Examples of Sliammon

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
čʼəɬ.
čʼəɬ
rain
‘It rains. / It rained.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
V
(2)
ʔiɬtənstanapi=č.
ʔiɬtən-st-anapi=č
eat-CAU-2PL.OBJ=1SG.INDC.SBJ
‘I feed you guys.’
EAT an Alternation:
Causative
(3)
kʼʷətas tə= tutamʼiš.
kʼʷən-t-∅-as
see-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
tutamʼiš
boy
‘He looked at the boy.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(4)
čʼagatas tə= saɬtxʷ.
čʼag-a-t-∅-as
help-LV-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
saɬtxʷ
woman
‘He helped the woman.’
HELP a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(5)
saysayʼmitas tə= tumiš.
CVC-saǰʼ-mi-t-∅-as
RDPL-fear-RLT-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
tumiš
man
‘He feared the man. / He was scared of the man.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(6)
kʼʷitʼᶿim.
kʼʷitʼᶿ-im
jump-MDL
‘He jumped.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(7)
kʼʷitʼᶿimit =čxʷ tə= pələməs!
kʼʷitʼᶿ-im-mi-t-∅
jump-MDL-RLT-CTR-3.OBJ
=čxʷ
=2SG.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
pələməs
plums
‘Jump for the plums! / You jump for the plums!’
JUMP an Alternation:
Middle with Relational applicative
(8)
hu =tᶿəm.
hu
go
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ:FUT
‘I will go.’
GO a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(9)
x̣ənatas tə= tiča ʔə= tə= pukʷ.
x̣ənat-t-∅-as
give-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
tiča
teacher
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
pukʷ
book
‘He gave the book to the teacher.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1 (obl-3)
(10)
xənatəm.
xənat-t-∅-əm
give-CTR-3.OBJ-PASS
‘It was given to him.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Passive
(11)
x̣̣əyp =č.
x̣əyp
startle
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
‘I got startled.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Unsuffixed
(12)
tʼᶿiyitas tə= tutamiš.
tʼᶿiy-i-t-∅-as
search-LV-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
tutamiš
boy
‘He looked for the boy.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(13)
niʔitas tə= ʔiʔagikʼʷs.
niʔ-i-t-∅-as
put.on-LV-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
ʔiʔagikʼʷ-s
clothes-3.POSS
‘He put his clothes on.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(14)
qəpt =čən.
qəp-t-∅
touch-CTR-3.OBJ
=čən
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
‘I touch it.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(15)
kʷayiš =tᶿəm tə= pəču.
kʷay-iš-∅
hide-CTR-3.OBJ
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ:FUT
tə=
DET=
pəču
basket
‘I will hide the basket.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(16)
kʷinatas tə= kʼʷawʔis.
kʷinat-t-∅-as
carry-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
kʼʷawʔis
bucket
‘She is carrying the bucket.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(17)
səytʼat =tᶿəm tə= ləstəpuwl.
səytʼ-a-t-∅
throw-LV-CTR-3.OBJ
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ:FUT
tə=
DET=
ləstəpuwl
ball
‘I will throw the ball.’
THROW a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(18)
tuqʼʷum tə= tumiš.
tuqʼʷ-um
cough-MDL
tə=
DET=
tumiš
man
‘The man coughed / has a cold.’
COUGH an Alternation:
Middle
(19)
qʼaqʼa tə= čuyʼ.
qʼaqʼa
hungry
tə=
DET=
čuyʼ
child
‘The child is hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(20)
šəmʼ tə=tʼəytʼayš'.
šəmʼ
dry
tə=tʼəy-tʼayš'
DET=PL-blanket
‘The blankets dried up.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(21)
θayʼəm tə=nəxʷiɬ.
θayʼ-əm
sink-MDL
tə=nəxʷiɬ
DET=canoe
‘The boat sank.’
SINK a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(22)
sax̣ʷat'.
sax̣ʷ-a-t-∅
scrape-LV-CTR-3.OBJ
‘Scrape it.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(23)
sasax̣ʷusəm =č.
sa-sax̣ʷ-us-əm
IMPF-scrape-face-MDL
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
‘I am shaving my face.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Lexical suffix with Middle
(24)
təx̣ʷnixʷas tə= tutamʼiš.
təx̣ʷ-n<i>xʷ-∅-as
find.out-NTR<STV>-OBJ-3.ERG
tə=tutamʼiš
DET=
‘He knew the boy.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(25)
ʔəysxʷasuɬ tə= tumiš.
