Examples of Xârâcùù

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
Nèxuu chètia na nènèpéci kèwâ péci.
nèxuu
girl
chè-tia
draw-split
na
PST
nènè-péci
page-book
kèwâ
from
péci
book
‘The girl tore the page from the book.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2 (kèwâ+3)
(2)
Kwiè xwa.
kwiè
rain
xwa
fall
‘It rains.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
1 > V
(3)
Kamûrû nä kasache na xûûchî nä ngê kwèrètii.
kamûrû
man
DEM
ka=sache
with.the.hands=cover
na
PST
xûûchî
child
DEM
ngê
with
kwèrètii
blanket
‘The man covered the child with a blanket.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (ngê+3)
(4)
Kamûrû nä faxûda na vèr ngê dökwé.
kamûrû
man
DEM
fa-xûda
CAUS-full
na
PST
vèr
glass
ngê
with
dö-kwé
true-water
‘The man filled the glass with fresh water.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (ngê+3)
(5)
Nâ faxûda chaa sië.
1SG
fa-xûda
CAUS-full
chaa
one
sië
bucket
‘I am filling a bucket.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (ngê+3)
(6)
Kamûrû nîî na karèèsi ngê nyüükwéré.
kamûrû
man
nîî
load
na
PST
karèèsi
cart
ngê
with
nyüükwéré
hay
‘The man loaded the cart with hay.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (ngê+3)
(7)
Kamûrû curu na oosi töwâ puukwââ.
kamûrû
man
curu
tie
na
PST
oosi
horse
töwâ
at
puu-kwââ
trunk-tree
‘The man tied the horse to the tree.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (LOC3)
(8)
Kamûrû nä suxwêê kwé nèpwéé vèr.
kamûrû
man
DEM
su=xwêê
put=pour
kwé
water
nèpwéé
in
vèr
glass
‘The man poured the water (into) the glass.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (LOC3)
(9)
Kamûrû xwêê na.
kamûrû
man
xwêê
fall
na
PST
‘The man fell down.’
POUR an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation 1
(10)
Nâ xwêê kwé nèpwéé chaa mîrî.
1SG
xwêê
pour
kwé
water
nèpwéé
in
chaa
one
mîrî
plate
‘I am pouring water into a plate.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (LOC3)
(11)
Kwââ a xwêê na töwâ kwâdè.
kwââ
tree
a
DEM
xwêê
fall
na
PST
töwâ
because
kwâdè
wind
‘This tree fell because of the wind.’
POUR the Verb form xwêê
(12)
Kamûrû suè na péci xû taapërë.
kamûrû
man
suè
put
na
PST
péci
book
on
taapërë
table
‘The man put the book on the table.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (LOC3)
(13)
Êê suè na pènèrè tö xû sêgè Nèsiwéa.
êê
3SG.NPERS
suè
put
na
PST
pènè-rè
fondation-3SG
at
on
sêgè
stone
Nèsiwéa
Nèsiwéa
‘The foundation stone has been laid on the rock Nèsiwéa. / One has laid the foundation stone on the rock Nèsiwéa.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (LOC3)
(14)
Xûûchî gwéré na sêgè xû xwânyûû.
xûûchî
child
gwéré
throw
na
PST
sêgè
stone
on
xwâ-nyûû
NMLZ-pierce
‘The boy threw the stone into the window.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (LOC3)
(15)
Xûûchî gwéré catù na sêgè tö xwânyûû.
xûûchî
child
gwéré
throw
catù
enter
na
PST
sêgè
stone
at
xwâ-nyûû
NMLZ-pierce
‘The child threw the stone through the window.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (LOC3)
(16)
Nèxuu pè fè na péci ti afainû.
nèxuu
girl
take
go
na
PST
péci
book
ti
to
a-fa-inû
NMLZ-CAUS-learn
‘The girl brought the book to the teacher.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (LOC3)
(17)
Nèxuu pè mê na péci ti afainû.
nèxuu
girl
take
come
na
PST
péci
book
ti
to
a-fa-inû
NMLZ-CAUS-learn
‘The girl brought the book to the teacher.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (LOC3)
(18)
È mê kèrè chaa kéböö-nû.
è
3SG
come
kèrè
with
chaa
one
kéböö-nû
basket-coconut
‘He brings a basket full of coconuts.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 xù+3
(19)
Nèxuu nû na péci xù afainû.
nèxuu
girl
send
na
PST
péci
book
BEN
a-fa-inû
NMLZ-CAUS-learn
‘The girl sent the book to the teacher.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 xù+3
(20)
Nèxuu nû na péci ti mwâinû.
nèxuu
girl
send
na
PST
péci
book
ti
to
mwâ-inû
house-learn
‘The girl sent the book to school.’
SEND the Verb form
(21)
Nèxuu xù na péci xù afainû.
nèxuu
girl
give
na
PST
péci
book
BEN
a-fa-inû
NMLZ-CAUS-learn
‘The girl gave the book to the teacher.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 xù+3
(22)
Nèxuu xù xù na afainû péci.
nèxuu
girl
give
BEN
na
PST
a-fa-inû
NMLZ-CAUS-learn
péci
book
‘The girl gave the book to the teacher.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 xù+3
(23)
Nèxuu xù na ngê chaa péci xù afainû.
nèxuu
girl
give
na
PST
ngê
INS
chaa
one
péci
book
BEN
a-fa-inû
NMLZ-CAUS-learn
‘The girl gave the book to the teacher (to show off).’
GIVE an Alternation:
Oblique/Direct alternation
(24)
Nèxuu xacië na péci xù afainû.
nèxuu
girl
xacië
show
na
PST
péci
book
BEN
a-fa-inû
NMLZ-CAUS-learn
‘The girl showed the book to the teacher.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 xù+3
(25)
Nèxuu pêdè na péci taa afainû.
nèxuu
girl
pêdè
steal
na
PST
péci
book
taa
NBEN
a-fa-inû
NMLZ-CAUS-learn
‘The girl stole the book from the teacher.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 taa+3
(26)
Nèxuu sûûârâ na péci taa afainû.
nèxuu
girl
sûûârâ
hide
na
PST
péci
book
taa
NBEN
a-fa-inû
NMLZ-CAUS-learn
‘The girl hid the book from the teacher.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 taa+3
(27)
Ri wâ sûûârâ kä-mârâdii nä.
ri
3PL
PFV
sûûârâ
hide
kä-mârâdii
skin-snake
DEM
‘They are hiding the skin of the snake.’
HIDE the Verb form sûûârâ
(28)
Nèxuu jee na chirèdöu kè xû taapërë.
nèxuu
girl
jee
wipe
na
PST
chirè=döu
remains=thing
from
on
taapërë
table
‘The girl wiped the dirt from the table.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (kè+3)
(29)
Nâ nä jee rè kûû-nâ.
1SG
IPFV
jee
wipe
IPFV
kûû-nâ
nose-1SG
‘I am wiping my nose.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (kè+3)
(30)
Xötö söpuru na farawa (ngê nea).
xötö
boy
sö-puru
beat-two.parts
na
PST
farawa
bread
ngê
INS
nea
knife
‘The boy cut the bread (with the knife).’
CUT a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (ngê+3)
(31)
Xötö sakai na mârâdii ngê köökwââ.
xötö
boy
sakai
touch.sofly
na
PST
mârâdii
snake
ngê
INS
köö-kwââ
extremity-tree
‘The boy touched the snake with the stick.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (ngê+3)
(32)
Xötö fîda na mârâdii ngê köökwââ.
xötö
boy
fîda
hit.with.instrument
na
PST
mârâdii
snake
ngê
INS
köö-kwââ
extremity-tree
‘The boy hit the snake with the stick.’
HIT a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (ngê+3)
(33)
Xötö fîgai na mârâdii ngê köökwââ.
xötö
boy
fî-kai
hit.with.instrument-crumble
na
PST
mârâdii
snake
ngê
INS
köö-kwââ
extremity-tree
‘The boy beat the snake with the stick.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (ngê+3)
(34)
Xötö söömè na mârâdii (ngê köökwââ).
xötö
boy
söömè
kill
na
PST
mârâdii
snake
ngê
INS
köö-kwââ
extremity-tree
‘The boy killed the snake (with the stick).’
KILL a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (ngê+3)
(35)
Xötö jikörö na xwânyûû ngê sêgè.
xötö
boy
ji-körö
throw-break.into.pieces
na
PST
xwâ-nyûû
NMLZ-pierce
ngê
INS
sêgè
stone
‘The boy broke the window with the stone.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (ngê+3)
(36)
Kamûrû xwi na mwâ ngê sêgè.
kamûrû
man
xwi
build
na
PST
mwâ
house
ngê
INS
sêgè
stone
‘The man built the house with stones.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (ngê+3)
(37)
Jööpè nä xwi?
jööpè
what
IPFV
xwi
exist
‘What's going on?’
BUILD an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation 1
(38)
Xè mîî êrêcaa bwa purè-ri xwi.
colour
mîî
ART.PL
êrêcaa
living.creature
bwa
DEM
purè-ri
shell-3PL
xwi
exist
‘Colour the living creatures which have a shell.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation 1
(39)
Pa pwâgara xwi farawa va nèkè-ri.
pa
COLL
pwâgara
European
xwi
make
farawa
bread
va
for
nèkè-ri
GEN.CLF(starchy.food)-3PL
‘Europeans make bread for their starchy food.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (ngê+3)
(40)
Kamûrû sii ché na döu xù nèxuu.
kamûrû
man
sii
NEG
ché
say
na
PST
döu
thing
BEN
nèxuu
girl
‘The man said nothing to the girl.’
SAY a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 xù+3
(41)
Kamûrû xangââ na xù nèxuu.
kamûrû
man
xa=ngââ
speak=shout
na
PST
BEN
nèxuu
girl
‘The man shouted at the girl (to say hello to her).’
SHOUT AT the Verb form xangââ
(42)
Kamûrû xangââ na wâ nèxuu.
kamûrû
man
xa=ngââ
speak=shout
na
PST
at
nèxuu
girl
‘The man shouted at the girl (to yield at her).’
SHOUT AT the Verb form xangââ
(43)
Kamûrû xangââ ngê na chaa ùnââ taa nèxuu.
kamûrû
man
xa=ngââ
speak=shout
ngê
INS
na
PST
chaa
one
ù-nââ
NMLZ-ask
taa
NBEN
nèxuu
girl
‘The man shouted to ask something from the girl.’
SHOUT AT the Verb form xangââ
(44)
Kamûrû xangââ ngê na xwâxatii xù nèxuu.
kamûrû
man
xa=ngââ
speak=shout
ngê
INS
na
PST
xwâ-xatii
NMLZ-reprimand
BEN
nèxuu
girl
‘The man shouted reprimands at the girl. / The man shouted at the girl with a reprimand.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1 > V ngê+2 xù+3
(45)
Kamûrû faxwata ngê chaa tèpë xù nèxuu.
kamûrû
man
fa-xwata
CAUS-listen
ngê
INS
chaa
one
tèpe
story
BEN
nèxuu
girl
‘The man tells a story to the girl.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1 > V ngê+2 xù+3
(46)
Ri wâ sömârâ ngêrê chaa tèpe.
ri
3PL
PFV
sömârâ
tell.story
ngê=rê
INS=PFV
chaa
one
tèpe
story
‘They are going to tell a story.’
