Examples of Sri Lanka Malay

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
(Pompang pada) (muuka=[yang]) (kaayeng=dering) arà-thuuthup.
pompang
woman
pada
pl
muuka=yang
face=acc
kaayeng=dering
cloth=abl
arà-thuuthup
nonpast-cover
‘Women cover their faces with cloth.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-abl V
(2)
(Aanak) (gìllas[-yang]) (aayer=dering) arà-punuking.
aanak
child
gìllas=yang
glass=acc
aayer=dering
water=abl
arà-punu-king
nonpast-full-caus
‘The child fills the glass with water.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-abl V
(3)
(Aanak) (aayer[=yang]) (gìllas=ka) arà-thuuwang.
aanak
child
aayer=yang
water=acc
gìllas=ka
glass=loc
arà-thuuwang
nonpast-pour
‘The child pours water into the glass.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1 2-acc LOC3 V
(4)
(Oorang) (sathuru=yang) (pohong=nang) arà-ikkath.
oorang
man
sathuru=yang
enemy=acc
pohong=nang
tree=dat
arà-ikkath
nonpast-tie
‘The man ties the enemy to the tree.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-dat V
(5)
(Oorang) (gìllas[=yang]) (meeja=ka) arà-thaaro.
oorang
man
gìllas=yang
glass=acc
meeja=ka
table=loc
arà-thaaro
nonpast-put
‘The man puts the glass on the table.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1 2-acc LOC3 V
(6)
(Aanak) (boola=yang) (wicket=nang) arà-buuwang.
aanak
child
boola=yang
ball=acc
wicket=nang
wicket=dat
arà-buuwang
nonpast-throw
‘The child throws the ball at the wicket.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-dat V
(7)
(Baapa) (car[=yang]) (ruuma=nang) arà-baa(va).
baapa
father
car=yang
car=acc
ruuma=nang
house=dat
arà-baava
nonpast-bring
‘Father brings the car to the house.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-dat V
(8)
(Baapa) (aanak[=yang]) (Kluumbu=nang) arà-kiiring.
baapa
father
aanak=yang
child=acc
Kluumbu=nang
Colombo=dat
arà-kiiring
nonpast-send
‘The father sends the child to Colombo.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-dat V
(9)
(Oorang) (aanak=nang) (baabi[=yang]) arà-kaasi.
oorang
man
aanak=nang
child=dat
baabi=yang
pork=acc
arà-kaasi
nonpast-give
‘The man gives the pig to the child.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-dat V
(10)
(Oorang) (pompang=nang) (kaaki[=yang]) arà-cunjiking.
oorang
man
pompang=nang
woman=dat
kaaki=yang
leg=acc
arà-cunjiking
nonpast-show
‘The man shows the foot to the woman.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-dat V
(11)
(Maaling) (kaaya oorang=dering) (kuuda[=yang]) arà-cuuri.
maaling
thief
kaaya
rich
oorang=dering
man=abl
kuuda=yang
horse=acc
arà-cuuri
nonpast-steal
‘The thief steals the horse from the rich man.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-abl V
(12)
(Aanak)(dawong[=yang])(hatthu buk=dering) arà-soovek thaaro.
aanak
child
dawong=yang
leaf=acc
hatthu
indef
buk=dering
book=abl
arà-soovek
nonpast-tear
thaaro
put
‘The child tears the page from the book.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-abl V
(13)
(Aanak) (maanga=[yang]) (piiso=dering) arà=poothong.
aanak
child
maanga=yang
mango=acc
piiso=dering
knife=abl
arà-poothong
nonpast-cut
‘The chlid cuts the mango with the knife.’
CUT an Alternation:
General NP addition
(14)
(Baapa) (aanak=nang) (pollu=dering) arà-puukul.
baapa
father
aanak=nang
child=dat
pollu=dering
stick=abl
arà-puukul
nonpast-hit
‘The father hits the child with the stick.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-abl V
(15)
(Oorang) (sathuru=[yang]) (snaapan=dering) arà-buunung.
oorang
man
sathuru=yang
enemy=acc
snaapan=dering
rifle=abl
arà-buunung
nonpast-kill
‘The man kills the enemy with the rifle.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-abl V
(16)
(Oorang) (sathuru=[yang]) (snaapan=dering) arà-mathi-king.
oorang
man
sathuru=yang
enemy=acc
snaapan=dering
rifle=abl
arà-mathi-king
nonpast-dead-caus
‘The man kills the enemy with a rifle.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-abl V
(17)
(Aanak) (jleena[=yang]) (baathu=dering) arà-picaking.
aanak
child
jleena=yang
window=acc
baathu=dering
stone=abl
arà-picaking
nonpast-broken.caus
‘The child breaks the window with a stone.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-abl V
(18)
(Aanak) (baapa=nang) (slaamath katha) su-biilang.
aanak
child
baapa=nang
father=dat
slaamath
goodbye
katha
quot
su-biilang
past-say
‘The child said "Goodbye" to the father.’
SAY a Coding frame:
1 2-dat UTT3 V
(19)
(See) (baapa=ka) (car[=yang]) arà-mintha.
see
1s
baapa=ka
father=loc
car=yang
car=acc
su-mintha
past-beg
‘I asked my father for the car.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1 2-loc 3-acc V
(20)
(Kaake) (aanak=nang) (pìrrang=dering) arà-oomong.
kaake
grandfather
aanak=nang
child=dat
pìrrang=dering
war=abl
arà-oomong
nonpast-talk
‘Grandfather talks to the child about the war.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1 2-dat 3-abl V
(21)
(Se[=dang]) (itthu oorang[=yang]) thaau.
se=dang
1s=dat
itthu
dist
oorang=yang
man=acc
thaau
know
‘I know that man.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1-dat 2-acc V
(22)
(Baapa) (aanak[=yang]) su-kuthumung.