ʔəy-sxʷ-as-uɬ
good-CAU-3.ERG-PAST
tə=
DET=
tumiš
man
‘He liked the man.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(26)
səpʼtas tə= ʔuɬqay.
səpʼ-t-∅-as
club-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
ʔuɬqay
snake
‘He hit the snake. / He clubbed the snake.’
HIT a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(27)
hihiw tih sapʼatas tə= ʔuɬqay.
hihiw
very
tih
big
sapʼ-a-t-∅-as
club[PL]-LV-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
ʔuɬqay
snake
‘He beat the snake.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(28)
yəpʼtas tə= lamaya.
yəpʼ-t-∅-as
break-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
lamaya
bottle
‘He broke the bottle.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(29)
pəx̣tuɬ =čən tiʔi qʼəsnayʼ.
pəx̣-t-∅-uɬ
tear-CTR-3.OBJ-PAST
=čən
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
tiʔi
DEM
qʼəsnayʼ
shirt
‘I tore this shirt apart.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(30)
kʼʷənsxʷas tə= tiča (ʔə=) tə= pukʷ.
kʼʷən-sxʷ-∅-as
see-CAU-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
tiča
teacher
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
pukʷ
book
‘He showed the book to the teacher.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1 (obl-3)
(31)
kʼʷənʔəmsxʷ =tᶿəm ɬu= ǰaʔihiw ʔə= tiʔi pukʷ.
kʼʷən-ʔəm-sxʷ-∅
see-A.INTR-CAU-3.OBJ
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ:FUT
ɬu=
DET=
ǰaʔihiw
DEM
ʔə=
OBL=
tiʔi
DEM
pukʷ
book
‘I will show these guys the book.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Active-intransitive-causative
(32)
qʼisitas tə= tiqiw ʔə= tə= ǰaǰʼa.
qʼis-i-t-∅-as
tie-LV-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
tiqiw
horse
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
ǰaǰʼa
tree
‘He tied the horse to the tree.’
TIE a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1 (obl-3)
(33)
ʔah tə= tᶿ= čayiš.
ʔah
sore
tə=
DET=
tᶿ=
1SG.POSS=
čayiš
hand
‘My hand is hurting.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(34)
qaqsamʼuθinamʼuɬ plit.
qaqsamʼuθin-amʼ-uɬ
sing-MDL-PAST
plit
Fred
‘Fred sang.’
SING a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(35)
qaqsamʼuθinʔəmtas.
qaqsamʼuθin-ʔəm-t-∅-as
sing-IND-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
‘He sang for her.’
SING an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(36)
wuwum =ga!
wuw-um
sing-MDL
=ga
=IMP
‘Sing! / Go ahead and sing!’
SING a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(37)
wuwumʔəmt =ga!
wuw-um-ʔəm-t-∅
sing-MDL-IND-CTR-3.OBJ
=ga
=IMP
‘Sing for him!’
SING an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(38)
wuwumstumšas.
wuw-um-stu-mš-as
sing-MDL-CAU-1SG.OBJ-3.ERG
‘He made me sing.’
SING an Alternation:
Middle with Causative
(39)
ɬawš =č tə= tᶿ= ʔayaʔ.
ɬaw-š-∅
leave-CTR-3.OBJ
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
tᶿ=
1SG.POSS=
ʔayaʔ
house
‘I am leaving my house.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(40)
kʼʷəɬaš =ga tə= qayʼa!
kʼʷəɬ-aš-∅
spill-CTR-3.OBJ
=ga
=IMP
tə=
DET=
qayʼa
water
‘Spill the water out!’
POUR a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(41)
kʼʷəɬ tə= qayʼa.
kʼʷəɬ
spill
=∅
=3.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
qayʼa
water
‘The water spilled.’
POUR an Alternation:
Unsuffixed
(42)
kʼʷəɬʔəmθ =čxʷ ʔə= kʷ= tiy!
kʼʷəɬ-ʔəm-θ
spill-A.INTR-CTR:2SG.OBJ
=čxʷ
=2SG.INDC.SBJ
ʔə=
OBL=
kʷ=
DET=
tiy
tea
‘(You) Pour some tea for me!’