TELL the Verb form sömârâ
(47)
Xötö nââ na mwânè taa kamûrû.
xötö
boy
nââ
ask.for
na
PST
mwânè
money
taa
NBEN
kamûrû
man
‘The boy asked the man for money. / The boy asked money from the man.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 taa+3
(48)
Xötö nä nêgé rè chaa péci xù chaa kamûrû.
xötö
boy
IPFV
nêgé
ask.for
IPFV
chaa
one
péci
book
BEN
chaa
one
kamûrû
man
‘The boy asks someone for a book.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 xù+3
(49)
Kamûrû néxä na xötö nä mè niè mê è wâ fè.
kamûrû
man
néxä
know
na
PST
xötö
boy
DEM
COMP
niè
3SG.INDEP.PRON
and
è
3SG
PFV
go
‘The man knew the boy with whom he was going to go.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(50)
Kamûrû téé na xötö.
kamûrû
man
téé
see
na
PST
xötö
boy
‘The man saw the boy.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(51)
Kamûrû fabata na xötö.
kamûrû
man
fa-bata
CAUS-fear
na
PST
xötö
boy
‘The man frightened the boy.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(52)
È bata taa tèpe.
è
3SG
bata
fear
taa
NBEN
tèpe
speak
‘He is afraid of speaking.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1 > V taa+2
(53)
Xötö bata xwi cara na kamûrû.
xötö
boy
bata=xwi=cara
fear=make=ashamed
na
PST
kamûrû
man
‘The boy feared the man. / The boy was afraid of the man.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Applicative alternation
(54)
Xötö pwâxwâ xwèrii na kamûrû.
xötö
boy
pwâxwâ
much
xwèrii
want
na
PST
kamûrû
man
‘The boy liked the man.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(55)
A kamûrû nä, acaa.
a
DEM
kamûrû
man
DEM
a-caa
NMLZ-hunt
‘This man is a hunter/fisherman.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
1 > V
(56)
Ke da nènö-rö nô.
ke
2SG
da
eat
nènö-rö
GEN.CLF(food)-2SG.POSS
fish
‘You are eating fish. / You are eating your food (which is) fish.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(57)
Nèxuu kê na pââ.
nèxuu
girl
eat.starch
na
PST
pââ
bread
‘The girl ate the entire bread.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(58)
Nèxuu kê na kèwâ pââ.
nèxuu
girl
eat.starch
na
PST
kèwâ
from
pââ
bread
‘The girl ate some bread.’
EAT an Alternation:
Conative alternation
(59)
Kamûrû chèxô na.
kamûrû
man
chèxô
cough
na
PST
‘The man coughed.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1 > V
(60)
Kamûrû cuè na (tö nêdöö).
kamûrû
man
cuè
sit
na
PST
at
nêdöö
ground
‘The man was sitting (on the floor).’
SIT a Coding frame:
1 > V (LOC2)
(61)
Ri ùcuè.
ri
3PL
ù-cuè
MID-sit
‘They are gathering. / They are sitting together.’
SIT an Alternation:
Middle alternation
(62)
Xötö mêrê.
xötö
boy
mêrê
hungry
‘The boy is hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1 > V
(63)
Xötö xùpè.
xötö
boy
xùpè
cold
‘The boy is cold.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1 > V
(64)
Xùpè sé na amû.
xùpè
cold
big
na
PST
amû
yesterday
‘It was cold yesterday.’
FEEL COLD an Alternation:
Impersonal alternation
(65)
Nâ nä faînû rèè ngê nââ xârâcùù.
1SG
IPFV
fa-înû
CAUS-learn
rè-è
IPFV-3SG
ngê
INS
nââ
language
xârâcùù
Xârâcùù
‘I am teaching him the Xârâcùù language.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Oblique/Direct alternation
(66)
Nâ faînû xù è ngê nââ xârâcùù.
1SG
fa-înû
CAUS-learn
BEN
è
3SG
ngê
INS
nââ-xârâcùù
language-Xârâcùù
‘I am teaching him the Xârâcùù language. / Lit. I am teaching to him with the Xârâcùù language.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1 > V ngê+2 xù+3
(67)
È bu bu rè nêdökètè.
è
3SG
bu
smell
bu
smell
POSS
nêdökètè
earth
‘He smells a smell coming from the earth. / Lit. He smells a smell of earth.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(68)
Nèxuu famwâmwâ na xûûchî (ngê örööpe).
nèxuu
girl
fa-mwâmwâ
CAUS-dress
na
PST
xûûchî
child
ngê
INS
örööpe
robe
‘The girl dressed the child (with a robe).’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(69)
Nèxuu ngûrû na xûûchî.
nèxuu
girl
ngûrû
wash
na
PST
xûûchî
child
‘The girl washed the child.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(70)
Kamûrû ngûrû mûgé na è.
kamûrû
man
ngûrû
wash
mûgé
return
na
PST
è
3SG
‘The man washed (himself). / The man washed him again.’
WASH an Alternation:
Reflexive/Reciprocal omission alternation
(71)
Nâ xii è.
1SG
xii
shave
è
3SG
‘I shave him.’
SHAVE (self) an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation 2
(72)
Nâ xii.
1SG
xii
shave
‘I shave.’
SHAVE (self) a Coding frame:
1 > V
(73)
Nèxuu pè na péci taa afainû.
nèxuu
girl
take
na
PST
péci
book
taa
NBEN
a-fa-inû
NMLZ-CAUS-learn
‘The girl took the book from the teacher. / The girl got the book from the teacher.’
GET a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 taa+3
(74)
Kamûrû wâ paiimè.
kamûrû
man
PFV
paii-mè
sick-completely
‘The man died.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1 > V
(75)
Nâ nimè.
1SG
nimè
blink
‘I am blinking (my eyes).’
BLINK a Coding frame:
1 > V
(76)
Kamûrû téé fè na xötö.
kamûrû
man
téé
look
DIR
na
PST
xötö
boy
‘The man looked at the boy (who was going away).’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(77)
Kamûrû téé mê na xötö.
kamûrû
man
téé
look
come
na
PST
xötö
boy
‘The man looked at the boy (who was coming).’
SEE a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(78)
Nâ nârâ chaa kâmûrû.
1SG
nârâ
feel.pity
chaa
one
kâmûrû
man
‘I feel pity for someone. / I am thinking about someone.’
THINK the Verb form nârâ
(79)
Nâ nä nârâ rè kamè-nâ.
1SG
IPFV
nârâ
think
IPFV
kamè-nâ
house-1SG
‘I am homesick. / I am thinking about my house.’
THINK the Verb form nârâ
(80)
È wâ fâwi chaaké dèèri mè ri wâ fè piicè rè ru.
è
3SG
PFV
fâwi
choose
chaaké
several
dèèri
people
in.order.to
ri
3PL
PFV
go
piicè
search.for
POSS
ru
3DU
‘He chooses several persons to go search for the two of them.’
SEARCH FOR the Verb form piicè
(81)
Wîrî wâ piicè nèmêrèbwaa-rè.
wîrî
2PL
PFV
piicè
search.for
nè-mêrèbwaa-rè
NMLZ-stay-3SG
‘You are going to search for a place to stay.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(82)
È nä piicè rè nea rèè tö kètè wânîî.
è
3SG
IPFV
piicè
search.for
IPFV
nea
knife
rè-è
POSS-3SG
at
kètè
place
wânîî
all
‘He is searching for his knife everywhere.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(83)
Ri ciiwi ri.
ri
3PL
ciiwi
help
ri
3PL
‘They are helping them. / They are helping each other.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(84)
Kamûrû ciiwi na nèxuu tiwâ kèè-caa.
kamûrû
man
ciiwi
help
na
PST
nèxuu
girl
tiwâ
about
kèè-caa
NMLZ-fish
‘The man helped the girl fishing.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(85)
Kamûrû fèèté na nèxuu xû xwâî.
kamûrû
man
fèèté
follow
na
PST
nèxuu
girl
on
xwâî
road
‘The man followed the girl on the road.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(86)
Dèèri mê anyââ pùùtè tö Kwênyêngêrê.
dèèri
people
and
anyââ
Mummy
pùùtè
meet
at
Kwênyêngêrê
Kwênyêngêrê
‘People and Mummy meet at Kwênyêngêrê.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1 > V
(87)
Kamûrû mê nèxuu pùùtè na.
kamûrû
man
and
nèxuu
girl
pùùtè
meet
na
PST
‘The man met the girl.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1 > V
(88)
Kamûrû pùùtè na niè mê nèxuu.
kamûrû
man
pùùtè
meet
na
PST
niè
3SG.INDEP.PRON
and
nèxuu
girl
‘The man met the girl. / lit. The man met, he and the girl.’
MEET the Verb form pùùtè
(89)
Kamûrû tèpe na wâ nèxuu xù xötö.
kamûrû
man
tèpe
talk
na
PST
about
nèxuu
girl
BEN
xötö
boy
‘The man talked to the boy about the girl.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1 > V wâ+2 (xù+3)
(90)
Ke tèpe wâ puu-rö mê nîî-rö.
ke
2SG
tèpe
talk
about
puu-rö
origin-2SG
and
nîî-rö
name-2SG
‘You are talking about your origin and your name.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1 > V wâ+2 (xù+3)
(91)
Xwârè bwa ke mââ ciköpuru na êê xacè ngê xwâ-Jarimwâ.
xwârè
river
bwa
DEM
ke
2SG
mââ
just
ciköpuru
cross
na
PST
êê
3SG.NPERS
xa-cè
speak-for.a.specific.goal
ngê
INS
xwâ-Jarimwâ
river-Jarimwâ
‘The river you just crossed is called river Jarimwâ.’
NAME the Verb form xacè
(92)
Anyââ satee na xuu xûûchî rèè.
anyââ
Mummy
satee
hug
na
PST
xuu
small
xûûchî
child
rè-è
POSS-3SG
‘Mummy hugged her young child.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(93)
Nâ tapöru kwââ.
1SG
ta-pöru
use.a.stick-peel
kwââ
tree
‘I am peeling the tree.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(94)
Ri fètaa kwââ-ri nä ri döö fädë péré toa ti xûâ.
ri
3PL
fè-taa
go-leave
kwââ-ri
boat-3PL
then
ri
3PL
döö
bare.hands
fädë
walk
péré
go.up
toa
upwards
ti
to
xûâ
village
‘They leave their boat and go up to the village with bare hands.’