baapa
father
aanak=yang
child=acc
su-kuthumung
past-see
‘The father saw the child.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1 2-acc V
(23)
(Aanak) (baapa=nang) arà-banthu.
aanak
child
baapa=nang
father=dat
arà-banthu
nonpast-help
‘The child helps the father.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1 2-dat V
(24)
(Aanak) (maanga=[yang]) arà-maakang.
aanak
child
maanga=yang
mango=acc
arà-maakang
nonpast-eat
‘The child is eating the mango.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1 2-acc V
(25)
(Baapa) (aanak[=yang]) arà-cuuci.
baapa
father
aanak=yang
child=acc
arà-cuuci
nonpast-wash
‘The father washes the child.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1 2-acc V
(26)
(Aanak) arà-laari.
aanak
child
arà-laari
nonpast-run
‘The child is running.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1 V
(27)
(Kancil) arà-lompath.
kancil
rabbit
arà-lompath
nonpast-jump
‘The rabbit is jumping.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1 V
(28)
(Aanak) arà-nyaanyi.
aanak
child
arà-nyaanyi
nonpast-sing
‘The child is singing.’
SING a Coding frame:
1 V
(29)
(Tony) su-maathi.
Tony
Tony
su-maathi
past-die
‘Tony died.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1 V
(30)
(Kaake) su-mniinggal.
kaake
grandfather
su-mniinggal
past-die
‘Grandfather died.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1 V
(31)
(Baathu) arà-jaatho.
baathu
stone
arà-jaatho
nonpast-fall
‘The stone falls down.’
FALL a Coding frame:
1 V
(32)
(Sedang) diinging.
se=dang
1s=dat
diinging
cold
‘I am feeling cold.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1-dat V
(33)
(Sedang) laapar.
se=dang
1s=dat
laapar
hunger
‘I am hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1-dat V
(34)
Arà-uujang.
arà-uujang
nonpast-rain
‘It is raining.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
V
(35)
(Ini kaayu) kìrring.
ini
prox
kaayu
wood
kìrring
dry
‘This wood is dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1 V
(36)
(See) (ruuma=nang) arà-pii.
see
1s
ruuma=nang
house=dat
arà-pii
nonpast-go
‘I am going home.’
GO a Coding frame:
1 2-dat V
(37)
Baapa hatthu oorang neembak.
baapa
father
hatthu
indef
oorang
man
neembak
hunt
‘Father is a hunter.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
1 V
(38)
(Baapa) (kuucing[=yang]) (kaake=dering) su-ambel.
baapa
father
kuucing=yang
cat=acc
kaake=dering
grandfather=abl
su-ambel
past-take
‘Father took the cat from grandfather.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-abl V
(39)
(Baapa) (aanak=[yang]) (luuvar=nang) arà-thoolak.
baapa
father
aanak=yang
child=acc
luuvar=nang
outside=dat
arà-thoolak
nonpast-push
‘The father pushes the child outside.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-dat V
(40)
(Aanak) (kandeera=ka) arà-duuduk.
aanak
child
kandeera=ka
chair=loc
arà-duuduk
nonpast-sit
‘The child sits on the chair.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1 LOC2 V
(41)
(Kaake) (aanak=nang) (mùlbar) arà-aajar.
kaake
grandfather
aanak=nang
child=dat
mùlbar
Tamil
arà-aajar
nonpast-teach
‘The grandfather teaches Tamil to the child.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1 2-dat 3 V
(42)
(Aanak) arà-bitharak.
aanak
child
arà-bitharak
nonpast-scream
‘The child screams.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1 V
(43)
(Ùmma) (naasi) arà-maasak.
ùmma
Mother
naasi
cooked.rice
arà-maasak
nonpast-cook
‘Mother cooks rice.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1 2-acc V
(44)
(Sedang) (habbar) su-dìnngar.
se=dang
1s=dat
habbar
news
su-dìnngar
past-hear
‘I heard the news.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1-dat 2-acc V
(45)
(Sedang) (baaru hatthu car) maau.
se=dang
1s=dat
baaru
new
hatthu
indef
car
car
maau
want
‘I want a new car.’
WANT a Coding frame:
1-dat 2-acc V
(46)
(Kappal[=yang]) su=thìnggalam.
kappal=yang
ship=acc
su=thìnggalam
past=sink
‘The ship sank.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1-acc V
(47)
(Aayer) arà-mliidi.
aayer
water
arà-mliidi
nonpast-boil
‘The water is boiling.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1 V
(48)
Skarang Sri Lankapele islam pada muuka aràthuuthup.
skarang
now
Sri
Sri
Lanka=pe=le
Lanka=poss=addit
islam
muslim
pada
pl
muuka
face
arà-thuuthup
nonpast-cover
‘Now also the Muslims of Sri Lanka cover their faces.’
COVER an Alternation:
General NP drop
(49)
Papaayaka suumbu hatthu kalthaaro.
papaaya=ka
papaw=loc
suumbu=hatthu
wick=indef
kal-thaaro
when-put
‘When they put a wick in the papaw.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1 2-acc LOC3 V
(50)
Suda go Allaka dhuua mintha.
suda
so
go
1s
alla=ka
Allah=loc
dhuaa
grace
mintha
beg
‘So I ask Allah for grace. / So I pray to Allah.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1 2-loc 3-acc V
(51)
Incayangpe kepaalaka anàaada thoppidering moonyeth padanang subuwang puukul.
incayang=pe
3s=poss
kepaala=ka
head=loc
anà-aada
past-exist
thoppi=dering
hat=abl
moonyeth
monkey
pada=nang
pl=dat
su-buwang
past-throw
puukul
hit
‘(He) violently threw the hat which was on his head at the monkeys. / He took the hat from his head and threw it violently at the monkeys.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-dat V
(52)
Spaaru oorang pada biini padale baawa aada.
spaaru
some
oorang
man
pada
pl
biini
wife
pada=le
pl=addit
baawa
bring
aada
exist
‘Some men had brought also their wives. / Some men had also brought their wives.’
