-acc
baksia
wash
‘Marta is washing the corn leaf.’
(107)
Juan
Juan
karo-ta
car-acc
baksia-k
wash-pfv
‘Juan washed the car.’
(177)
ju
det
yoeme
man
emo
refl
baksia-k
wash-pfv
‘The man washed (himself).’
(216)
Juan
Juan
au
refl
baksia
wash
‘Juan is washing himself.’
DRESS a’ana N
(116)
u
det
jamut
woman
uusi-ta
child-acc
a'ana
dress
‘The woman is dressing the child.’
(117)
aapo
3sg.subj
emo
refl
a'ana
dress
‘He is getting dressed.’
(385)
u
det
jamut
woman
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
baato
baptism
betchi'ibo
for
a'ana-k
dress-pfv
‘The woman dressed the child for the baptism. / The woman dressed the child in order to attend the baptism.’
HELP ania N
(106)
ne
1sg
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
ania-k
help-pfv
‘I helped Maria.’
FOLLOW jajase N
(22)
u
det
jamut
woman
o'ou-ta
male-acc
jajase
follow
‘The woman follows the man.’
(76)
u
det
bake'o
cowboy
kaba'i-ta
horse-acc
jajase
follow
‘The cowboy is following the horse.’
MEET tea (2) N
(118)
Juan
Juan
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
tea-k
meet-pfv
‘Juan met Maria.’
(170)
Juan
Juan
into
and
Maria
Maria
emo
refl
tea-k
meet-pfv
‘Juan and Maria met each other.’
ASK FOR a’awa N
(205)
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
unna
much
tomi-ta
money-acc
a'awa
ask_for
‘The child asks for a lot of money.’
SHOUT AT chaae (1) N
(8)
jabe-ta-u
someone-acc-dir
empo
2sg.subj
chaae
shout
‘Whom are you shouting at?’
(66)
nim
1sg.pos
maala
mother
chu'u-ta-u
dog-acc-dir
chaae
scream
‘My mother is screaming out for the dog. / My mother is calling the dog.’
TELL teuwa
(341)
u
det
yoeme
man
uusi
child
beeme-ta-u
girl-acc-dir
eteori-ta
story-acc
teuwa-k
tell-pfv
‘The man told a story to the girl.’
SAY tejwa N
(10)
jabe-ta
someone-acc
empo
2sg.subj
tejwa
tell
‘To whom are you talking?’
(53)
in
1sg.pos
asoa
son
au
refl
tebaure
be_hungry
tiia
say.trns
‘My son says that he is hungry.’
(101)
jaisa
what
jiia
say
u
det
yoeme
man
‘What is the man saying ?’
BE NAMED tea (1) N
(7)
nim
1sg.pos
ji'are
girlfriend
Alma
Alma
tea
be_called
‘My girlfriend's name is Alma.’
BUILD yaa N
(61)
itepo
1pl
kari-ta
house-acc
yaa
make
‘We are making the house.’
(110)
Juan
Juan
mesa-ta
table-acc
yaa-k
make-pfv
‘Juan made a table.’
(120)
Juan
Juan
kari-ta
house-acc
yaa-k
make-pfv
‘Juan built a house.’
(315)
Joan
Juan
tabla-mak
wood-instr
kari-ta
house-acc
yaa-k
make-pfv
‘Juan made a house by using wood. / Juan built a house out of wood.’
(316)
Joan
Juan
semento-kari-ta
cement-house-acc
yaa-k
make-pfv
‘Juan made a cement house.’
BREAK jamta N
(50)
Joan
Juan
espeko-ta
mirror-acc
jamta-k
break.trns-pfv
‘Juan broke the mirror.’
(99)
Juan
Juan
teta-e
stone-instr
bentana-ta
window-acc
jamta-k
break.trns-pfv
‘Juan broke the window with a stone.’
KILL me’a N
(49)
Joan
Juan
juya-po
scrub-loc
bakot-ta
snake-acc
me'a
kill
‘Juan is killing the snake on the field.’