CLIMB the Verb form péré
(95)
Kamûrû péré na nyîdöökwè.
kamûrû
man
péré
go.up
na
PST
nyîdöö-kwè
ridge-mountain
‘The man climbed on the hill.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(96)
Xûûchî pûxûrû na.
xûûchî
child
pûxûrû
run
na
PST
‘The child ran.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1 > V
(97)
Xûûchî cîchéé na ti nêdöö.
xûûchî
child
cî-chéé
jump-down
na
PST
ti
at
nêdöö
ground
‘The child jumped on the floor (from a chair, a wall...).’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1 > V (LOC2)
(98)
Kamûrû cuè chéé na (tö nêdöö).
kamûrû
man
cuè
sit
chéé
down
na
PST
at
nêdöö
ground
‘The man sat (on the floor).’
SIT DOWN a Coding frame:
1 > V tö+2
(99)
Xötö xô na (chaa söö).
xötö
boy
sing
na
PST
chaa
one
söö
song
‘The boy sang (a song).’
SING the Verb form
(100)
È xô xöru bare kèèrè märä.
è
3SG
sing
xöru
well
bare
also
kèèrè
as
märä
bird
‘He sings as well as birds.’
SING a Coding frame:
1 > V
(101)
Pa xûûchî fè ti xwârè.
pa
COLL
xûûchî
child
go
ti
at
xwârè
river
‘Children are going to the river.’
GO a Coding frame:
1 > V (LOC2)
(102)
Xötö wâ fè na kè döxûâ.
xötö
boy
PFV
go
na
PST
from
döxûâ
village
‘The boy left the village.’
GO a Coding frame:
1 > V (LOC2)
(103)
È bata taa na fètaa rè mwâciri rèè.
è
3SG
bata
fear
taa
NBEN
na
PST
fè-taa
go-leave
POSS
mwâciri
country
rè-è
POSS-3SG
‘He was afraid to leave his country.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1 > V taa+2
(104)
Ri fètaa na kwââ-ri.
ri
3PL
fè-taa
go-leave
na
PST
kwââ-ri
boat-3PL
‘They left their boat.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(105)
Ri muru tö xwârè.
ri
3PL
muru
live
at
xwârè
river
‘They are living at the river.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1 > V (LOC2)
(106)
Pa xûûchî mwârâ tö nèkèxûâ.
pa
COLL
xûûchî
child
mwârâ
play
at
nèkèxûâ
outside
‘The children are playing outside.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1 > V
(107)
Pâê nä tèpe mê mwârâ döbwanä ri nä pètù rè döxöu.
pâê
COLL.woman
IPFV
tèpe
talk
and
mwârâ
laugh
döbwanä
while
ri
3PL
IPFV
pètù
plait
IPFV
döxöu
mat
‘Women are talking and laughing while they are plaiting mats.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1 > V
(108)
Nâ ngââ chavaa lotoo xù chaa kâmûrû.
1SG
ngââ
scream
chavaa
pay.attention
lotoo
car
BEN
chaa
one
kâmûrû
man
‘I scream to warn someone of the car.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1 > V
(109)
Wâpwéé mê rè nâ paii.
wâpwéé
inside
arm
POSS
1SG
paii
hurt
‘My arm hurts.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
1 > V
(110)
Siè xêê-da rè nâ, pââ-nâ paii.
siè
not.exist
xêê-da
possibility-eat
POSS
1SG
pââ-nâ
tooth-1SG
paii
hurt
‘I can't eat, my teeth hurt.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
1 > V
(111)
Nâ nârâyaa wâ panèè-nâ.
1SG
nârâ-yaa
think-badly
about
panèè-nâ
father-1SG
‘I regret my father. / I am sad because of my father.’
BE SAD the Verb form nârâyaa
(112)
Nâ nârâyaa.
1SG
nârâ-yaa
think-badly
‘I am sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1 > V
(113)
Kwâ wâ mutu na.
kwâ
boat
PFV
mutu
sink
na
PST
‘The boat sank.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1 > V
(114)
Ku kê.
ku
yam
burn
‘The yam is burnt.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1 > V
(115)
Kâmîâ kê nùi a.
kâmîâ
sun
burn
nùi
island
a
DEM
‘The sun is burning the island.’
BURN an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation 2
(116)
È wâ mëtë xöru na mèi.
è
3SG
PFV
mëtë
dry
xöru
well
na
SM
mèi
grass
‘The grass is very dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1 > V
(117)
Xöu mëtë töwâ kâmîâ tö nä.
xöu
clothes
mëtë
dry
töwâ
at
kâmîâ
sun
at
there
‘Clothes are drying under the sun over there.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1 > V
(118)
Nènyöwé wâ nä mëtë bwi.
nènyöwé
taro.field
PFV
IPFV
mëtë
dry
bwi
slowly
‘The taro field is slowly getting dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1 > V
(119)
Êê nää chûrû mê bikörö rè pîî-köfi.
êê
3SG.NPERS
nää
IPFV.PST
chûrû
grill
and
bi-körö
turn-break
IPFV
pîî-köfi
seed-coffee
‘We used to grill and grind coffee beans.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (ngê+3)
(120)
Kachuupôô kîî xwâî mwîrî.
Kachuupôô
Kachuupôô
kîî
dig
xwâî
path
mwîrî
DEM
‘Kachuupôô digs the tunnel.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(121)
Gwèè îrî nää sëi ngê nachê.
gwèè
in.the.past
îrî
1PL.INCL
nää
IPFV.PST
sëi
dig
ngê
INS
nachê
wooden.shovel
‘In the past we used to dig with a wooden shovel.’
DIG an Alternation:
Object Omission alternation
(122)
Balôô nä cipwîrî.
balôô
ball
IPFV
ci=pwîrî
spread=roll
‘The ball is rolling.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1 > V
(123)
Pwââxwâ xô mè xwata wîrî!
pwââxwâ
very
sing
that
xwata
hear
wîrî
2PL
‘Sing louder so that we can hear you!’
HEAR the Verb form xwata
(124)
È sii xwata tönû.
è
3SG
sii
NEG
xwata
hear
tönû
totally
‘He doesn't listen at all. / He doesn't listen to anything.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Object Omission alternation
(125)
Xwata kèè-sööté rè apaa tö nuö!
xwata
hear
kèè-sööté
NMLZ-make.noise
POSS
apaa
Daddy
in
nuö
forest
‘Listen to the noise that Daddy makes in the forest!’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(126)
Kwé bö.
kwé
water
boil
‘Water is boiling.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1 > V
(127)
Kamûrû nä abaa tö kûcaa rè xwâî.
kamûrû
man
IPFV
abaa
appear
at
kûcaa
corner
POSS
xwâî
road
‘The man appears at the corner of the road.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1 > V
(128)
Xûûchî têî.
xûûchî
child
têî
cry
‘The child is crying.’
CRY a Coding frame:
1 > V
(129)
Mârâdii a ne têîdùù rè kä-rè mwiri.
mârâdii
snake
a
DEM
IPFV
têî-dùù
cry-about
IPFV
kä-rè
skin-3SG
mwiri
DEM
‘The snake is crying about his skin.’
CRY an Alternation:
Applicative alternation
(130)
Nâ siè nârâ mè wîrî nöö Cöö.
1SG
siè
NEG
nârâ
think
that
wîrî
2PL
nöö
stay
Cöö
Thio
‘I don't think you are living in Thio.’
THINK the Verb form nârâ
(131)
Nâ siè tâmwâ kètè bwa rè nöö nä.
1SG
siè
NEG
tâmwâ
know
kètè
place
bwa
DEM
3SG
nöö
stay
there
‘I don't know where he is staying. / lit. I don't know the place he is staying there.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(132)
Ke tâmwâ kèè-fârâ.
ke
2SG
tâmwâ
know
kèè-fârâ
NMLZ-count
‘You know how to count.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(133)
Nâ tâmwâ xöru è.
1SG
tâmwâ
know
xöru
well
è
3SG
‘I know him well.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(134)
Q. Yaapè ché na xù rö? A. Nâ tâmwâ.
yaapè
who
ché
say
na
PST
BEN
2SG
1SG
tâmwâ
know
‘Who told you? - I know it.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Object Omission alternation
(135)
Ke tâmwâ kaù mè nâ mââ xöyö chaa sê ngürü?
ke
2SG
tâmwâ
know
kaù
INTERR
that
1SG
mââ
just
xöyö
marry
chaa
one
woman
ngürü
black
‘Do you know that I just married a Kanak woman?’
KNOW the Verb form tâmwâ
(136)
Nâ nârâ mè ûrû nä ùpùùtè rè ngê chaa daa...
1SG
nârâ
think
that
ûrû
1DU.INCL
IPFV
ù-pùùtè
RECP-meet
IPFV
ngê
during
chaa
one
daa
day
‘I think we will meet [again] one day...’
MEET an Alternation:
Middle alternation
(137)
Wîrî nä xâpârî rè chaa mwââxiti.
wîrî
2PL
IPFV
xâpârî
see
IPFV
chaa
one
mwââ-xiti
house-holy
‘You will see a church.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(138)
È xâpârî xöru kèèrè gu.
è
3SG
xâpârî
see
xöru
well
kèèrè
as
gu
1SG
‘He sees as well as I do.’
SEE the Verb form xâpârî
(139)
Arè è xöru mè nâ nä xacië röö xù aaxa.
arè
tomorrow
è
3SG
xöru
well
that
1SG
IPFV
xacië
show
rö-ö
IPFV-2SG
BEN
aaxa
chief
‘Tomorrow, I will introduce you to the chief.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 xù+3
(140)
È dù mè ke xacè è ngê Myriam.
è
3SG
possible
that
ke
2SG
xacè
call
è
3SG
ngê
INS
Myriam
Myriam
‘You can call her Myriam.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (ngê+3)
(141)
Rè tèpe kaù ngê nââ pwângara, na aaxa röö?
3SG
tèpe
speak
kaù
INTERR
ngê
INS
nââ
language
pwângara
white.people
na
SM
aaxa
chief
rö-ö
POSS-2SG
‘Is your chief speaking French? / Is your chief speaking with the French language?’
TALK the Verb form tèpe
(142)
Rè ché na xù nû mè è nä dù rè mè göu fè téé rèè anâ.
3SG
ché
say
na
PST
BEN
1SG
that
è
3SG
IPFV
possible
IPFV
that
göu
2DU
go
téé
see
rè-è
POSS-3SG
anâ
now
‘He said to me that you can go and see him now.’
SAY the Verb form ché
(143)
Wâ xutuè ûrû siè ùxâpârî rû.
PFV
xutuè
long.time
ûrû
1DU.INCL
siè
NEG
ù-xâpârî
RECP-see
1DU.INCL
‘It has been a while since we didn't see each other.’
SEE an Alternation:
Middle alternation
(144)
Nâ nä xwi rè chaa xiti nârâ kèè-faabaa rö xù dèèri kè xûâ.
1SG
IPFV
xwi
do
IPFV
chaa
one
xiti
feast
nârâ
for
kèè-fa-abaa
NMLZ-CAUS-appear
2SG
BEN
dèèri
people
from
xûâ
village
‘I will organize a feast to introduce you to the people of the village.’