BRING an Alternation:
General NP drop
(53)
Derang pada godang uuvang aràkiiring.
derang
3pl
pada
pl
godang
1s.dat
uuvang
wealth
arà-kiiring
nonpast-send
‘They send me money.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-dat V
(54)
Derangpe umma derangnang jaithanle, jaarong pukurjanle suaajar.
derang=pe
3pl=poss
umma
mother
derang=nang
3pl=dat
jaith-an=le
sew-nmlzr=addit
jaarong
needle
pukurjan=le
work=addit
su-aajar
past-teach
‘Their mother taught them sewing and needle work.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1 2-dat 3 V
(55)
Spaaru oorang pada biini padayang asàambel supii.
spaaru
some
oorang
man
pada
pl
biini
wife
pada=yang
pl=acc
asà-ambel
cp-take
su-pii
past-go
‘Some men took wives and left. / Some men married and left.’
TAKE the Verb form ambel
(56)
Cinggala raajanang derang pada banthu aada.
cinggala
Sinhala
raaja=nang
king=dat
derang
3pl
pada
pl
banthu
help
aada
exist
‘They helped the Sinhalese king.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1 2-dat V
(57)
Andare ruumanang asapii biininang subiilang "puthrinang kuuping aradìnngar kuurang" katha.
Andare
Andare
ruuma-nang
house-dat
asà-pii
cp-go
biini=nang
wife=dat
su-biilang
past-say
puthri=nang
queen=dat
kuuping
ear
arà-dìnngar
nonpast-hear
kuurang
little
katha
quot
‘Andare went home and said to his wife "The queen hears little with her ears". / Andare went home and said to his wife that the queen did not hear well.’
SAY a Coding frame:
1 2-dat UTT3 V
(58)
Incayangnangle subiilang igaamanang mari katha.
incayang=nang=le
3s=dat=addit
su-biilang
past-say
igaama=nang
religion=dat
mari
imp
katha
quot
‘X told him too: "Come to the religion". / X told him too that he should convert to our religion.’
SAY a Coding frame:
1 2-dat UTT3 V
(59)
Biini itthu subladering aràbitharak; puthri inni subladering aràbitharak.
biini
wife
itthu
dist
subla=dering
side=abl
arà-bitharak
nonpast-scream
puthri
queen
inni
prox
subla=dering
side=abl
arà-bitharak
nonpast-scream
‘The wife screamed from that side and the queen screamed from this side.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1 V
(60)
"Lorangpe guuna thàràsampe! hathyang skali bannyak masàaapith!" Aajuth subutharak.
lorang=pe
2pl=poss
guuna
GUUNA
thàràsampe
insufficient
hathyang
other
skali
time
bannyak
much
masà-aapith
must-care
Aajuth
dwarf
su-butharak
past-scream
‘"Your respect is insufficient! Next time you must be more careful" the dwarf screamed.’
SCREAM the Verb form bitharak
(61)
Skarang maana aarile atthu atthu oorangyang aràbuunung.
skarang
now
maana
which
aari=le
day=addit
atthu~atthu
one~one
oorang=yang
man=acc
arà-buunung
nonpast-kill
‘Now people are getting killed every day one by one.’
KILL an Alternation:
General NP drop
(62)
Sedang Andarepe biiniyang macaanda suuka.
se=dang
1s=dat
Andare=pe
Andare=poss
biini=yang
wife=acc
mà-caanda
inf-meet
suuka
want
‘I want to meet Andare's wife.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1-dat 2-acc V
(63)
Suda puthrile biinile aràcaanda haarile sudhaathang.
suda
thus
puthri=le
queen=addit
biini=le
wife=addit
arà-caanda
nonpast-meet
haari=le
day=addit
su-dhaathang
past-come
‘Thus came the day when the wife and the queen were to meet.’
MEET an Alternation:
Reciprocal alternation
(64)
Bahasa mlaayupe habaran padayang caari apa...
bahasa
language
mlaayu=pe
Malay=poss
habaran
news
pada=yang
pl=acc
caari=apa
find=after
‘After having looked for/found news of the Malay language...’
SEARCH FOR the Verb form caari
(65)
Kithang muuka konnyong aràcunjikang siini.
kithang
1pl
muuka
face
konnyong
little
arà-cunjikang
nonpast-show
siini
here
‘We show our faces a little here.’
SHOW an Alternation:
General NP drop
(66)
Aanak raajape perkathahanyang Snow-whitenangle Rose-rednangle sukahandering supunnu hathu hidopan suthunjiking.
aanak
child
raaja=pe
king=poss
perkathahan=yang
word=acc
Snow-white=nang=le
Snow-white=dat=addit
Rose-red=nang=le
Rose-red=dat=addit
sukahan=dering
pleasure=abl
su-punnu
past-full
hathu
indef
hidopan
place
su-thunjiking
past-show
‘The princes words showed a place which filled Snow White and Rose Red with delight.’
SHOW the Verb form cunjiking
(67)
Hathu mliida birrasyang asàcuuci aayer màwadinji sumpang.
hathu
indef
mliida
measure
birras=yang
raw.rice=acc
asà-cuuci
cp-wash
aayer
water
mà=wadinji
inf=strain
sumpang
keep
‘Wash one measure of rice and reserve water to strain.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1 2-acc V
(68)
Dee aràcuuri baaye kaaya oorang padadering kaaya oorangderingjo aràcuuri.
dee
3s
arà-cuuri
nonpast-steal
baaye
good
kaaya
rich
oorang
man
pada=dering
pl=abl
kaaya
rich
oorang=dering=jo
man=abl=emph
arà=cuuri
nonpast=steal
‘He steals from the rich men, it is from the rich that he steals.’
