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'give' grammaticalized into 'benefactive', the preposition can either follow the verb, or be placed in front of the complement.

Coding frame

Simplex Verb form

Examples

(21)
Nèxuu xù na péci xù afainû.
nèxuu
girl
give
na
PST
péci
book
BEN
a-fa-inû
NMLZ-CAUS-learn
‘The girl gave the book to the teacher.’
(22)
Nèxuu xù xù na afainû péci.
nèxuu
girl
give
BEN
na
PST
a-fa-inû
NMLZ-CAUS-learn
péci
book
‘The girl gave the book to the teacher.’

Verb meaning , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# GIVE Coding set Argument type
1 giver Ø A
2 gift Ø P
3 giving recipient xù+NP X

Alternations

Alternation name Occurs Examples
U
n
U
N n
C
y
C
M y
(273)
‘This disease is contagious.’
U
n
C
y
C
N y
C
N y
U
M n
(23)
‘The girl gave the book to the teacher (to show off).’
C
R y
(312)
‘The gift of the niaouli frames by the sculptors is under the responsibility of the clan.’
U
N n