(98)
Juan
Juan
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
me'a-k
kill-pfv
‘Juan killed the dog.’
(167)
Juan
Juan
au
refl
me'a-k
kill-pfv
‘Juan killed himself.’
(307)
Joan
Juan
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
teta-e
stone-instr
me'a-k
kill-pfv
‘Juan killed the dog with a stone.’
HIT beeba N
(6)
kat
neg
soto'i-ta
pot-acc
kuta-e
stick-instr
beba
hit
‘Do not hit the pot with the stick!’
(47)
u
det
yoeme
man
o'omtilataka
angrily
sami-ta
wall-acc
chona
hit
‘The man beats the wall angrily.’
(63)
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
beeba-k
hit-pfv
‘The little child hit the dog.’
(164)
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
kuta-e
stick-instr
yee
people
beba-k
hit-pfv
‘The child hit (people) with a stick.’
(284)
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
kuta-e
stick-instr
beeba-k
hit-pfv
‘The child hit the dog with a stick.’
BEAT tasta
(160)
Juan
Juan
mesa-ta
table-acc
tasta-k
beat.trns-pfv
‘Juan beat the table.’
TOUCH bwibwise N
(62)
Juan
Juan
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
bwi~bwise
rdp:iter~touch
‘Juan is touching Maria.’
CUT chukta N
(48)
Manwe
Manuel
wakas-ta
meat-acc
chukta
cut.trns
‘Manuel cuts the meat.’
TAKE nu’e N
(121)
Juan
Juan
tomi-ta
money-acc
nu'u-ka
take-pfv
‘Juan took the money.’
TEAR siuta N
(290)
Kajlos
Carlos
supem
shirt
siuta-k
tear.trns-pfv
‘Carlos tore off his shirt.’
PEEL besuma N
(33)
inepo
1sg.subj
na'aso-ta
orange-acc
besuma-k
peel-pfv
‘I peeled an orange.’
(301)
itepo
1pl
abai-m
corn-pl
besuma
peel
‘We are peeling the corns.’
HIDE esso N
(5)
inepo
1sg.subj
tomi-ta
money-acc
esso-k
hide-pfv
‘I hid the money.’
(65)
Maria
Maria
lipro-m
book-pl
esso-k
hide-pfv
‘Maria hid the book.’
SHOW bittua (2) N
(44)
jamut
woman
jissobai-ta
grilled_meat-acc
yoem-ta
man-acc
bittua
show
‘The woman shows the man the grilled meat.’
(95)
Maria
Maria
dibuujo-m
draw-pl
Juan-ta
Juan-acc
bit-tua-k
see-caus-pfv
‘Maria showed drawings to Juan.’
(155)
Maria
Maria
dibuujo-m
drawing-pl
yee
people
bitchu-tua-k
see-caus-pfv
‘Maria showed drawings (to people).’
(299)
Joan
Juan
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
Peo-ta
Pedro-acc
dibuujom
drawing.acc
bit-tua-k
see-caus-pfv
‘Juan made Maria show drawings to Peter.’
(327)
u
det
yoeme
man
uka
det.acc
uusi
child
beeme-ta
girl-acc
libro-m
book-pl
maejtra-ta
teacher-acc
bit-tua-k
see-caus-pfv
‘The man made the girl show the book to the teacher.’
(479)
u
det
yoeme
man
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
jiosiam
book.acc
bittua-k
show-pfv
‘The man showed a book to the child.’
(480)
u
det
yoeme
man
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
jiosiam
book.acc
jamut-ta
woman-acc
bittua-k
show-pfv
‘The man showed the woman the child's book.’
GIVE maka N
(92)
Juan
Juan
libro-m
book-pl
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
maka-k
give-pfv
‘Juan gave Maria a book.’