STEAL an Alternation:
General NP drop
(69)
Oorangpe baarang pada samma aràcuuri.
oorang=pe
man=poss
baarang
goods
pada
pl
samma
all
arà-cuuri
nonpast-steal
‘He steals all the people's goods.’
STEAL an Alternation:
General NP drop
(70)
26452 votes incayangnang anàdaapath; itthunangle incayangnangle inni thumpath thàràdaapath.
26452
26452
votes
votes
incayang=nang
3s=dat
anà-daapath
past-get
itthu=nang=le
dist=dat=addit
incayang=nang=le
3s=dat=addit
inni
prox
thumpath
place
thàrà=daapath
neg.past=get
‘He got 26452 votes but nevertheless he did not get a seat (in parliament).’
GET an Alternation:
General NP drop
(71)
Freedomyang màdaapathnang kithangnang bannyak caape aada.
freedom=yang
freedom=acc
mà-daapath=nang
inf-get=dat
kithang=nang
1pl=dat
bannyak
much
caape
tired
aada
exist
‘We have worked hard to get our freedom.’
GET an Alternation:
General NP drop
(72)
Itthunang blaakang sedang Oman navyka job hatthu anàdaapath.
itthu=nang
dist=dat
blaakang
after
se=dang
1s=dat
Oman
Oman
navy=ka
navy=loc
job
job
hatthu
indef
anà-daapath
past-get
‘After that I got a job at the Oman Navy.’
GET a Coding frame:
1-dat 2-loc 3-acc V
(73)
Incayangnang HSBCka hathu pukuran sudaapath.
incayang=nang
3s=dat
HSBC=ka
HSBC=loc
hathu
indef
pukuran
work
su-daapath
past-get
‘He got a job at HSBC.’
GET a Coding frame:
1-dat 2-loc 3-acc V
(74)
Andare ruumanang asàpii biininang subiilang "puthrinang kuuping aràdinggar kuurang" katha.
Andare
Andare
ruuma=nang
house=dat
asà-pii
cp-go
biini=nang
wife=dat
su-biilang
past-say
puthri=nang
queen=dat
kuuping
ear
arà-dinggar
nonpast-hear
kuurang
little
katha
quot
‘After Andare went to his house, he told his wife: The queen hears little with her ears. / Andare went home and told his wife that the queen did not hear very well.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1-dat 2-acc V
(75)
Incayangpe omonganyang dìnngarapa...
incayang=pe
3s=poss
omong-an=yang
talk-nmlzr=acc
dìnngar=apa
hear=after
‘After hearing this talk...’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1-dat 2-acc V
(76)
Derangnang byaasa suaara hatthu sudìnngar.
derang=nang
3pl=dat
byaasa
familiar
suaara
sound
hatthu
indef
su-dìnngar
past-hear
‘They heard a familiar voice.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1-dat 2-acc V
(77)
Suda itthu oorang padale Seelongka aràduuduk.
suda
thus
itthu
dist
oorang
man
pada=le
pl=addit
Seelong=ka
Ceylon=loc
arà-duuduk
nonpast-dwell
‘So these people also live in Ceylon.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1 LOC2 V
(78)
Derang padajo Hambanthotaka aràduuduk.
derang
3pl
pada=jo
pl=foc
Hambanthota=ka
Hambantota=loc
arà=duuduk
nonpast=dwell
‘They live in Hambantota.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1 LOC2 V
(79)
Sooreka, Snow-whitele Rose-redle derangpe umma samma appi dìkkathka aràduuduk ambel.
soore=ka
evening=loc
Snow-white=le
Snow-white=addit
Rose-red=le
Rose-red=addit
derang=pe
3pl=poss
umma=samma
mother=comit
appi
fire
dìkkath=ka
close=loc
arà=duuduk
nonpast=sit
ambel
take
‘In the evenings, Snow-White and Rose-Red used to sit down close to the fire together with their mother.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1 LOC2 V
(80)
Laadale gaaramle bathu gilinganka giiling.
laada=le
pepper=addit
gaaram=le
salt=addit
bathu
stone
giling-an=ka
grind-nmlzr=loc
giiling
grind
‘Grind pepper and salt in a grinding stone.’
GRIND an Alternation:
General NP drop
(81)
Itthusubbath see iingath moderate islamizationka maràpii.
itthu=subbath
dist=because
see
1s
iingath
think
moderate
moderate
islamization=ka
islamization=loc
marà=pii
adhort=go
‘Because of that I think we should go towards moderate islamization. / Therefore I think we should strive for moderate islamization.’
THINK the Verb form iingath
(82)
See aràiingath Malaysia kalthraa Indonesiape hatthujo athiaada.
see
1s
arà-iingath
nonpast-think
Malaysia
Malaysia
kalthraa
otherwise
Indonesia=pe
Indonesia=poss
hatthu=jo
indef=emph
athi-aada
irr-exist
‘I think that there would have been one from Malaysia or otherwise Indonesia.’
THINK the Verb form iingath
(83)
Derangyang aràiingath maana wakthule.
derang=yang
3pl=acc
arà-iingath
nonpast-think
maana
which
wakthu=le
time=addit
‘They think of him all the time. / They commemorate him all the time.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1 2-acc V
(84)
Bannyak haaridering saapayangke thàràencokang katha anàiinngath Andare.
bannyak
many
haari=dering
day=abl
saapa=yang=ke
who=acc=simil
thàrà-enco-kang
neg.past-fool-caus
katha
quot
anà-iinngath
past-think
Andare
Andare
‘Andare thought that he had not taken anybody for a fool for many days.’
THINK the Verb form iingath
(85)
Skarang biini aràiinngath puthri thuuli katha; Puthri aràiinngath biini thuuli katha.
skarang
now
biini
wife
arà-iinngath
nonpast-think
puthri
queen
thuuli
deaf
katha
quot
Puthri
queen
arà-iinngath
nonpast-think
biini
wife
thuuli
deaf
katha
quot
‘Now the wife thinks that the queen is deaf and the queen thinks that the wife is deaf.’