APPEAR an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(145)
Ke néxä kaù kèè-xê?
ke
2SG
néxä
know
kaù
INTERR
kèè-xê
NMLZ-swim
‘Do you know how to swim?’
KNOW the Verb form néxä
(146)
Rè va dù xuu kèè-xê rè nâ mè nâ muru taa kèè-nä mutu rè nâ.
3SG
va
really
possible
xuu
small
kèè-xê
NMLZ-swim
POSS
1SG
that
1SG
muru
live
taa
NBEN
kèè-nä-mutu
NMLZ-IPFV-sink
POSS
1SG
‘Indeed, I only swim a little so that I escape from drowning..’
LIVE the Verb form muru
(147)
Ri pisi cè nênê-ri, nä ri wâ da.
ri
3PL
pisi
look.for
for.a.specific.goal
nênê-ri
food-POSS.3PL
then
ri
3PL
PFV
da
eat
‘The looked for food, and then ate.’
SEARCH FOR the Verb form piicè
(148)
Pa Pokwé tê kwii mwîrî nä rè chètùrù kwââ-dèèri rè Deekwââxiti.
pa
COLL
Pokwé
Uvéa
throw
kwii
rope
mwîrî
DEM
then
3SG
chètùrù
block
kwââ-dèèri
boat-people
POSS
Deekwââxiti
Deekwââxiti
‘People from Uvea throw a rope which blocks up the boat of Deekwââxiti's men.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (LOC3)
(149)
Tê chéé ri xêvadi tö nêböö-kwâ!
throw
chéé
down
ri
3PL
xêvadi
all
to
nêböö-kwâ
inside-boat
‘Throw them all in the boat!’
THROW a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (LOC3)
(150)
Êê pwââxwâ tèpe wâ nèpwéé-kètè Cöö.
êê
3SG.INDEF
pwââxwâ
much
tèpe
talk
about
nèpwéé-kètè
inside-place
Cöö
Thio
‘One has so often talked about the Thio region.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1 > V wâ+2 (xù+3)
(151)
Mwîî aaxa kè Cöö nä cuè tö Wénênê.
mwîî
big
aaxa
chief
from
Cöö
Thio
IPFV
cuè
sit
at
Wénênê
Wénênê
‘The main chief from Thio stays at Wénênê.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1 > V (LOC2)
(152)
Nâ muru-ri na nû.
1SG
muru-ri
live-TR
na
PST
coconut
‘I am filled of coconuts.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Applicative alternation
(153)
Ri nä muru ngê nôômara mê caa.
ri
3PL
IPFV
muru
live
ngê
INS
nôômara
fields
and
caa
fishing
‘They are living from cultivated plants and from fishing.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Conative alternation
(154)
Ke néxä kaù xwâda bwa êê xwi ngê na mwââxiti a?
ke
2SG
néxä
know
kaù
INTERR
xwâda
year
bwa
DEM
êê
3SG.INDEF
xwi
build
ngê
during
na
PST
mwââxiti
church
a
DEM
‘Do you know which year this church was built?’
KNOW the Verb form néxä
(155)
Êê nä bare xô rè söö dèèri néxä xöru mè ba xô wânîî.
êê
3SG.INDEF
IPFV
bare
also
sing
IPFV
söö
song
dèèri
people
néxä
know
xöru
well
so.that
ba
group
sing
wânîî
all
‘One also sings songs people know well so that all the assembly will sing.’
SING the Verb form
(156)
Ri nä bare xwè rè piö êrêcaa kè nèmëtë.
ri
3PL
IPFV
bare
also
xwè
eat.meat
IPFV
piö
flesh
êrê-caa
product-hunt
from
nè-mëtë
place-dry
‘They also eat meat (obtained) from hunting in dry places.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(157)
Ri nârâ cè chaa xwâ caa.
ri
3PL
nârâ
think
for.a.specific.goal
chaa
one
xwâ
kind.of
caa
hunting
‘They are thinking about a way of hunting.’
THINK the Verb form nârâ
(158)
Wita bata, nâ tâmwâ döu bwa mè nâ xwi xöru kèèrè gè!
wita
don't
bata
fear
1SG
tâmwâ
know
döu
thing
bwa
DEM
that
1SG
xwi
make
xöru
well
kèèrè
like
2SG
‘Don't be afraid, I know how to do as well as you do!’
FEAR the Verb form bata
(159)
Wâ-daa chùù nä kwiè nä saù xwa.
wâ-daa
body-day
chùù
covered
then
kwiè
rain
IPFV
saù
each.time
xwa
fall
‘It is cloudy and it rains from time to time.’
RAIN the Verb form xwa
(160)
Rè xwêê saa, döbwa rè siè dù kèè-fè chââri mwââ-nûû kwiöö-wakè rè nikèl ti Xômwâ.
3SG
xwêê
fall
saa
bad
döbwa
because
3SG
siè
NEG
possible
kèè-fè
NMLZ-go
chââri
visit
mwââ-nûû
house-old
kwiöö-wakè
tool-work
POSS
nikèl
nickel
ti
at
Xômwâ
Thio.village
‘It is too bad that it is not possible to go to Thio village and visit the nickel museum.’
POUR the Verb form xwêê
(161)
Duè bwa du axa, du ja na rè bwaanyöu atù.
duè
two
bwa
DEM
du
DU.ART
axa
chief
du
DU.ART
ja
dig
na
PST
POSS
bwaanyöu
water.conduit
atù
there
‘These two chiefs, the ones who dig the water conduit over there.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(162)
Wita péré chuu chaa nèpärä wâ nèsipùpù rè kâmîâ.
wita
don't
péré
climb
chuu
inside
chaa
one
nèpärä
yam.field
while
nèsipùpù
middle
POSS
kâmîâ
sun
‘Don't climb in a yam field in the middle of the day.’
CLIMB the Verb form péré
(163)
Nô fîda kwé ngê pûbè-rè.
fish
fîda
hit.with.instrument
kwé
water
ngê
INS
pûbè-rè
tail-3SG
‘The fish hit the water with its tail.’
HIT a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (ngê+3)
(164)
Dééri wâ baa kèrè jö mê jia.
dééri
people
PFV
baa
appear
kèrè
with
spear
and
jia
war.club
‘People appeared with spears and war clubs.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1 > V
(165)
Xûûchî wâ abaa.
xûûchî
child
PFV
mââ
just
abaa
be.born
‘The child is just born.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1 > V
(166)
Rî fabata ngê kura chaa ketè kèèrèmè rè catoa kè nêmwââ-rè.
1PL.INCL
fa-bata
CAUS-fear
ngê
INS
kura
lobster
chaa
one
ketè
octopus
kèèrè-mè
like-that
3SG
catoa
go.out
from
nêmwââ-rè
hole-3SG
‘We frighten the lobster with an octopus so that it gets out of its hole.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(167)
Îrî nîî chéé röwâ döu bö.
îrî
1PL.INCL
nîî
fill
chéé
down
röwâ
in
döu
thing
boil
‘We put it in boiling water.’
BOIL the Verb form
(168)
Nee nyârî biri tö nèpwéé-kwé döbwa ri bu na bumata.
nee
shark
nyârî
turn
biri
around
at
nèpwéé-kwé
inside-water
döbwa
because
ri
3PL
bu
smell
na
PST
bu-mata
smell-raw
‘Sharks are turning back and forth in the water because they smelt a smell of raw flesh.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(169)
Pa kwara chètia ri nêmwâ.
pa
COLL
kwara
subject
chè-tia
draw-split
ri
3PL
nêmwâ
today
‘The subjects are separating today. / The subjects are separating them today.’
TEAR the Verb form chètia
(170)
È wâ chètia mwanöö.
è
3SG
PFV
chè-tia
draw-split
mwanöö
piece.of.tissue
‘He tears the piece of tissue.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2 (kèwâ+3)
(171)
È nä mê ciiwi rè rî töwâ xwi rè mwâ nöö.
è
3SG
IPFV
come
ciiwi
help
IPFV
1PL.INCL
töwâ
at
xwi
build
POSS
mwâ
house
nöö
DEM
‘He will come to help us build that house.’
HELP the Verb form ciiwi
(172)
Ru wâ chäga cuè.
ru
3DU
PFV
chäga
warm.on.the.sun
cuè
sit
‘They are both warming themselves sitting on the sun.’
SIT the Verb form cuè
(173)
Mwêê-nâ xânî cuè tö nä.
mwêê-nâ
uncle-1SG
xânî
often
cuè
sit
at
there
‘My uncle often sits there.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1 > V (LOC2)
(174)
È ché nemè: "wèi kù téé, nâ kwèti wâ rö".
è
3SG
ché
say
nemè
that
wèi
you.VOC
2SG
téé
see
1SG
kwèti
tired
about
2SG
‘He says: "Eh you! you see, I am tired of you!".’
SAY a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 xù+3
(175)
È xuu da.
è
3SG
xuu
little
da
eat
‘He doesn't eat much.’
EAT an Alternation:
Object Omission alternation
(176)
Dui mê Léo nä da pepe rè.
Dui
Dui
and
Léo
Léo
IPFV
da
eat
pepe
separately
IPFV
‘Dui and Léo will eat separately.’
EAT an Alternation:
Object Omission alternation
(177)
Xai rö Kasöömèrè mè ke xwi mèrè mè rî fèèté mwaraa-rè...
xai
where
2SG
Kasöömèrè
Kasöömèrè
that
ke
2SG
xwi
make
mèrè
light
that
1PL.INCL
fèèté
follow
mwaraa-rè
gleam-3SG
‘Where are you, Glow Worm, let the daylight come so that we may follow the first light of dawn...’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(178)
È gwéré chéé chaa pârâ tö nèpwéé-kéé-rè.
è
3SG
gwéré
throw
chéé
down
chaa
one
pârâ
eel
at
nèpwéé-kéé-rè
inside-basket-3SG
‘She throws an eel into her basket.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (LOC3)
(179)
Yaapè gwéré toa na chaa sêgè?
yaapè
who
gwéré
throw
toa
upwards
na
PST
chaa
one
sêgè
stone
‘Who threw up a stone?’
THROW a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (LOC3)
(180)
Anyââ sache xûûchî (ngê jingâ).
anyââ
Mummy
sache
cover
xûûchî
child
ngê
INS
jingâ
blanket
‘Mummy covers the child (with a blanket).’
COVER a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (ngê+3)
(181)
Nèxöö wâ sache è.
nèxöö
sky
PFV
sache
cover
è
3SG
‘The weather becomes overcast. / lit. The sky has covered it(self).’
COVER the Verb form sache
(182)
Döchaapwê mê mwââ-nâ kê.
döchaapwê
almost
and
mwââ-nâ
house-1SG
burn
‘My house almost burnt down.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1 > V
(183)
Wâ daa rè kîî cè rè ku.
PFV
daa
day
POSS
kîî
dig
for.a.specific.goal
POSS
ku
yam
‘It is the time to dig up yams.’
