Alternations of Xârâcùù

Alternations
Alternation name Description Examples Verbs
U
n Instead of A steals T from X, the oblique/direct alternation has the following coding frame: A steals X (ngê T).
(270)
È faxwata chaari chaa tèpe.
è
3SG
fa-xwata
CAUS-hear
chaari
only
chaa
one
tèpe
story
‘He will only tell one story. / He spontaneously tells a story.’
3
U
n Transitive verbs very often occur without any object.
(175)
È xuu da.
è
3SG
xuu
little
da
eat
‘He doesn't eat much.’
8
U
n Concerns labile verbs.
(9)
Kamûrû xwêê na.
kamûrû
man
xwêê
fall
na
PST
‘The man fell down.’
3
C
y In the alternate frame, the object is introduced by a preposition, indicating that it is not entirely affected. 0
C
y Is coded on the verb with the middle prefix ù-, a reflex of Proto Oceanic *paRi-. This prefix is rare in Xârâcùù (less rare in Thio than in Canala), and only affects a dozen of verbs, always conferring middle values such as:
- sociative
cuè "site", ù-cuè "assemble"
- grooming actions:
"comb", ù-cù "comb one's hair"
- generic/habitual:
da "eat", ù-da "bite (fish)"
(61)
Ri ùcuè.
ri
3PL
ù-cuè
MID-sit
‘They are gathering. / They are sitting together.’
3
U
n Situation ("ambient") vs experience alternation. It is the case with verbs, such as xùpè, which may refer either to the weather (it's cold, warm...) when the construction is impersonal (no subject), or which describe a state (be cold, be warm) or an experience (feel cold, feel warm), when a subject is expressed.
V vs VE
(64)
Xùpè sé na amû.
xùpè
cold
big
na
PST
amû
yesterday
‘It was cold yesterday.’
2
C
y The construction remains transitive, but mûgé "return, again", postposed to the verb, marks coreference between the subject and the object, expressing reflexivity or reciprocity.
It can also express iterativity.
0
C
y marked by the prefix fa-; may be derived from any intransitive or transitive verb.
(296)
Xäba pichöö faabaa kwéé pa nûnûû, xöö mèèwânyi.
xäba
frame
pichöö
niaouli
fa-abaa
CAUS-appear
kwéé
image
pa
COLL
nûnûû
grandfather
xöö
spirit
mèèwânyi
guardian
‘The niaouli door frames are representations of the ancestors, the protecting spirits.’
63
C
y The transitive/applicative suffix -ri (or other specific forms such as kaciri) only applies to a few Xârâcùù verbs. It is the only transitive suffix that remains from the Proto Oceanic transitive/applicative suffix *-aki(ni).
(188)
Nâ mwârâ-kaciri tèpe nä.
1SG
mwârâ-kaciri
laugh-TR
tèpe
story
DEM
‘I am laughing at this story.’
4
C
y This alternation is frequent, and may occur with any verb. Nominalized verbal constructions are very frequent in stories.
There are different nominalizing prefixes:
kèè- "manner of" is the general one and ù- "place of', or 'cause of" are the more productive ones in this kind of sentences.
(211)
Kèè-söömè rè panèè-rè niè.
kèè-söömè
NMLZ-kill
POSS
panèè-rè
father-3SG
niè
3SG.INDEP.PRON
‘His father killed him.’
85
U
n Concerns labile verbs.
(115)
Kâmîâ kê nùi a.
kâmîâ
sun
burn
nùi
island
a
DEM
‘The sun is burning the island.’
2