THINK the Verb form iingath
(86)
Buruanpe kuulith incayangpe kaaki baawaka jaatho suaada!
buruan=pe
bear=poss
kuulith
skin
incayang=pe
3s=poss
kaaki
leg
baawa=ka
bottom=loc
jaatho
fall
su-aada
past-exist
‘The bear's hide had fallen to his feet!’
FALL a Coding frame:
1 V
(87)
Seppe baapa incayangnang ummas sukaasi.
se=ppe
1s=poss
baapa
father
incayang=nang
3s=dat
ummas
gold
su-kaasi
past-give
‘My father gave him gold.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-dat V
(88)
Itthu thumpathyang incayang giithujo awuliyanangjo sukaasi.
itthu
dist
thumpath=yang
place=acc
incayang
3s
giithu=jo
like.that=emph
awuliya=nang=jo
saint=dat=emph
su-kaasi
past-give
‘That place, he gave it to the saint in that manner.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-dat V
(89)
Goppe aanak pada uuwang godang aràkiiring.
go=ppe
1s=poss
aanak
child
pada
pl
uuwang
wealth
go=dang
1s=dat
arà-kiiring
nonpast-send
‘My children send me money.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-dat V
(90)
Itthu abbisdhaathang custard powderderingjo aràkirja.
itthu
dist
abbisdhaathang
copula
custard
custard
powder=dering=jo
powder=abl=emph
arà-kirja
nonpast-make
‘This one is such that it is made with custard powder.’
MAKE a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-abl V
(91)
Blaakangjo incayang anàkuthumung moonyeth pada thoppi asàambel pohong atthaska aràmaayeng.
blaakang=jo
after=emph
incayang
3s
anà-kuthumung
past-see
moonyeth
monkey
pada
pl
thoppi
hat
asà-ambel
cp-take
pohong
tree
atthas=ka
top=loc
arà=maayeng
nonpast=play
‘After that, he saw that the monkeys had taken the hats and were playing in the tree top.’
SEE the Verb form kuthumung
(92)
Itthu haarikajo aanak pompang duuwanang hathu duuri pohongnang puuthi, paanjang jeenggothyang anàkànàdaapath kìnna hathu kiccil jillek Aajuth hatthu=yang sukuthumung.
itthu
dist
haari=ka=jo
day=loc=emph
aanak
child
pompang
female
duuwa=nang
two=dat
hathu
indef
duuri
thorn
pohong=nang
tree=dat
puuthi
white
paanjang
long
jeenggoth=yang
beard=acc
anà-kànà-daapath
past-invol-get
kìnna
strike
hathu
indef
kiccil
small
jillek
ugly
Aajuth
dwarf
hatthu=yang
indef=acc
su-kuthumung
past-see
‘On that day the two girls saw a small ugly dwarf who had got stuck to a thorn tree with his long white beard.’
SEE the Verb form kuthumung
(93)
Thakuthannang derang pada hathu thumpathnang nyalaari.
thakuth-an=nang
fear-nmlzr=dat
derang
3pl
pada
pl
hathu
indef
thumpath=nang
place=dat
nya-laari
past-run
‘Out of fear, they ran to a place.’
RUN an Alternation:
General NP addition
(94)
Hathu haari puthrinang Andarepe biiniyang màdiyathnang hathu sukahan sudhaathang.
hathu
one
haari
day
puthri=nang
queen=dat
Andare=pe
Andare=poss
biini=yang
wife=acc
mà-diyath=nang
inf-see=dat
hathu
indef
sukahan
desire
su-dhaathang
past-come
‘One day, the queen got the desire to see Andare's wife.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1-dat 2-acc V
(95)
Oorangyang asàdiyathapa godang bolejaaith kaasi .
oorang=yang
man=acc
asà-diyath=apa
cp-look.at=after
go=dang
1s=dat
bole-jaaith
can-sew
kaasi
give
‘After having looked at a man, I can tailor (something) for him.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1-dat 2-acc V
(96)
Itthunang blaakang Andare guula thiikarka asalompath "luppe muuluthkale paasir, seppe muuluthkale paasir" katha biilang biilang baayenang baapale aanakle guula sumaakang.
itthu=nang
dist=dat
blaakang
after
Andare
Andare
guula
sugar
thiikar=ka
mat=loc
asà=lompath
cp=jump
lu=ppe
2s=poss
muuluth=ka=le
mouth=loc=addit
paasir
sand
se=ppe
1s=poss
muuluth=ka=le
mouth=loc=addit
paasir
sand
katha
quot
biilang~biilang
say~say
baaye=nang
good=dat
baapa=le
father=addit
aanak=le
child=addit
guula
sugar
su-maakang
past-eat
‘After that, Andare jumped on the mat and saying "There is sand in your mouth, there is sand in my mouth" father and son ate sugar.’
JUMP an Alternation:
General NP addition
(97)
Sebastian saathe asàmaakang aadasi?
Sebastian
Sebastian
saathe
satay
asà-maakang
cp-eat
aada=si
exist=interr
‘Have you (already) eaten Satay, Sebastian?’
EAT a Coding frame:
1 2-acc V
(98)
Kithangpe sudari padanang makanan màmaasak aada.
kithang=pe
1pl=poss
sudari
sisters
pada=nang
pl=dat
makan-an
eat-nmlzr
mà-maasak
inf-cook
aada
exist
‘Our sisters had to prepare food.’
COOK the Verb form maasak
(99)
Ini duuwa army captain thàràmaathi.
ini
prox
duuwa
two
army
army
captain
captian
thàrà-maathi
neg.past-die
‘These two army captains did not die.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1 V
(100)
Andarele anàmaathi hathu raajake.