DIG the Verb form kîî
(184)
Dèèri ja na chaa pô.
dèèri
people
ja
dig
na
PST
chaa
one
hole
‘People dug a hole.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(185)
Apaa pè mê na puuchéé ku.
apaa
Dad
take
come
na
PST
puu-chéé
CLF-three
ku
yam
‘Dad brought three yams (or three hips of three yams each).’
BRING a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (LOC3)
(186)
Bwèrèkètè, ketè wâ paii ngê mêrê.
bwèrè-kètè
some-place
ketè
octopus
PFV
paii
sick
ngê
INS
mêrê
hunger
‘Sometimes, the octopus is starving.’
BE HUNGRY the Verb form mêrê
(187)
Pwénî mè nâ muru mwâmwaa!
pwénî
provided
that
1SG
muru
live
mwâmwaa
for.long
‘Hoping I will live for a long time!’
LIVE the Verb form muru
(188)
Nâ mwârâ-kaciri tèpe nä.
1SG
mwârâ-kaciri
laugh-TR
tèpe
story
DEM
‘I am laughing at this story.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Applicative alternation
(189)
Nâ nââ taa rö kèè-fè ti niira.
1SG
nââ
ask.for
taa
NBEN
2SG
kèè-fè
NMLZ-go
ti
at
niira
plain
‘I ask you to go to the plain.’
ASK FOR the Verb form nââ
(190)
Nâ nââ sââ-pwî taa rö.
1SG
nââ
ask.for
sââ-pwî
sucker-banana.tree
taa
NBEN
2SG
‘I am asking you for banana suckers.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 taa+3
(191)
Nâ nââ mètùsè.
1SG
nââ
feel.like
mètùsè
sleep
‘I feel like sleeping.’
ASK FOR the Verb form nââ
(192)
Nâ nêgé xù rö chaa péci.
1SG
nêgé
ask.for
BEN
2SG
chaa
one
péci
book
‘I respecfully ask you for a book. / lit. I respectfully ask to you a book.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 xù+3
(193)
Pa pwângara va néxä mè îrî pââbu-döö.
pa
COLL
pwângara
white.people
va
ASS
néxä
know
that
îrî
1PL.INCL
pââbu-döö
COLL.master-soil
‘The white people do know that we are the masters of this soil.’
KNOW the Verb form néxä
(194)
Rè wâ néxä: "Nêêwâ-nâ nöö Pokwé!"
3SG
PFV
néxä
know
nêêwâ-nâ
daughter-1SG
nöö
stay
Pokwé
Uvea
‘He is sure of it: "My daughter is in Uvea!"’
KNOW an Alternation:
Object Omission alternation
(195)
Rè wâ xacè pa kwara rèè mè ri wâ fè piicè nêêwâ-rè.
3SG
PFV
xacè
call
pa
COLL
kwara
servant
rè-è
POSS-3SG
that
ri
3PL
PFV
go
piicè
search
nêêwâ-rè
daughter-3SG
‘He calls his servants so that they go searching for his daughter.’
NAME an Alternation:
Oblique/Direct alternation
(196)
Nâ nîmè è xwi ngê kâmîâ.
1SG
nîmè
blink
è
3SG
xwi
exist
ngê
SM
kâmîâ
sun
‘I am blinking because of the sun.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
1 > V
(197)
Nâ nû na pââü rè nâ ti xwârè.
1SG
send
na
PST
pââü
COLL.child
POSS
1SG
ti
at
xwârè
river
‘I sent my children to the river.’
SEND the Verb form
(198)
Fè ngûrû rè nèkârâmè röö!
go
ngûrû
wash
POSS
nèkârâmè
face
rö-ö
POSS-2SG
‘Go wash your face!’
WASH a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(199)
Chaa sê ngûrû mîrî, dè saakä kùrè.
chaa
one
woman
ngûrû
wash
mîrî
dish
other
saakä
stow.away
kùrè
cooking.pot
‘One woman washes the dishes, the other one stows away the cooking pots.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(200)
Taiki rè nâ paii, ngêê-Sili xöru.
taiki
dog
POSS
1SG
paii
sick
ngêê-Sili
possession-Sili
xöru
well
‘My dog is sick, Sili's dog is well.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
1 > V
(201)
È nää bêêrî jaé rö döbwanä rè paii na.
è
3SG
nää
IPFV.PST
bêêrî
old
jaé
beyond
2SG
döbwanä
when
3SG
paii
sick
na
PST
‘He was older than you when he died.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
1 > V
(202)
È xwi bachéé daa mè péépé paii.
è
3SG
xwi
exist
bachéé
three
daa
day
that
péépé
baby
paii
sick
‘The baby has been sick for three days.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
1 > V
(203)
È xwi bachéé daa mè péépé wâ paii.
è
3SG
xwi
exist
bachéé
three
daa
day
that
péépé
baby
PFV
paii
sick
‘The baby died three days ago.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
1 > V
(204)
Pè cè mîrî nä taa Famuru!
take
for.a.specific.goal
mîrî
plate
DEM
taa
NBEN
Famuru
Famuru
‘Take the plate from (the hands of) Famuru!’
GET a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 taa+3
(205)
Nâ töpwé kùrè pa kwara.
1SG
töpwé
receive
kùrè
cooking.pot
pa
COLL
kwara
subject
‘I accept the cooking-pot of the subjects.’
GET a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 taa+3
(206)
Sîbêêrî akö nèkéé-rè.
sîbêêrî
woman
akö
carry
nèkéé-rè
basket-3SG
‘The woman is carrying her basket with a harness.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (LOC3)
(207)
Apêdè pêdè mwânêê taa axwiri.
a-pêdè
NMLZ-steal
pêdè
steal
mwânêê
money
taa
NBEN
a-xwiri
NMLZ-sell
‘The robber steals money from the merchant.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 taa+3
(208)
Apêdè pêdè axwiri.
a-pêdè
NMLZ-steal
pêdè
steal
a-xwiri
NMLZ-sell
‘The robber robs the merchant.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Oblique/Direct alternation
(209)
Nâ pûxûrû kè nèpwéé-xûâ.
1SG
pûxûrû
run
from
nèpwéé-xûâ
inside-village
‘I am running (coming) from the village.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1 > V
(210)
Wita pûxûrû tö nèsipùpùrè-xwâî ngê gè!
wita
don't
pûxûrû
run
at
nèsipùpùrè-xwâî
middle-road
ngê
SM
2SG
‘Don't you run in the middle of the road!’
RUN a Coding frame:
1 > V
(211)
Kèè-söömè rè panèè-rè niè.
kèè-söömè
NMLZ-kill
POSS
panèè-rè
father-3SG
niè
3SG.INDEP.PRON
‘His father killed him.’
KILL an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(212)
È nää sa rè dèèri ri nää fè tè chéé a pwanâwâ.
è
3SG
nää
IPFV.PST
sa
hit
IPFV
dèèri
people
ri
3PL
nää
IPFV.PST
go
along
chéé
down
a
DEM
pwanâwâ
beach
‘He used to kill people walking along down on the beach.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(213)
Chaaké dèèri wâ xwicè mè ri sa è.
chaaké
several
dèèri
people
PFV
xwi-cè
do-for.a.specific.goal
that
ri
3PL
sa
hit
è
3SG
‘Several people tried to kill him.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(214)
Dä, acaa pwèkè na è ngê chaa êrêjö.
notu.pigeon
a-caa
NMLZ-hunt
pwèkè
kill
na
PST
è
3SG
ngê
INS
chaa
one
êrê-jö
product-spear
‘The notu pigeon, the hunter killed it with (just) one cartridge.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (ngê+3)
(215)
Döbwanamè è xâânîî pè-kwiè, è fa-xwa na kwiè.
döbwanamè
when.PST
è
3SG
xâânîî
touch.with.hands
pè-kwiè
stone-rain
è
3SG
fa-xwa
CAUS-fall
na
PST
kwiè
rain
‘When he touched the sacred stone for the rain, he would make the rain fall.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(216)
Anyââ wâ sömârâ ngê chaa tèpe xù ri.
anyââ
Mummy
PFV
sömârâ
tell
ngê
INS
chaa
one
tèpe
story
BEN
ri
3PL
‘Mummy is telling them a story.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1 > V ngê+2 xù+3
(217)
Ri fè ùsömârâ ngê tèpe nä.
ri
3PL
go
ù-sömârâ
NMLZ-tell
ngê
INS
tèpe
story
DEM
‘They are going to tell this story. / They are going in order to tell this story.’
TELL an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(218)
Aaxa Pokwé faari taa dèèri rèè mè ri dèpuu sùù chaa mwîî kwâdè...
aaxa
chief
Pokwé
Uvea
faari
ask
taa
NBEN
dèèri
people
rè-è
POSS-3SG
that
ri
3PL
dèpuu
in.turn
sùù
push
chaa
one
mwîî
big
kwâdè
wind
‘The chief of Uvea asked his people to push a big wind at their turn...’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(219)
Ri téé ri.
ri
3PL
téé
see
ri
3PL
‘They see them. / They see each other.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(220)
Kârâmè röö paii ùtéé rè kâmîâ.
kârâmè
eye
rö-ö
POSS-2SG
paii
feel.pain
ù-téé
NMLZ-see
POSS
kâmîâ
sun
‘I feel pain in my eyes looking at the sun. / My eyes hurt because of looking at the sun.’
SEE an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(221)
Nâ kaii téé mwâ.
1SG
kaii
light
téé
see
mwâ
house
‘I turn the light on to see the house.’
SEE the Verb form téé
(222)
È ché nemè "wèi, ke téé, nâ kwèti!"
è
3SG
ché
say
nemè
that
wèi
2SG.VOC
ke
2SG
téé
see
1SG
kwèti
tired
‘He says: "Eh you, you see, I am tired!"’
SEE an Alternation:
Object Omission alternation
(223)
Ke wîjè ke têî?
ke
2SG
wîjè
why
ke
2SG
têî
cry
‘Why do you cry?’
CRY the Verb form têî
(224)
Nâ xii nû.
1SG
xii
grate
coconut
‘I am grating coconuts.’
SHAVE (self) an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation 2
(225)
È fiö taa xwata röö.
è
3SG
fiö
refuse
taa
NBEN
xwata
hear
rö-ö
POSS-2SG
‘He refuses to listen to you.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(226)
È xwata kéé-tapö rè chaa döu.
è
3SG
xwata
hear
kèè-tapö
NMLZ-burst
POSS
chaa
one
döu
thing
‘He hears something bursting.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(227)
Kèè-xwèrii rèèmwââ-nâ fabere nâ.
kèè-xwèrii
NMLZ-want
rè-è
POSS-3SG
mwââ-nâ
house-1SG
fa-bere
CAUS-angry
1SG
‘His desire for my house makes me angry.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(228)
Anyââ chutââ piö-pooka.
anyââ
Mummy
chutââ
cook
piö-pooka
flesh-pork
‘Mummy is cooking the pork.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(229)
È cee nû.
è
3SG
cee
peel
coconut
‘He takes off the coconut fibre.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(230)
Êrê fëi nèmû tö xû mo...