(232)
ne
1sg
libro-m
book-pl
Juan-ta
Juan-acc
maka-k
give-pfv
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
betchi'ibo
for
‘I gave Juan the book for Maria.’
SEND bittua (1) N
(43)
Joan-ta
Juan-acc
ne
1sg
Potam-me-u
Potam-nmlz-dir
bittua
send
‘I am sending Juan to Potam.’
(94)
Maria-ta-u
Maria-acc-dir
ne
1sg
libro-m
book-pl
bittua-k
send-pfv
‘I sent the book to Maria.’
CARRY toja R
(97)
Juan
Juan
libro-m
book-pl
biblioteka-u
library-dir
toja-k
carry-pfv
‘Juan took the books to the library.’
THROW watta N
(303)
sankoa-ta
garbage-acc
ne
1sg
mekka
far
watta-k
throw.trns-pfv
‘I threw the litter far away.’
TIE suma
(35)
u
det
jamut
woman
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
suma
tie
‘The woman ties the dog.’
(87)
Juan
Juan
kaba'i-ta
horse-acc
jupa-u
tree-dir
suma-k
tie-pfv
‘Juan tied the horse to the tree.’
(240)
Juan
Juan
kaba'i-ta
horse-acc
jupa-u
tree-dir
wikia-e
rope-instr
suma-k
tie-pfv
‘Juan tied the horse to the tree with a rope.’
PUT mana N
(1)
inepo
1sg.subj
soto'i-ta
pot-acc
mesa-po
table-loc
mana
put
‘I am putting the pot on the table.’
(64)
ne
1sg
baaso-ta
glass-acc
mesa-po
table-loc
mana-k
put-pfv
‘I put the glass on the table.’
POUR to’a N
(36)
u
det
jamut
woman
soto'i-po
pot-loc
ba'am
water
to'a
pour
‘The woman pours water in the pot.’
(243)
pichel-po
jar-loc
iliiki
few
ba'am
water
to'a
pour
‘Pour some water on the jar.’
COVER patta N
(38)
u
det
jamut
woman
ili
small
uusi-ta
child-acc
pisam-mea
blanket-instr
patta
cover
‘The woman covers the child with a blanket.’
(90)
aapo
3sg.subj
soto'i-ta
pot-acc
patta
cover
‘He is covering the pot.’
(245)
u
det
jamut
woman
rebo'osa-m-mea
shawl-pl-instr
au
refl
patta
cover
‘The woman is covering herself with the shawl.’
(246)
ili
little
uusi-ta
child-acc
sabana-m-mea
sheet-pl-instr
patta
cover
‘Cover the child with the sheets!’
(248)
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
achai-wa-ta
father-poss-acc
betchi'ibo
for
au
refl
patta-k
cover-pfv
‘The child covered himself for the father.’
FILL tapunia N
(88)
ne
1sg
piche-ta
jar-acc
tapunia
fill
‘I am filling the jar.’
(89)
tina-ta
deposit-acc
ne
1sg
ba'a-mea
water-instr
tapunia
fill
‘I am filling the deposit with water.’
LOAD pu'akta N
(124)
karo-po
car-loc
maleta-m
case-pl
ne
1sg
pu'akta
load.trns
‘I am loading cases onto the car.’
BLINK kupikte N
(14)
u
det
jamut
woman
ousi
much
kupikte
blink.intr
‘The woman blinks too much.’
(286)
ne
1sg
kupikte-k
blink.intr-pfv
‘I blinked.’
COUGH tase N
(125)
ne
1sg
ta~tase-k
rdp:iter~cough-pfv
‘I coughed.’
CLIMB ja’amu N
(12)
ume
det.pl
ili
little
uusi-m
child-pl
ju'upa-t
tree-loc
ja'amu
climb
‘The children are climbing at the tree.’
(69)
Juan
Juan
ja'amu-k
climb-pfv
‘Juan climbed.’
(214)
escalea-m
stair-pl
ne
1sg
ja'amu-la
climb-ptcp
‘I climb the stairs.’