POUR an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(43)
kʼʷəɬʔəm =ga ʔə= kʷ= tihaya!
kʼʷəɬ-ʔəm
spill-A.INTR
=ga
=IMP
ʔə=
OBL=
kʷ=
DET=
tihaya
tea
‘Pour some tea!’
POUR an Alternation:
Active-intransitive
(44)
kʼʷəɬʔəmsxʷas tə= saɬtxʷ.
kʼʷəɬ-ʔəm-sxʷ-∅-as
spill-A.INTR-CAU-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
saɬtxʷ
woman
‘He made the girl pour it.’
POUR an Alternation:
Active-intransitive-causative
(45)
kʷatas tə= ƛas ʔə= tə= θiwuθitən.
kʷa-t-∅-as
put.down-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
ƛas
glass
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
θiwuθitən
table
‘He put the glass on the table.’
PUT a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1 (obl-3)
(46)
kʷaʔəmθ =ga ʔə= təyʼta!
kʷa(ʔ)-ʔəm-θ
put.down-IND-CTR:2SG.OBJ
=ga
=IMP
ʔə=
OBL=
təyʼta
DEM
‘Put it down there for me!’
PUT an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(47)
tʼayšatas tə= čuyʼ.
tʼayš-a-t-∅-as
blanket-LV-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
čuyʼ
child
‘He covered the baby with a blanket.’
COVER a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(48)
tʼayšatəm tə= čuyʼ ʔə= tə= tans.
tʼayš-a-t-∅-əm
blanket-LV-CTR-3.OBJ-PASS
tə=
DET=
čuyʼ
child
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
tan-s
mother-3.POSS
‘The mother covered the baby with a blanket. / The baby was covered with a blanket by his mother.’
COVER an Alternation:
Passive
(49)
tʼayšaʔamθ =ga ʔə= tə= tᶿ= čuyʼ!
tʼayš-aʔam-θ
blanket-IND-CTR:1SG.OBJ
=ga
=IMP
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
tᶿ=
1SG.POSS=
čuyʼ
child
‘Put a blanket over my baby for me!’
COVER an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(50)
tʼayšam =tᶿəm.
tʼayš-am
blanket-MDL
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ:FUT
‘I will cover myself with a blanket.’
COVER an Alternation:
Middle
(51)
yaʔcʼaš =čxʷ tə= kʼʷawʔis!
yaʔcʼ-aš-∅
full-CTR-3.OBJ
=čxʷ
=2SG.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
kʼʷawʔis
bucket
‘(You) fill up the bucket!’
FILL a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(52)
yəčʼ tə= kʼʷawʔis.
yəčʼ
full
tə=
DET=
kʼʷawʔis
bucket
‘The bucket is full.’
FILL an Alternation:
Unsuffixed
(53)
yəčʼʔəmθi =tᶿəm ʔə= tə= qayʼa.
yəčʼ-ʔəm-θi
full-IND-CTR:2SG.OBJ
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ:FUT
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
qayʼa
water
‘I will fill (it) up with water for you.’
FILL an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(54)
yəčʼmiθim =a ʔə= kʷə= θ= ʔayaʔ?
yəčʼ-mi-θi-m
full-RLT-CTR:2SG.OBJ-PASS
=a
=QN
ʔə=
OBL=
kʷə=
DET=
θ=
2SG.POSS=
ʔayaʔ
house
‘Is your house full of people? / lit. 'Are you being filled in regards to your house?'’
FILL an Alternation:
Relational applicative with Passive
(55)
ʔuwuɬsxʷas tə= ʔasxʷ.
ʔuwuɬ-sxʷ-∅-as
embark-CAU-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
ʔasxʷ
seal
‘He loads the seal.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(56)
ʔuʔuwuɬ =št ʔə= tə= nəxʷiɬ.