Andare=le
Andare=addit
anà-maathi
past-die
hathu
indef
raaja=ke
king=simil
‘And Andare died like a king.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1 V
(101)
Itthusubbathjo incayangnang maau, ini Sri Lankan Malay màblaajar maau.
itthusubbath=jo
therefore=emph
incayang=nang
3s=dat
maau
want
ini
prox
Sri
Sri
Lankan
Lanka
Malay
Malay
mà-blaajar
inf-learn
maau
want
‘Therefore he wants, he wants to learn this Sri Lanka Malay.’
WANT the Verb form maau
(102)
Derangnang thumpath maau.
derang=nang
3pl=dat
thumpath
place
maau
want
‘They want land.’
WANT a Coding frame:
1-dat 2-acc V
(103)
Aràmdiidikang aayerka.
arà-mdidi-kang
nonpast-boil-caus
aayer=ka
water=loc
‘Bring it to a boil in water.’
BOIL the Verb form mdiidi
(104)
Aajuth thaakuthka sunaangis.
aajuth
dwarf
thaakuth=ka
fear=loc
su-naangis
past-weep
‘The dwarf wept in fear.’
CRY a Coding frame:
1 V
(105)
Sebastian mlaayu aràoomong.
Sebastian
Sebastian
mlaayu
Malay
arà-oomong
nonpast-speak
‘Sebastian speaks Malay.’
TALK the Verb form oomong
(106)
Kapangcaanda kithang pada mlaayudering aràoomong.
kapang-caanda
when-meet
kithang
1pl
pada
pl
mlaayu=dering
Malay=abl
arà-oomong
nonpast-speak
‘When we meet we speak in Malay.’
TALK the Verb form oomong
(107)
Hathyang aarika Snow-whitele Rose-redle laapang piingirka, berry kapangpiccakang, bissar hathu buurung derangpe atthasdering suthìrbang.
hathyang
other
aari=ka
day=loc
Snow-white=le
Snow-white=addit
Rose-red=le
Rose-red=addit
laapang
ground
piingir=ka
border=loc
berry
berry
kapang-picca=kang
when-broken=caus
bìssar
big
hathu
indef
buurung
bird
derang=pe
3pl=poss
atthas=dering
top=abl
su-thìrbang
past-fly
‘The other day, when Snow-White and Rose-Red were picking (=breaking) berries, a big bird flew over them.’
BREAK an Alternation:
General NP drop
(108)
Itthu giini bolepiccakang thundu padanang.
itthu
dist
giini
like.this
bole-picca-kang
can-broken-caus
thundu
piece
pada=nang
pl=dat
‘You can break those things to pieces like this.’
BREAK the Verb form picaking
(109)
Itthusubbath derangpada jaalang aràgijja, butthul ruuma padayang aràpiccakang.
itthusubbath
therefore
derang
3pl
pada
pl
jaalang
street
arà-gijja
nonpast-make
butthul
correct
ruuma
house
pada=yang
pl=acc
arà-picca-kang
nonpast-broken-caus
‘There for they are making streets, they are demolishing good houses. / Therefore, they construct streets and good houses are getting demolished.’
BREAK the Verb form picaking
(110)
Derang laayeng nigiri padanang supii.
derang
3pl
laayeng
other
nigiri
country
pada=nang
pl=dat
su-pii
past-go
‘They went to another country.’
GO a Coding frame:
1 2-dat V
(111)
Derang hathu papaayayang asàpoothongapa papaayaka suumbu hatthu kalthaaro.
derang
3pl
hathu
indef
papaaya=yang
papaya=acc
asà-poothong=apa
cp-cut=after
papaaya=ka
papaya=loc
suumbu
wick
hatthu
indef
kal-thaaro
when-put
‘When they cut open a papaya and put a wick into it.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1 2-acc V
(112)
Ithukapang lorangpe leheryang kithang athipoothong.
ithukapang
then
lorang=pe
2pl=poss
leher=yang
neck=acc
kithang
1pl
athi-poothong
irr-cut
‘Then we will cut your neck.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1 2-acc V
(113)
Baapa derangpe kubbongka hatthu pohong nyapoothong.
baapa
father
derang=pe
3pl=poss
kubbong=ka
garden=loc
hatthu
indef
pohong
tree
nya-poothong
past-cut
‘Father cut a tree in their garden.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1 2-acc V
(114)
Itthuyang kithang aràrubbus.
itthu=yang
dist=acc
kithang
1pl
arà-rubbus
nonpast-boil
‘Then we cook it.’
BOIL (tr) a Coding frame:
1 2-acc V
(115)
Baayenang aayerka rubbus!
baaye=nang
good=dat
aayer=ka
water=loc
rubbus
boil
‘Boil it well in water!’
BOIL (tr) an Alternation:
General NP drop
(116)
Se ini buk aràsoovekkang thaaro.
se
1s
ini
prox
buk
book
arà-soovek-kang
nonpast-torn-caus
thaaro
put
‘I tear the book to pieces.’
TEAR the Verb form soovek(kang)
(117)
Kithangnang suuka màdiyathnang.
kithang=nang
1pl=dat
suuka
want
mà-diyath=nang
inf-look=dat
‘We want to have a look.’
LIKE the Verb form suuka
(118)
Luwar nigiri kithangnang màpii thàràsuuka.
luwar
outside
nigiri
country
kithang=nang
1pl=dat
mà-pii
inf-go
thàrà-suuka
neg.past-like
‘We did not want to go abroad.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1 2-dat V
(119)
Punnu mlaayu oorangnangle cinggala màblaajar thàràsuuka.
punnu
full
mlaayu
Malay
oorang=nang=le
man=dat=addit
cinggala
Sinhala
mà-blaajar
inf-learn
thàrà-suuka
neg.past-like
‘Many Malay people did not like to learn Sinhala. / Many people did not want to learn Sinhala.’