RUN buite N
(126)
Juan
Juan
buite-k
run-pfv
‘Juan ran.’
(157)
Juan
Juan
goi
two
kilometro-m
kilometer-pl
bui~buite-k
rdp:iter~run-pfv
‘Juan ran two kilometers.’
(320)
u
det
sontao
soldier
kawi-u
mountain-dir
bichaa
towards
buite
run
‘The soldier runs towards the mountain.’
SIT yejte
(51)
u
det
jamut
woman
bwia-po
scrub-loc
yejte
sit
‘The woman is sitting on the field.’
(100)
Maria
Maria
wea-po
floor-loc
yejte-k
sit-pfv
‘Maria sat down on the floor.’
(127)
u
det
yoeme
man
kuta-t
log-loc
yejte
sit
‘The man sits on the log.’
JUMP chepte
(128)
inepo
1sg.subj
chepte
jump
‘I jump.’
GO siika N
(59)
u
det
jamut
woman
pajkoa-u
party-dir
siika
go
‘The woman goes to the party.’
(108)
Juan
Juan
merkado-u
market-dir
siika-k
go-pfv
‘Juan went to the market.’
(261)
Juan
Juan
siika
go
‘Juan left.’
LEAVE watakte N
(130)
Melquiades
Melquiades
watakte-k
leave-pfv
‘Melquiades left. / Melquiades has gone.’
(263)
Melquiades
Melquiades
Suichi-u
Vicam-dir
watakte-k
leave-pfv
‘Melquiades left towards Vicam.’
LIVE jo’a N
(24)
in
1sg.pos
sai
brother
Bikam-po
Vicam-loc
jo'ak
live
‘My brother lives in Vicam.’
(79)
Juan
Juan
Peesio-po
Hermosillo-loc
jo'a-k
house-pfv
‘Juan lives in Hermosillo (lit. Juan is housed in Hermosillo.).’
(266)
Juan
Juan
jo'a-k
live-pfv
‘Juan lives. / Juan has a house.’
LAUGH aache N
(16)
Joan
Juan
jiba
always
aache
laugh
‘Juan always laughs.’
(72)
Melquiades
Melquiades
a'~ache
rdp:hab~laugh
‘Melquiades laughs. / Melquiades is laughing.’
FEEL PAIN wante N
(15)
Loola
Lola
ousi
int
tom-po
stomach-loc
wante
feel_pain
‘Lola is feeling much pain in her stomach.’
(71)
ne
1sg
mam-po
hand-loc
wante
feel_pain
‘I am feeling pain in my hand. / My hand is hurting.’
FEEL COLD chubakte N
(42)
wajpo
while
weamaka
field
ne
1sg
ousi
int
chubakte-k
feel_cold-pfv
‘While I was on the field, I felt cold.’
(93)
ne
1sg
ousi
int
chubakte
feel_cold
‘I am freezing (lit. I am feeling very cold.).’
DIE muuke N
(132)
u
det
chu'u
dog
muuke
die
‘The dog is dying.’
PLAY yeewe N
(260)
Juan
Juan
yeewe
play
‘Juan is playing.’
BE SAD rojikte N
(134)
Juan
Juan
rojikte
be_sad
‘Juan is feeling sad.’
(278)
ne
1sg
nim
1sg.pos
chu'u-ta
dog-acc
betchi'ibo
for
rojikte
be_sad
‘I am feeling sad because of my dog.’
BE HUNGRY tebaure N
(13)
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
tebaure
be_hungry
‘The child is hungry.’
ROLL ro’akte N
(292)
u
det
teta
stone
ro'akte
roll.intr
‘The rock rolls. / The rock is rolling.’
SINK go’okte N
(280)
u
det
kaba'i
horse
techoa-po
mud-loc
go'okte
sink.intr
‘The horse is sinking in the mud.’
(298)
u
det
barko
boat
go'okte-k
sink.intr-pfv
‘The boat sank.’