ʔu-ʔuwuɬ
IMPF-embark
=št
=1PL.INDC.SBJ
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
nəxʷiɬ
canoe
‘We are embarking on the boat.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Unsuffixed
(57)
titiwšamsxʷ =č ʔə= kʷ= ʔayʔaǰuθəm.
ti-tiwš-am-sxʷ-∅
IMPF-learn-MDL-CAU-3.OBJ
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
ʔə=
OBL=
kʷ=
DET=
ʔayʔaǰuθəm
Native.language
‘I am teaching her the native language.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1 (obl-3)
(58)
titiwšam =č.
ti-tiwš-am
IMPF-learn-MDL
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
‘I am learning.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Middle
(59)
tiwšamʔəmθi =tᶿəm.
tiwš-am-ʔəm-θi
learn-MDL-IND-CTR:2SG.OBJ
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
‘I will teach (her) for you.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Middle with Indirective applicative
(60)
čəwʼuniθas ʔə= tə= tᶿ= tala.
čəwʼu-ni-θ-as
steal-IND-CTR:1SG.OBJ-3.ERG
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
tᶿ=
1SG.POSS=
tala
money
‘He stole money from me.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1 (obl-3)
(61)
čəwʼuɬ tə= čuyʼ.
čəwʼuɬ
steal
tə=
DET=
čuyʼ
child
‘The child stole (something).’
STEAL an Alternation:
Unsuffixed
(62)
čəwʼuniθayəm ʔə= šə= tᶿ= ʔatnupil.
čəwʼu-ni-θay-əm
steal-IND-CTR:1SG.OBJ-PASS
ʔə=
OBL=
šə=
DET=
tᶿ=
1SG.POSS=
ʔatnupil
car
‘My car is stolen. / I was stolen as regards my car.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Indirective applicative with Passive
(63)
ǰuǰuθut =št tə= ʔatnupil.
ǰu-ǰuθ-u-t-∅
IMPF-push-LV-CTR-3.OBJ
=št
=1PL.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
ʔatnupil
car
‘We are pushing the car.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(64)
ǰuθʔəm =kʼʷa =səm ʔə= tə= tᶿ= ʔatnupil.
ǰuθ-ʔəm
push-A.INTR
=∅
=3.INDC.SBJ
=kʼʷa
=QUOT
=səm
=FUT
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
tᶿ=
1SG.POSS=
ʔatnupil
car
‘He will push my car.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Active-intransitive
(65)
ǰuθʔəmθi =tᶿəm ʔə= tə= ʔatnupil.
ǰuθ-ʔəm-θi
push-IND-CTR:2SG.OBJ
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ:FUT
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
ʔatnupil
car
‘I will push the car for you.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(66)
həqʷt =čaxʷ tiyʼta qʷasəm!
həqʷ-t-∅
smell-CTR-3.OBJ
=čaxʷ
=2SG.INDC.SBJ
tiyʼta
DEM
qʷasəm
flower
‘(You) smell that flower!’
SMELL a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(67)
həhqʷaʔam ɬə= čʼačʼnuʔ.
hə-hqʷ-aʔam
IMPF-smell-A.INTR
=∅
=3.INDC.SBJ
ɬə=
DET=
čʼačʼnuʔ
little.dog
‘The little dog is smelling around.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Active-intransitive
(68)
həqʷšinəm.
həqʷ-šin-əm
smell-foot-MDL
‘To smell one's own foot.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Lexical suffix with Middle
(69)
qʼʷaqʼʷθustas tə= saɬtxʷ ʔə= kʷ= x̣ʷax̣ʷaǰʼimʼ.
qʼʷaqʼʷθus-t-∅-as
tell.stories-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
saɬtxʷ
woman
ʔə=
OBL=
kʷ=
DET=
x̣ʷax̣ʷaǰʼimʼ
legend
‘He told the woman a legend.’
TELL a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1 (obl-3)
(70)
qʼʷaqʼʷθəmʼ =tᶿəm.
qʼʷaqʼʷθəmʼ
tell.stories:MDL
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
‘I will tell stories.’
TELL an Alternation:
Middle
(71)
nanat =čxʷ tə= čuyʼ!
nan-a-t-∅
name-LV-CTR-3.OBJ
=čxʷ
=2SG.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
čuyʼ
child
‘(You) name the baby!’
NAME a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(72)
həytasuɬ tə= ʔayaʔ.
həy-t-∅-as-uɬ
make-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG-PAST
tə=
DET=
ʔayaʔ
house
‘He built the house.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(73)
θapatas tə= čuyʼ.