LIKE the Verb form suuka
(120)
Derang anàkuthumung padanang asàthaakuth.
derang
3pl
anà-kuthumung
past-see
pada=nang
pl=dat
asà-thaakuth
cp-fear
‘They feared what they saw.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1 2-dat V
(121)
Godang itthu tailoring samma thaau.
go=dang
1s=dat
itthu
dist
tailoring
tailoring
samma
all
thaau
know
‘I know everything about tailoring.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1-dat 2-acc V
(122)
Godang thàràthaau hathu pukurjan thraa.
go=dang
1s=dat
thàrà-thaau
neg-know
hathu
indef
pukurjan
work
thraa
neg
‘There is no work that I would not know.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1-dat 2-acc V
(123)
Sedang màbiilang thàràthaau.
se=dang
1s=dat
mà-biilang
inf-say
thàrà-thaau
neg-know
‘I can't tell (you) that.’
KNOW an Alternation:
General NP drop
(124)
Incayangpe baapape naama see thàràthaau.
incayang=pe
3s=poss
baapa=pe
father=poss
naama
name
see
1s
thàrà-thaau
neg-know
‘I do not know his father's name.’
KNOW the Verb form thaau
(125)
Seppe oorang pada see saapa katha thàràthaau.
se=ppe
1s=poss
oorang
man
pada
pl
see
1s
saapa
who
katha
quot
thàrà-thaau
neg-know
‘My folks did not know who I was.’
KNOW the Verb form thaau
(126)
Godang karang bannyak thàràsìggar.
go=dang
1s=dat
karang
now
bannyak
much
thàrà=sìggar
neg=healthy
‘I am very sick now.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
1-dat V
(127)
Siini, Andare atthas lompath lompath aràthàthaawa.
siini
there
Andare
Andare
atthas
top
lompath~lompath
jump~rdp
arà-thàthaawa
nonpast-laugh
‘Here, he laughed violently about Andare.’
LAUGH ABOUT a Coding frame:
1 2+atthas V
(128)
Titanic kappalyang suthìnggalam.
Titanic
Titanic
kappal=yang
ship=acc
su-thìnggalam
past-sink
‘The Titanic sank.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1-acc V
(129)
Boat hatthuka thaaro abbis itthu queenyang nyathoolak aayernang.
boat
boat
hatthu=ka
indef=loc
thaaro
put
abbis
finish
itthu
dist
queen=yang
queen=acc
nya-thoolak
past-push
aayer=nang
water=dat
‘Having put her into the boat, (they) pushed the queen into the water.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-dat V
(130)
Itthu bambuyang giini angkathapa, pullang aràthoolak.
itthu
dist
bambu=yang
bamboo=acc
giini
like.this
angkath=apa
lift=after
pullang
slow
arà-thoolak
nonpast-push
‘Having lifted that bamboo like this, slowly push it (back).’
PUSH the Verb form thoolak
(131)
Baayenang goorengnang blaakang ini santhamyang itthunang thuwang.
baaye=nang
good=dat
gooreng=nang
fry=dat
blaakang
after
ini
prox
santham=yang
coconut.milk=acc
itthu=nang
dist=dat
thuwang
pour
‘After frying (it) well, add this coconutmilk to it.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1 2-acc LOC3 V
(132)
Oorang subaawung, thoppi padayang anàcaari.
oorang
man
su-baawung
past-rise
thoppi
hat
pada=yang
pl=acc
anà-caari
past-find/search
‘The man got up and looked for his hats.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1 2-acc V
(133)
Incayang ini Seelongka anàaada lakuan baathu asàcaari.
incayang
3s
ini
prox
Seelong=ka
Ceylon=loc
anà-aada
past-exist
lakuan
value
baathu
stone
asà-caari
cp-search
‘He looked for the valuble stones which existed in this Ceylon. / He looked for gems from Ceylon.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
General NP addition
(134)
Umma incayangpe aanakyang aràpullok.
umma
mother
incayang=pe
3s=poss
aanak=yang
child=acc
arà-pullok
nonpast-hug
‘The mother hugs her child.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1 2-acc V
(135)
Buruan aanakpe vaanging aràliiyath.
buruan
bear
aanak=pe
child=poss
vaanging
smell
arà-liiyath
nonpast-see
‘The bear smells the child.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1 V
(136)
Ummaya incayangpe aanakyang nyapakeking.
umma=ya
mother=3kin
incayang=pe
3s=poss
aanak=yang
child=acc
nya-pake-king
past-dress-caus
‘The mother dressed her child.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1 2-acc V
(137)
Aanak ummape blaakangdering aràpii.
aanak
child
umma=pe
mother=poss
blaakang=dering
back=abl
arà-pii
nonpast-go
‘The child follows the mother.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1 2-abl V
(138)
Itthu prompang aanak padanang nyakaaluth.
itthu
dist
prompang
woman
aanak
child
pada=nang
pl=dat
nya-kaaluth
past-shout
‘The woman shouts at the children.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1 2-dat V
(139)
Ummabaapa pada aanaknang Anna katha naama nyathaaro.
umma-baapa
mother-father
pada
pl
aanak=nang
child=dat
Anna
Anna
katha
quot
naama
name
nya-thaaro
past-put
‘The parents called their child Anna.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1 2-dat 3+katha V
(140)
Oorang kaayuderi ruuma hatthuyang nyaikkath.
oorang
man
kaayu=deri
wood=abl
ruuma
house
hatthu=yang
indef=acc
nya-ikkath
past-build
‘The man built a house from wood.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-abl V
(141)
Aanak klaaki hatthu kaayudering uularnang aràthìkkam.
aanak
child
klaaki
male
hatthu
indef
kaayu=dering
wood=abl
uular=nang
snake=dat
arà=thìkkam
nonpast=poke
‘The boy touches the snake with a stick. / The boy pokes at the snake with a stick.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1 2-dat 3-abl V
(142)
Aanak klaaki piisang(pe kuulith)yang aràkuupas.