BURN beete N
(34)
Manwe-ta
Manuel-poss
kari
house
beete-k
burn.intr-pfv
‘Manuel's house burned.’
(140)
u
det
kari
house
beete
burn.intr
‘The house is burning.’
(302)
ume
det.pl
kuta-m
firewood-pl
kaa
neg
tu'isi
well
beete
burn.intr
‘The firewood does not burn well.’
BE DRY waake N
(136)
u
det
ju'upa
mesquite
waake
be_dry
‘The mesquite is drying.’
RAIN yuke N
(25)
Bikam-me-u
Vicam-nmlz-dir
yuke
rain
‘It is raining in Vicam. / It is raining over there in Vicam.’
(80)
yuke
rain
‘It is raining.’
BE A HUNTER amureo N
(137)
Joan
Juan
amu-reo
hunt-nmlz
‘Juan is a hunter.’
STEAL etbwa
(4)
empo
2sg.subj
tomi-ta
money-acc
etbwa
steal
‘You are stealing money.’
GRIND tuuse
(26)
aapo
3sg.subj
bachi-ta
corn-acc
tuuse
grind
‘He is grinding corn.’
PUSH yu’a
(81)
Juan
Juan
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
ba'a-u
water-dir
yu'a-k
push-pfv
‘Juan pushed Maria into the water.’
BOIL pojte
(29)
u
det
bwa'a-me
eat-nmlz
pojte
boil
‘The food is boiling.’
COOK bwasa
(84)
Maria
Maria
muni-m
bean-pl
bwasa
cook.trns
‘Maria is cooking beans.’
(294)
in
1sg.pos
maala
mother
wakas-ta
meat-acc
bwasa
cook.trns
‘My mother is cooking the meat.’
HEAR jikkaja
(30)
u
det
uusi
child
kaa
neg
malawa
mother
jikkaja
hear
‘The boy does not hear his mother.’
(85)
Juan
Juan
Maria-ta
Maria-acc
jikkaja
hear
‘Juan is hearing Maria.’
BRING nu'upa
(40)
u
det
bake'o
cowboy
maso-ta
deer-acc
nu'upa
bring
‘The cowboy brings a deer.’
(91)
ne-u
1sg-dir
sewa-m
flower-pl
nu'upa-k
bring-pfv
‘Somebody brought me flowers.’
(305)
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
jamut
woman
jiosiam
book.acc
maejtro-ta-u
teacher-acc-dir
nu'upa-k
bring-pfv
‘The little girl brought the book to the teacher.’
WIPE tu’ute
(46)
u
det
jamut
woman
buki-ta
child-acc
tu'ute
wipe
‘The woman is cleaning the baby.’
(96)
aapo
3sg.subj
karo-ta
car-acc
tu'ute
wipe
‘He is wiping the car.’
TEACH majta
(138)
Maria
Maria
lingo-nok-ta
foreign-speak-acc
yee
people
ma~majta
rdp~teach
‘Maria teaches (people) English.’
PUT joa N
(519)
liprom
book.pl
ne
1sg.subj
mesa-po
table-loc
joa-k
put-pfv
‘I put the books on the table. / I placed the books on the table.’
SCREAM chaae (2) N
(131)
u
det
jamut
woman
cha~chae-k
rdp~scream-pfv
‘The woman screamed.’
(208)
Juan
Juan
chae
shout
‘Juan is shouting. / Juan is screaming.’
TALK etejo (2) N
(159)
Juan
Juan
etejo-k
talk-pfv
‘Juan talked.’
TELL etejo (1) N
(67)
u
det
ili
little
uusi
child
jamut
woman
eteori-ta
story-acc
ne-u
1sg-dir
etejo-k
tell-pfv
‘The little girl told me a story.’
(318)
achai-m
mister-pl
emo-u
2pl.refl-dir
ne
1sg
etejo-bae
tell-des
‘Gentlemen, I want to tell you (...).’