θap-a-t-∅-as
bathe-LV-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
čuyʼ
child
‘She bathed the baby.’
WASH a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(74)
θapiš tə= tan.
θap-iš
bathe-MDL
=∅
=3.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
tan
mother
‘The mother bathed.’
WASH an Alternation:
Middle
(75)
θapišsxʷas.
θap-iš-sxʷ-∅-as
bathe-MDL-CAU-3.OBJ-3.ERG
‘She let him take a bath.’
WASH an Alternation:
Middle with Causative
(76)
tʼᶿətʼᶿkʷtas tə= θiwuθitən.
tʼᶿə-tʼᶿkʷ-t-∅-as
IMPF-wipe-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
θiwuθitən
table
‘He is wiping the table.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(77)
ǰaqʼ tə= ǰaǰʼa.
ǰaqʼ
fall
tə=
DET=
ǰaǰʼa
tree
‘The tree fell.’
FALL a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(78)
mamʼatas ɬə= paʔa ǰanxʷ.
ma-mʼa-t-∅-as
IMPF-obtain-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
ɬə=
DET=
paʔa
one
ǰanxʷ
fish
‘He is taking one fish.’
GET a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(79)
qʷiqʷaysxʷas tə= wiwʼlus niniǰi tə= saɬtxʷ.
qʷi-qʷay-sxʷ-∅-as
RDPL-talk-CAU-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
wiwʼlus
young.man
niniǰi
about
tə=
DET=
saɬtxʷ
woman
‘He talked to the young man about the girl.’
TALK a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1 niniǰi+3
(80)
qʷaysxʷas.
qʷay-sxʷ-∅-as
talk-CAU-3.OBJ-3.ERG
‘He will let him talk. / He will make him talk.’
TALK an Alternation:
Causative
(81)
qʷayʔəmθ =čxʷəm.
qʷay-ʔəm-θ
talk-IND-CTR:1SG.OBJ
=čxʷəm
=2SG.INDC.SBJ:FUT
‘You will speak for me.’
TALK an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(82)
qʷay =ga!
qʷay
talk
=ga
=IMP
‘Talk!’
TALK an Alternation:
Unsuffixed
(83)
qʼiyaθas.
qʼiya-θ-as
shout-CTR:1SG.OBJ-3.ERG
‘He hollered at me.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(84)
qʼiyaʔəmθ =čxʷ!
qʼiya-ʔəm-θ
holler-IND-CTR:1SG.OBJ
=čxʷ
=2SG.INDC.SBJ
‘(You) holler at them for me!’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(85)
ɬupʼut =ga tə= θ= 'banana'!
ɬupʼ-u-t-∅
peel-LV-CTR-3.OBJ
=ga
=IMP
tə=
DET=
θ=
2SG.POSS=
'banana'
banana
‘Peel your banana!’
PEEL a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(86)
ƛʼux̣ʷt.
ƛʼux̣ʷt
cry
=∅
=3.INDC.SBJ
‘She cries.’
CRY a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(87)
čʼičʼx̣at =č tə= tᶿ= ʔiɬtən.
čʼi-čʼx̣-a-t-∅
IMPF-cook-LV-CTR-3.OBJ
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
tᶿ=
1SG.POSS=
ʔiɬtən
food
‘I am cooking my food.’
COOK a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(88)
paɬuqʼʷum tə= qayʼa.
paɬuqʼʷ-um
boil-MDL
tə=
DET=
qayʼa
water
‘The water is boiling.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(89)
pəɬqʼʷat =tᶿəm tə= məǰaθ.
pəɬqʼʷ-a-t-∅
boil-LV-CTR-3.OBJ
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ:FUT
tə=
DET=
məǰaθ
meat
‘I will boil the meat.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Control transitive
(90)
šihigimut tə= qayʼawmixʷ.
ših-ig-imut
appear-PL-MDL
tə=
DET=
qayʼawmixʷ
people
‘The people (all) appeared.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(91)
čʼiyit =a =čxʷ ɬ= tʼitʼəstʼis?
čʼiy-i-t-∅
hear-LV-CTR-3.OBJ
=a
=QN
=čxʷ
=2SG.INDC.SBJ
ɬ=
DET=
tʼitʼəstʼis
bird
‘Do you hear the bird?’