êrê
3SG.INDEF
fëi
tie
nèmû
belt
at
on
mo
joist
‘Belts are tied on the joist. / Someone are tying belt on the joist.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (LOC3) (ngê+4)
(231)
Ri nä mètu chuu rè nèmû, nä êrê fëi ri ngê jöökwii.
ri
3PL
IPFV
mètu
lie
chuu
inside
IPFV
nèmû
belt
then
êrê
3SG.INDEF
fëi
tie
ri
3PL
ngê
INS
jöökwii
vine
‘They are put on the belts, and then tied with vine.’
TIE the Verb form fëi
(232)
Ri nä poa ché rè tèpe rè paii.
ri
3PL
IPFV
poa
do.same
ché
say
IPFV
tèpe
speech
POSS
paii
death
‘They are helping in saying the death rituals.’
SAY the Verb form ché
(233)
Dèèri kèwâ xwâmwâdö va pùùtè.
dèèri
people
kèwâ
inside
xwâmwâdö
clan
va
ASS
pùùtè
gather
‘People from a clan are gathering.’
MEET an Alternation:
Middle alternation
(234)
È nèxä xöru kèè-xwi rè xiti tö mê axwè...
è
3SG
nèxä
know
xöru
well
kèè-xwi
NMLZ-make
POSS
xiti
feast
at
DIR(come)
axwè
up.there
‘She knows well how the feast is organized up there.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(235)
Pa xûûchî chëi mûgé na ri ngê kwâ.
pa
COLL
xûûchî
child
chëi
hit
mûgé
return
na
PST
ri
3PL
ngê
INS
kwâ
stick
‘Children hit each other with a stick. / Children hit themselves with a stick.’
HIT an Alternation:
Reflexive/Reciprocal omission alternation
(236)
Pa xûûchî chëi na ri ngê kwâ.
pa
COLL
xûûchî
child
chëi
hit
na
PST
ri
3PL
ngê
INS
kwâ
stick
‘Children hit them with a stick. / Children hit each other with a stick.’
HIT a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (ngê+3)
(237)
Xûûbêêrî faxwa na kwiè.
xûûbêêrî
old.man
a
DEM
fa-xwa
CAUS-fall
na
PST
kwiè
rain
‘This old man made the rain fall.’
RAIN an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(238)
È kwiè.
è
3SG
kwiè
rain
‘It rains.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
V
(239)
Kwiè.
kwiè
rain
‘It rains.’
RAIN an Alternation:
Impersonal alternation
(240)
Jee-nè fachèxô nâ.
jee-nè
smoke-fire
fa-chèxô
CAUS-cough
1SG
‘The fire smoke makes me cough.’
COUGH an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(241)
Nô ùda.
fish
ù-da
MID-eat
‘The fish is biting.’
EAT an Alternation:
Middle alternation
(242)
Ri fada dèèri ngê nô.
ri
3PL
fa-da
CAUS-eat
dèèri
people
ngê
INS
fish
‘They feed the people with fish.’
EAT an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(243)
Nèxuu kê na ngê pââ.
nèxuu
girl
eat
na
PST
ngê
INS
pââ
bread
‘The young girl ate (something) with bread.’
EAT an Alternation:
Oblique/Direct alternation
(244)
Apuu-döö wâ facuè dèèri.
apuu-döö
master-earth
PFV
fa-cuè
CAUS-sit
dèèri
people
‘The master of the earth made the people sit.’
SIT an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(245)
Ri fabu ngê ri kwébuchéé.
ri
3PL
fa-bu
CAUS-smell
ngê
INS
ri
3PL
kwébuchéé
perfume
‘They make them smell a perfume.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(246)
Ri fabu ri.
ri
3PL
fa-bu
CAUS-smell
ri
3PL
‘They give them a smell.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(247)
Nèxuu fangûrû chaa xûûchî ngê sê.
nèxuu
girl
fa-ngûrû
CAUS-wash
chaa
one
xûûchî
child
ngê
INS
woman
‘The young girl makes a woman wash the child.’
WASH an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(248)
Kèè-mêrê rè nâ sé.
kèè-mêrê
NMLZ-hungry
POSS
1SG
big
‘I am very hungry. / lit. My hunger is big.’
BE HUNGRY an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(249)
È nä fadë nä è nä bare tèpe.
è
3SG
IPFV
fadë
walk
and
è
3SG
IPFV
bare
also
tèpe
speak
‘He is walking and talking in the same time.’
TALK an Alternation:
Object Omission alternation
(250)
Nâ fatèpe è töwâ mwâciri.
1SG
fa-tèpe
CAUS-speak
è
3SG
töwâ
about
mwâciri
country
‘I make him speak about the country.’
TALK an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(251)
È faacaa ri.
è
3SG
fa-acaa
CAUS-hunter
ri
3PL
‘He makes them hunters.’
BE A HUNTER an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(252)
Panèè-nâ faxwi na mûduè-nâ (ngê) chaa dömwâ.
panèè-nâ
father-POSS.1SG
fa-xwi
CAUS-build
na
PST
mûduè-nâ
young.brother-POSS.1SG
ngê
INS
chaa
one
dömwâ
house
‘My father made my little brother build a traditional house.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(253)
Nea söpuru rè kèi-äda, aji a.
nea
knife
söpuru
cut
POSS
kèi-äda
meat-food
aji
that.is
a
DEM
‘This is a knife for cutting meat/fish.’
CUT an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(254)
Jee-nè fa-nimè nâ.
jee-nè
smoke-fire
fa-nimè
CAUS-blink
1SG
‘The smoke of the fire makes me blink.’
BLINK an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(255)
Chaakè dèèri wâ xwicè mè ri pwââmè è.
chaakè
several
dèèri
people
PFV
xwicè
try
COMP
ri
3PL
pwââmè
kill
è
3SG
‘Several people tried to kill him.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(256)
Jööpè döubwa mè è ciiwi töwâ mîî kèè-sèngû nä?
jööpè
what
döubwa
that.thing
that
è
3SG
ciiwi
help
töwâ
on
mîî
these
kèè-sèngû
NMLZ-work
DEM
‘What can help, concerning these methods?’
HELP an Alternation:
Object Omission alternation
(257)
Ri fèèté kèèbwa rè döu nä.
ri
3PL
fèèté
follow
kèè-bwa
NMLZ-stay
POSS
döu
thing
DEM
‘They were following this principle.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(258)
È péré tëpùù ti kamè-rè.
è
3SG
péré
go.up
tëpùù
directly
ti
to
kamè-rè
home-POSS.3SG
‘He goes straight home.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Object Omission alternation
(259)
Aaxa chéxwaé kèè nä péré rè du wè a toaa.
aaxa
chief
chéxwaé
explain
kèè=nä=péré
NMLZ=IPFV=go.up
POSS
du
3DU
wèa
these.men
toaa
towards.up
‘The chief is explaining how they will be going all the way up.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(260)
Anyââ fasache ri.
anyââ
Mummy
fa-sache
CAUS-cover
ri
3PL
‘Mummy makes them cover themselves.’
COVER an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(261)
Mûduè-nâ chëi döbwè.
mûduè-nâ
young.brother-POSS.1SG
chëi
hit
döbwè
drum
‘My young brother is playing the drum.’
HIT an Alternation:
Oblique/Direct alternation
(262)
Ri ùcuè chéé.
ri
3PL
ù-cuè
MID-sit
chéé
down
‘They are sitting down together.’
SIT an Alternation:
Middle alternation
(263)
Nâ fètaa mwââxê-râ.
1SG
fè-taa
go-off
mwââxê-râ
shoes-POSS.1SG
‘I am taking my shoes off.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(264)
Mè nâ nä fètaa rè wîrî!
FUT
1SG
IPFV
fè-taa
go-leave
IPFV
wîrî
2PL
‘I will leave you!’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(265)
Pa kwara famuru dèèri ngê nô.
pa
COLL
kwara
subject
fa-muru
CAUS-live
dèèri
people
ngê
INS
fish
‘The subjects feed the people with fish.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(266)
Ri muru.
ri
3PL
muru
live
‘They are alive.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation 1
(267)
Mîrî pââübêêrî bwa ri nää saù akö rè kêböö-xöu rè ngêê kè mê axwè.
mîrî
these
pââübêêrî
COLL.old.men
bwa
DEM
ri
3PL
nää
IPFV.PST
saù
in.the.past
akö
carry
IPFV
kêböö-xöu
basket-cloth
POSS
ngêê
1PL.EXCL
from
DIR
axwè
up.there
‘This old men used to carry our basket full of clothes from up there.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (LOC3)
(268)
Ri sööpö ngê kâmîâ âgwii, nä chêêdè, ri akö péré mûgé.
ri
3PL
sööpö
wash
ngê
during
kâmîâ
day
âgwii
entire
then
chêêdè
in.the.evening
ri
3PL
akö
carry
péré
go.up
mûgé
again
‘They were doing the washing during the entire day, and in the evening, they were carrying back up (the clothes).’
CARRY an Alternation:
Object Omission alternation
(269)
Ri wâ curu ngê nèmû rèè.
ri
3PL
PFV
curu
tie
ngê
INS
nèmû
belt
rè-è
POSS-3SG
‘They tied their belt.’
TIE an Alternation:
Object Omission alternation
(270)
È faxwata chaari chaa tèpe.
è
3SG
fa-xwata
CAUS-hear
chaari
only
chaa
one
tèpe
story
‘He will only tell one story. / He spontaneously tells a story.’
TELL an Alternation:
Oblique/Direct alternation
(271)
È ùda ngê siisi.
è
3SG
ù-da
MID-eat
ngê
SM
siisi
fishing.line
‘The fish is biting. / lit. The fishing line is biting.’
EAT an Alternation:
Middle alternation
(272)
A xûûchî a nä ùpè.
a
DEM
xûûchî
child
a
DEM
IPFV
ù-pè
MID-take
‘This child is juggling.’
GET an Alternation:
Middle alternation
(273)
Paii nä, è ùxù.
paii
disease
DEM
è
3SG
ù-xù
MID-give
‘This disease is contagious.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Middle alternation
(274)
Rè va dù xuu kèè-xê rè nâ, mè nâ muru taa kèè nä mutu rè nâ.
3SG
va
ASS
possible
xuu
little
kèè-xê
NMLZ-swim
POSS
1SG
that
1SG
muru
live
taa
NBEN
kèè=nä=mutu
NMLZ=IPFV=sink
POSS
1SG
‘I can only swim a little, in order to avoid drowning.’
SINK an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(275)
Nâ nârâ rö.
1SG
nârâ
think
2SG
‘I am thinking of you. / I feel pity for you.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1 > V 2
(276)
Dèèri sôpaari xwânârâ rè ri.
dèèri
people
sôpaari
change
xwâ-nârâ
NMLZ-think
POSS
ri
3PL
‘People changed their minds.’
THINK an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(277)
Îrî xacië ùnéxä xù pa xûûchî.