aanak
child
klaaki
male
piisang=pe
banana=poss
kuulith=yang
skin=acc
arà-kuupas
nonpast-peel
‘The boy peels the banana (skin).’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1 2-acc V
(143)
Aanak klaaki incayangpe ummaderi koodokyang susbuuniking.
aanak
child
klaaki
male
incayang=pe
3s=poss
umma=deri
mother=abl
koodok=yang
frog=acc
su-sbuuni-king
past-hide-caus
‘The boy hid the frog from his mother.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-abl V
(144)
Oorang potti pada paasarnang nyaangkath baapi.
oorang
man
potti
box
pada
pl
paasar=nang
market=dat
nya-angkath
past-lift
baapi
take.away
‘The man carried the boxes to the market.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1 2-dat 3 V
(145)
Oorang klaapa pada trucknang nyaangkath thaaro.
oorang
man
klaapa
coconut
pada
pl
truck=nang
truck=dat
nya-angkath
past-lift
thaaro
put
‘The men loaded coconuts on the truck.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1 2-acc LOC3 V
(146)
Oorang nyabaathok.
oorang
man
nya-baathok
past-cough
‘The man coughed.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1 V
(147)
Moonyeth pohongpe atthasnang nanaayek.
moonyeth
monkey
pohong=pe
tree=poss
atthas=nang
top=dat
na-naayek
past-climb
‘The monkey climbed on top of the tree.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1 2-dat V
(148)
Oorang buumika aràduuduk.
oorang
man
buumi=ka
earth=loc
arà-duuduk
nonpast-sit
‘The man is sitting on the ground.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1 LOC2 V
(149)
Aanak klaaki nigirideri supii.
aanak
child
klaaki
male
nigiri=deri
country=abl
su-pii
past-go
‘The boy went away from the village. / The boy left the village.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1 2-abl V
(150)
Aanak klaaki nigiri suluppas.
aanak
child
klaaki
male
nigiri
village
su-luppas
past-leave
‘The child left the village.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1 2 V
(151)
Seppe thaangang aràsaakith.
se=ppe
1s=poss
thaangang
hand
arà-saakith
nonpast-pain
‘My hand hurts.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1 V
(152)
Aanak aràmaayeng.
aanak
child
arà-maayeng
nonpast-play
‘The child is playing.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1 V
(153)
Sedang suusa.
se=dang
1s=dat
suusa
sad
‘I am sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1-dat V
(154)
Ruumanang appi aràpeegang.
ruuma=nang
house=dat
appi
fire
arà-peegang
nonpast-catch
‘The house is burning.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1-dat V
(155)
Prompang biiji pada lumpangle aalulederi aràgiiling.
prompang
female
biiji
seed
pada
pl
lumpang=le
mortar=addit
aalu=le=deri
pestle=addit=abl
arà-giiling
nonpast-grind
‘The woman grinds the seeds with mortar and pestle.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-abl V
(156)
Prompang meejaderi koothoryan aràsaapu.
prompang
girl
meeja=deri
table=abl
koothor=yang
dirt=acc
arà-saapu
nonpast-wipe
‘The girl wiped dirt off the table.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-abl V
(157)
Prompang uubi aràgaali.
prompang
female
uubi
potato
arà-gaali
nonpast-dig
‘The woman is digging for potatoes.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1 2-acc V
(158)
Buruan seya nyathaakuthking.
buruan
bear
se=yang
1s=acc
nya-thaakuth-king
past-fear-caus
‘The bear frightened me.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1 2-acc V
(159)
Se (asàdhaathang) hatthu oorang ikkang.
se
1s
asàdhaathang
copula
hatthu
indef
oorang
man
ikkang
fish
‘I am a fisherman.’
BE A HUNTER the Verb form oorang neembak
(160)
Aajuthyang sangkeluppas hathu polludering Rose-red buurungnang supuukul.
Aajuth=yang
dwarf=acc
sangke-luppas
until-leave
hathu
indef
pollu=dering
stick=abl
Rose-red
Rose-red
buurung=nang
bird=dat
su-puukul
past-hit
‘Rose-Red beat the bird with a stick until it let go off the dwarf.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1 2-acc 3-abl V
(161)
Haraam=yang arà-diyath haraamyang arà-dinggar haraam=yang arà-oomong haraam=yang arà-thaksir.
haraam=yang
forbidden=acc
arà-diyath
nonpast-look
haraam=yang
forbidden=acc
arà-dinggar
nonpast-hear
haraam=yang
forbidden=acc
arà-oomong
nonpast-speak
haraam=yang
forbidden=acc
arà-thaksir
nonpast-think
‘They are watching forbidden things, they are looking at forbidden things, they are saying forbidden things and they are thinking forbidden things.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1 2-acc V
(162)
Karang kithang marà-thaksir kithang=nang Allah draapa=so prentha pada=yang kaasi aada.
karang
now
kithang
1pl
marà-thaksir
adhort-think
kithang=nang
1pl=dat
Allah
Allah
draapa=so
how.many=dubit
prentha
rule
pada=yang
pl=acc
kaasi
give
aada
exist
‘Now let's think how many rules Allah has given to us.’
THINK the Verb form thaksir
(163)
Kithang masà-thaksir kithang=pe ruuma daalang=ka see=le lorang=le mlaayu=dering arà-oomong=si.
kithang
1pl
masà-thaksir
must-think
kithang=pe
1pl=poss
ruuma
house
daalang=ka
inside=loc
see=le
1s=assoc
lorang=le
2pl=loc
mlaayu=dering
Malay=abl
arà-oomong=si
nonpast-speak=interr
‘We have to think whether you and I speak in Malay in our home(s).’
THINK the Verb form thaksir