îrî
1PL.INCL
xacië
show
ù-néxä
NMLZ-know
BEN
pa
COLL
xûûchî
child
‘We showed our knowledge to the children.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(278)
Ri ché na nämè nêmwâ döu röwâ sati mê fanêgé rè pa afaînû bwa, pa xârâcùù pa înû-gwéré séatö.
ri
3PL
ché
say
na
PST
nämè
that
nêmwâ
today
döu
thing
röwâ
concerning
sati
study
and
fa-nêgé
CAUS-ask
POSS
pa
COLL
a-fa-înû
NMLZ-CAUS-learn
bwa
DEM
pa
COLL
xârâcùù
Xârâcùù
pa
COLL
înû-gwéré
learn-succeed
séatö.
rare
‘They said that nowadays things about studies and formation of teachers, few Xârâcùù people are successful.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(279)
È xöru mè sii nûgachö nâ kè mwâinû!
è
3SG
xöru
well
COMP
sii
NEG
send
gachö
make.a.round.trip
1SG
from
mwâinû
school
‘It would be good if I am not expelled from school!’
SEND an Alternation:
Impersonal alternation
(280)
Chaa xwâpaii nöö wâ paa-nâ.
chaa
one
xwâ-paii
NMLZ-sick
nöö
stay
at
paa-nâ
foot-1SG
‘I have a wound on my foot/leg.’
BE ILL an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(281)
Pââübêêrî rè nâ, ri sati xù bare na nû kèè-piicè rè kèè-mwâwîyâ toa mê.
pââübêêrî
COLL.old.people
POSS
1SG
ri
3PL
sati
teach
BEN
bare
also
na
PST
1SG
kèè-piicè
NMLZ-search
POSS
kèè-mwâwîyâ
NMLZ-progress
toa
up
DIR
‘My old people, they also taught me how to look for a way of rising (above one's situation).’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(282)
È kwèti ùpûxûrû.
è
3SG
kwèti
be.tired
ù-pûxûrû
NMLZ-run
‘He is tired of running.’
RUN an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(283)
Chaa kèè-pûxûrû rè pââdö.
chaa
one
kèè-pûxûrû
NMLZ-run
POSS
pââdö
COLL.man
‘A running competition for men.’
RUN an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(284)
È fä bare kèè-muru rèè.
è
3SG
build
bare
also
kèè-muru
NMLZ-live
rè-è
POSS-3SG
‘She also organizes her lifestyle.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(285)
Nä wèi a dö, rè xërù nä dê fè sa xwè rè xuu rèè.
then
wèi
this.one
a
DEM
hen
3SG
xërù
raise
then
buzzard
go
sa
hit
xwè
eat
POSS
xuu
young
rè-è
POSS-3SG
‘And when the hen has fledglings, the buzzard goes and catches and eats them.’
KILL the Verb form sa
(286)
Kù téé, kù nä kèè-paii rè nû ii.
2SG
téé
see
2SG
IPFV
kèè-paii
NMLZ-sick
POSS
1DU.INCL
ii
always
‘You see, you always make us suffer.’
BE ILL an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(287)
È wâ ché nämè: "wèi, jööpè nä, jè faxwata?"
è
3SG
PFV
ché
say
nämè
that
wèi
you.VOC
jööpè
what
DEM
what
fa-xwata
CAUS-hear
‘He said: "eh you! What is this, what is the news?"’
HEAR the Verb form xwata
(288)
Ri sëi ngê wâdöubwa pumöu.
ri
3SG
sëi
dig
ngê
INS
wâdöubwa
anything
pumöu
landing_net
‘They dig/lift anything with the landing net.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (ngê+3)
(289)
Ri nä têî ngââ.
ri
3PL
IPFV
têî
cry
ngââ
scream
‘They are crying and screaming.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1 > V
(290)
Cokwa xwa kèè-têî nä, da!
cokwa
stop
xwa
really
kèè-têî
NMLZ-cry
DEM
da
eat
‘Do stop crying, eat!’
CRY an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(291)
È wâ ché xacië wèi a dê...
è
3SG
PFV
ché
say
xacië
show
wèi
this.one
a
DEM
buzzard
‘He says, pointing to the buzzard...’
SHOW the Verb form xacië
(292)
Wâ wakè röö mè ke xwè ke sa è.
PFV
wakè
work
rö-ö
POSS-2SG
that
ke
2SG
xwè
eat
ke
2SG
sa
kill
è
3SG
‘Your work will be to eat it, to kill it.’
EAT an Alternation:
Object Omission alternation
(293)
È nä xacè rè nâ nârâ kèè-xô.
è
3SG
IPFV
xacè
call
IPFV
1SG
nârâ
in.order.to
kèè-xô
NMLZ-sing
‘He is calling me in order to sing.’
SING an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(294)
Ngêê dè xacië xù rè wîrî!
ngêê
1PL.EXCL
in.turn
xacië
show
BEN
IPFV
wîrî
2PL
‘It is our turn to show (it) to you!’
SHOW an Alternation:
Impersonal alternation
(295)
Ri wâ fëi ngê è kwiinètoo, fîda ngè è sîmîâgatè.
ri
3PL
PFV
fëi
tie
ngê
INS
è
3SG
kwiinètoo
rainbow
fîda
hit.with.instrument
ngè
INS
è
3SG
sîmîâgatè
lightning
‘They tied him with a rainbow, hit him with a lightning.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1 > V 2 (LOC3) (ngê+4)
(296)
Xäba pichöö faabaa kwéé pa nûnûû, xöö mèèwânyi.
xäba
frame
pichöö
niaouli
fa-abaa
CAUS-appear
kwéé
image
pa
COLL
nûnûû
grandfather
xöö
spirit
mèèwânyi
guardian
‘The niaouli door frames are representations of the ancestors, the protecting spirits.’
APPEAR an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(297)
Pââübêêrî nää bèti rè xwâda xû kèè-abaa rè mwéa.
pââübêêrî
COLL.old.men
nää
IPFV.PST
bèti
divide
IPFV
xwâda
year
on
kèè-abaa
NMLZ-appear
POSS
mwéa
moon
‘Old people used to divide the year according to the coming out of the moon.’
APPEAR an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(298)
Êrê siè da ääda êê-chutââ ngê kwé.
êrê
3SG.IMPERS
siè
NEG
da
eat
ääda
food
êê-chutââ
NMLZ-cook
ngê
INS
kwé
water
‘One does not eat food boiled in water.’
COOK an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(299)
Cokwa bèti, dèèri wâ cuè nârâ kèè-da fachaa.
cokwa
finish
bèti
divide
dèèri
people
PFV
cuè
sit
nârâ
for
kèè-da
NMLZ-eat
fa-chaa
CAUS-one
‘After the food sharing has been done, people sat to eat together.’
EAT an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(300)
È sii mwaa nä wâ cokwa kèè-da.
è
3SG
sii
NEG
mwaa
long
then
PFV
cokwa
finish
kèè-da
NMLZ-eat
‘The meal is going to end soon. / It is not long and the meal will be finished.’
EAT an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(301)
Dèèri kè Pwângara xâdùù na pa faînû.
dèèri
people
from
Pwângara
France
xâdùù
pay
na
PST
pa
COLL
fa-înû
CAUS-learn
‘French people paid the teachers.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(302)
È dù kaù mè ke ché bwèrè kèè-ché rè xû dö söö?
è
3SG
possible
kaù
INTERR
that
ke
2sg
ché
say
bwèrè
some
kèè-ché
NMLZ-say
POSS
on
true
söö
dance
‘Could you tell me some words about the pilou dance?’
SAY an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(303)
Xwânèkii rè gèwâ kèè-cuè rè bwèrè ba afädë tö bare Cöö.
xwânèkii
maybe
3SG
gewâ
from
kèè-cuè
NMLZ-sit
POSS
bwèrè
some
ba
group
a-fädë
NMLZ-walk
in
bare
also
Cöö
Thio
‘The reason could be that other ethnic groups are also settled in Thio. / Maybe it comes from the settlement of some migrate groups in Thio.’
SIT an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(304)
Mîî mo bwa nä saù jai rè bwaö mè ri siè amwêrê kèè-suè rè kwéré mê kä pichöö.
mîî
DEM.PL
mo
rafter
bwa
DEM
IPFV
saù
each.time
jai
go.over
IPFV
bwaö
post
that
ri
3PL
siè
NEG
amwêrê
prevent
kèè-suè
NMLZ-put
POSS
kwéré
straw
and
bark
pichöö
niaouli
‘These rafters usually are not higher than the posts so that they do not prevent the laying of straw and niaouli bark.’
PUT an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(305)
Ke ché na xù nû nämè ke nä faxwata rè nâ ngê xiti rè ku.
ke
2SG
ché
say
na
PST
BEN
1SG
nämè
that
ke
2SG
IPFV
fa-xwata
CAUS-listen
IPFV
1SG
ngê
INS
xiti
feast
POSS
ku
yam
‘You said to me that you will tell me about the yam feast.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(306)
Kèè-dii nä xêwi toa saù bwèrè kèè-mwârâ pai.
kèè-dii
NMLZ-refuse
IPFV
xêwi
take.off
toa
DIR
saù
each.time
bwèrè
some
kèè-mwârâ
NMLZ-laugh
pai
many
‘A refusal is each time provoking bursts of laughter.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(307)
Xai na kèè-tâmwâ röö?
xai
how
na
PST
kèè-tâmwâ
NMLZ-know
rö-ö
POSS-2SG
‘How did you know?’
KNOW an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(308)
Nä kèè-xacië rè nâ rö xù è, nâ xwèrii tèpe ngê nââ kèè-xa rè nâ, nââ xârâgurè.
then
kèè-xacië
NMLZ-show
POSS
1SG
2SG
BEN
è
3SG
1SG
xwèrii
want
tèpe
talk
ngê
INS
nââ
language
kèè-xa
NMLZ-speak
POSS
1SG
nââ
language
xârâgurè
Xârâgurè
‘Then (since) I am introducing you to him, I would prefer to talk in my own language, Xârâgurè. / Then my showing you to him ... .’
SHOW an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(309)
Êrê pä mwêgè döö mwîrî mââîtaa kèè-nîî rèè tö nêböö-kwâ.
êrê
3SG.IMPERS
sort
mwêgè
again
döö
soil
mwîrî
DEM
mââîtaa
before
kèè-nîî
NMLZ-fill
rè-è
POSS-3SG
in
nêböö-kwâ
inside-boat
‘The soil is sorted again before filling up the boat with it.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(310)
Pa pââdö nä cuè mââî ùbwa ti ùbwa rè ri mââîtaa kèè-nû rè taiki.
pa
COLL
pââdö
men
IPFV
cuè
sit
mââî
first
ù-bwa
NMLZ-stay
ti
at
ù-bwa
NMLZ-stay
POSS
ri
3PL
mââîtaa
before
kèè-nû
NMLZ-send
POSS
taiki
dog
‘First the men must be sitting at their place before sending the dogs.’
SEND an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(311)
Dèèri muru nä xânî fa-tèpe rè pa paii.
dèèri
people
muru
live
IPFV
xânî
often
fa-tèpe
CAUS-speak
IPFV
pa
COLL
paii
feel.pain
‘The living often speak to the dead.’
BE ILL an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(312)
Kèè-xù rè pa ga xäba pichöö nä xwi rè wakè rè chaa xwâmwâdö.
kèè-xù
NMLZ-give
POSS
pa
COLL
ga
sculpt
xäba
frame
pichöö
niaouli
IPFV
xwi
make
IPFV
wakè
work
POSS
chaa
one
xwâmwâdö
clan
‘The gift of the niaouli frames by the sculptors is under the responsibility of the clan.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(313)
Rè dù kèè-bwa röö xû kwâ mè ke téé kèè-sa rè ngôô dawa.
3SG
possible
kèè-bwa
NMLZ-stay
rö-ö
POSS-2SG
on
kwâ
boat
that
ke
2SG
téé
see
kèè-sa
NMLZ-catch
POSS
ngôô
1DU.INCL
dawa
dawa
‘It is better if you stay on the boat in order to see us catching dawas(fish).’
KILL an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(314)
Ri fädë ngê mô tööi ngê chêêdè nârâ kèè-pisi cè rè nênè-ri.
ri
3PL
fädë
walk
ngê
during
night
tööi
or
ngê
during
chêêdè
evening
nârâ
in.order.to
kèè-pisi
NMLZ-search
for.a.specific.goal
POSS
nênè-ri
food-3PL
‘They walk around during the night or in the evening searching for food.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(315)
Xai kèè-ché rè mîî döu a?
xai
how
kèè-ché
NMLZ-say
POSS
mîî
DEM.PL
döu
thing
a
DEM
‘How do you call these things?’
SAY an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(316)
Nä kêrênôdö döbwanä ke téé, è xëtë kèè-xâpârî rè.
IPFV
kêrênôdö
true
döbwanä
if.IPFV
ke
2SG
téé
look
è
3SG
xëtë
hard
kèè-xâpârî-rè
NMLZ-see-3SG
‘It is true that when you look (at it), it is difficult to see anything.’
SEE an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(317)
Chavaa kèè-chètia rè péci!
chavaa
pay.attention
kèè-chètia
NMLZ-tear
POSS
péci
book
‘Be careful not to tear the book!’
TEAR an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(318)
Nä xai kèè-xô rè nî söö rèè?
and
xai
how
kèè-xô
NMLZ-sing
POSS
1PL.INCL
söö
song
rè-è
POSS-3SG
‘And how are we going to sing his song?’
SING an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(319)
Ngêê xacië mîî kwéédöu nârâ kèè-tèpe rè pa xûûchî.
ngêê
1PL.EXCL
xacië
show
mîî
DEM.PL
kwéé-döu
picture-thing
nârâ
in.order.to
kèè-tèpe
NMLZ-speak
POSS
pa
COLL
xûûchî
child
‘We are showing these pictures so that children will speak (about them).’
TALK an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(320)
Îrî catù rö nèpwéé kwiöödöu êê suè rè pa pwâgara.
îrî
1PL.INCL
catù
enter
at
nèpwéé-kwiöö-döu
inside-tool-thing
êê-suè
NMLZ-put
POSS
pa
COLL
pwâgara
white
‘We are entering into the system set up by the Europeans.’
PUT an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(321)
Êê fagwéré ngê è chaa böpèkwââ.
êê
3SG.IMPERS
fa-gwéré
CAUS-throw
ngê
INS
è
3SG
chaa
one
böpè-kwââ
stick-wood
‘Someone made him throw a wooden stick.’
THROW an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(322)
Kèè-gwéré rèè è xöru.
kèè-gwéré
NMLZ-throw
rè-è
POSS-3SG
è
3SG
xöru
good
‘His way of throwing is fine.’
THROW an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(323)
Kwiè fasùù na ngêê.
kwiè
rain
fa-sùù
CAUS-push
na
PST
ngêê
1PL.EXCL
‘The rain made us change our plan. / The rain pushed us out.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(324)
Anyââ fasùsùù ngê è chaa buruatè.
anyââ
Mummy
fa-sù-sùù
CAUS-REDUP-push
ngê
INS
è
3SG
chaa
one
buruatè
barrow
‘Mummy made her/him push a wheelbarrow.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(325)
Léo fatê ngê è sêgè.
Léo
Léo
fa-tê
CAUS-throw
ngê
INS
è
3SG
sêgè
stone
‘Léo made him throw stones (to teach him how to do it).’
THROW an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(326)
È mââsöö kèè-tê rè sêgè.
è
3SG
mââsöö
be.forbidden
kèè-tê
NMLZ-throw
POSS
sêgè
stone
‘It is forbidden to throw stones.’
THROW an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(327)
Anyââ fajee ngê è kûû-rè.
anyââ
Mummy
fa-jee
CAUS-wipe
ngê
INS
è
3SG
kûû-rè
nose-3SG
‘Mummy made him wipe his nose.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(328)
Kèè-jee rè nêdöö, è chaa mwîî wakè bare.
kèè-jee
NMLZ-wipe
POSS
nêdöö
ground
è
3SG
chaa
one
mwîî
big
wakè
work
bare
too
‘Housework is also an important task.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(329)
È faja ngê ri chaa nèpô.
è
3SG
fa-ja
CAUS-dig
ngê
INS
ri
3PL
chaa
one
nèpô
hole
‘He made them dig a hole. (with something).’
DIG an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(330)
Va kèè-ja rè ri wèi nä.
va
really
kèè-ja
NMLZ-dig
POSS
ri
3PL
wèi
another
DEM
‘This is their way of digging.’
DIG an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(331)
Aaxa fapwââmè dèèri saa.
aaxa
chief
fa-pwââmè
CAUS-kill
dèèri
people
saa
bad
‘The chief is having the enemies killed.’
KILL an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(332)
Aaxa fapwââmè ngê dèèri saa chapöri.
aaxa
chief
fa-pwââmè
CAUS-kill
ngê
INS
dèèri
people
saa
bad
chapöri
war.club
‘The chief is having the enemies killed with a war club.’
KILL an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(333)
Catù mê, wita faxùpè röö!
catù
enter
DIR
wita
PROHIB
fa-xùpè
CAUS-cold
röö
POSS:2SG
‘Come back in, don't catch a cold! / lit. Come in, don't make you cold!’
FEEL COLD an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(334)
Mê röö müü, ke faxùpè péépé.
hand
rö-ö
POSS-2SG
müü
cold.and.humid
ke
2SG
fa-xùpè
CAUS-cold
péépé
baby
‘Your hands are cold and humid, you are making the baby feel cold.’
FEEL COLD an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(335)
Kwiè nä faxùpè nâ.
kwiè
rain
DEM
fa-xùpè
CAUS-cold
1SG
‘This rain cooled me down.’
FEEL COLD an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(336)
Mîî dèèri nä wâ fafaxùpè ngêê töwâ kwiè.
mîî
DEM.PL
dèèri
people
DEM
PFV
fa-fa-xùpè
CAUS-CAUS-cold
ngêê
1PL.EXCL
töwâ
during
kwiè
rain
‘These people let us catch a cold under the rain.’
FEEL COLD an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(337)
Kètè nä müü jaja, wâ kèè-xùpè rè ngêê!
kètè
place
DEM
müü
cold.and.humid
jaja
very
PFV
kèè-xùpè
NMLZ-cold
POSS
ngêê
1PL.EXCL
‘This place is very cold and humid, we were very cold!’
FEEL COLD an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(338)
Ke fapaiimè na xuu rè nâ.
ke
2SG
fa-paii-mè
CAUS-sick-totally
na
PST
xuu
son
POSS
1SG
‘You have let my son die. / You are responsible of the death of my son.’
DIE an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(339)
Êê nää fapaiimè rè dèèri tö kètè nä.
êê
3SG.IMPERS
nää
IPFV.PST
fa-paii-mè
CAUS-sick-totally
IPFV
dèèri
people
in
kètè
place
DEM
‘We used to let people die in that place.’
DIE an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(340)
Wita baraxwicara rè döbwa kèè-paiimè!
wita
PROHIB
baraxwicara
be.afraid
POSS
döbwa
that.thing
kèè-paii-mè
NMLZ-sick-completely
‘Don't be afraid of dying!’
DIE an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation
(341)
Kèè-toa fè rè ngêê, êê wâ fafamwâmwâ ngêê bwèrè xöu abêêrî.
kèè-toa
NMLZ-arrive
DIR
POSS
ngêê
1PL.EXCL
êê
3SG.IMPERS
PFV
fa-fa-mwâmwâ
CAUS-CAUS-get.dress
ngêê
1PL.EXCL
bwèrè
some
xöu
cloth
a-bêêrî
NMLZ-old
‘At our arrival, we were dressed with old clothes. / lit. ... someone made us put on some old clothes.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(342)
Anyââ fafaxûda ngê ri purèkwé.
anyââ
Mummy
fa-fa-xûda
CAUS-CAUS-full.of
ngê
INS
ri
3PL
purè-kwé
empty-water
‘Mummy made them fill up empty bottles.’
FILL an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(343)
Mika fafaxûda ngê dökwé chaa mwîî purèkwé.
Mika
Mika
fa-fa-xûda
CAUS-CAUS-fill.up
ngê
INS
dö-kwé
true-water
chaa
one
mwîî
big
purè-kwé
bottle-water
‘Mika made filled up with freshwater a big bottle.’
FILL an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(344)
Êê fafaxwata ngêê kèè-xa rè chaa märä.
êê
3SG.IMPERS
fa-fa-xwata
CAUS-CAUS-listen
ngêê
1PL.EXCL
kèè-xa
NMLZ-speak
POSS
chaa
one
märä
bird
‘Someone makes us listen to the song of a bird.’
TELL an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(345)
Nâ tê xù è chaa sêgè.
1SG
throw
BEN
è
3SG
chaa
one
sêgè
stone
‘I threw a stone to him/her.’
THROW the Verb form
(346)
È faja ri ngê chaa kwéfaö chaa nèpô.
è
3SG
fa-ja
CAUS-dig
ri
3PL
ngê
INS
chaa
one
kwéfaö
iron.bar
chaa
one
nèpô
hole
‘He made them dig a hole with an iron bar.’
DIG an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(347)
È fakasache ri.
è
3SG
fa-kasache
CAUS-cover
ri
3PL
‘She makes them cover themselves.’
COVER an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(348)
Nâ faxwêê è.
1SG
fa-xwêê
CAUS-fall
è
3SG
‘I make him fall.’
POUR an Alternation:
Causative alternation
(349)
Mwââdö nä fabaa rè kwéé kèè-töpwé rè dèèri.
mwââdö
traditional.house
IPFV
fa-baa
CAUS-show
IPFV
kwéé
image
kèè-töpwé
NMLZ-receive
POSS
dèèri
people
‘The traditional Kanak house represents the symbol of the welcoming of people.’
GET an Alternation:
Nominalization alternation