HEAR a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(92)
ʔətᶿ= x̣aƛʼ kʷ= qayʼa.
ʔətᶿ=
1SG.POSS=
x̣aƛʼ
want
kʷ=
DET=
qayʼa
water
‘I want water.’
WANT a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(93)
x̣aƛʼnumi =č.
x̣aƛʼ-nu-mi
want-NTR-2SG.OBJ
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
‘I love you.’
WANT an Alternation:
Noncontrol transitive
(94)
hu =ga tʼaʔqʼaš tə= supayu!
hu
go
=ga
=IMP
tʼaʔqʼ-aš
bring-CTR
tə=
DET=
supayu
ax
‘Go bring the ax back!’
BRING a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(95)
tʼətʼqʼaʔamθi =č ʔə= tə= ʔapəls.
tʼə-tʼqʼ-aʔam-θi
IMPF-bring-IND-CTR:2SG.OBJ
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
ʔapəls
apple
‘I am bringing apples to (for) you.’
BRING an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(96)
Kʷanač ʔə= tə= θiyumixʷtən.
kʷanač
sit
=∅
=3.INDC.SBJ
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
θiyumixʷtən
floor
‘He is sitting on the floor.’
SIT DOWN an Alternation:
Unsuffixed
(97)
kʷanačəm tə= tutamiš.
kʷanač-əm
sit-MDL
=∅
=3.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
tutamiš
boy
‘The boy sat down.’
SIT DOWN an Alternation:
Middle
(98)
šaʔ tə= tutamʼiš ʔə= tə= ǰaǰʼa.
šaʔ
climb
tə=
DET=
tutamʼiš
boy
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
ǰaǰʼa
tree
‘The boy climbed the tree.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1 obl-2
(99)
tʼᶿikʼit tə= čəyčuyʼ.
tʼᶿikʼ<i>t
scream<STV>
tə=čəy-čuyʼ
DET=
‘The kids are screaming.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(100)
tʼᶿikʼtmiθas.
tʼᶿikʼt-mi-θ-as
scream-RLT-CTR:1SG.OBJ-3.ERG
‘He screamed at me.’
SCREAM an Alternation:
Relational applicative
(101)
pəlʼkʷ tə= ǰaǰʼa.
pəlʼkʷ
roll
tə=
DET=
ǰaǰʼa
tree
‘The log rolled down.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(102)
gayatas =kʷu ɬ= tans.
gay-a-t-∅-as
ask-LV-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
=kʷu
=CLT
ɬ=
DET=
tan-s
mother-3.POSS
‘He asked his mother.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(103)
x̣̣ʷuǰut =čxʷ tə= čuyʼ!
x̣ʷuǰ-u-t-∅
put.arm.around-LV-CTR-3.OBJ
=čxʷ
=2SG.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
čuyʼ
child
‘(You) hold the baby with your arms around him!’
HUG a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(104)
nunpigənmitasiw.
nu-np-igən-mi-t-∅-as-iw
RDPL-think-feeling-RLT-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG-PL
‘They thought about it.’
THINK a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(105)
čʼaʔčʼəm tə= tutamʼiš.
čʼaʔ-čʼəm
RDPL-cold
=∅
=3.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
tutamʼiš
boy
‘The boy is cold.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(106)
ʔah =səm kʷ= qʷayiganap.
ʔah
sore
=səm
=FUT
kʷ=
DET=
qʷayigan-ap
feeling-2PL.POSS
‘You all will be sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(107)
tʼᶿipʼnəxʷ =ga!
tʼᶿipʼnəxʷ
close.eyes
=ga
=IMP
‘Close your eyes!’
BLINK a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(108)
natas čičiyaʔs.
na-t-∅-as
say-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
čičiyaʔ-s
grandmother-3.POSS
‘He spoke to his grandmother.’
SAY a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(109)
čʼəttas tə= saplin.
čʼət-t-∅-as
cut-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
saplin
bread
‘He cut the bread.’
CUT a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(110)
qəytas tə= mušmuš.
qəy-t-∅-as
die-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
mušmuš
cow
‘He killed the cow.’
KILL a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(111)
ǰəƛʼ =čat =səm.
ǰəƛʼ
run
=čat
=1PL.INDC.SBJ
=səm
=FUT
‘We will run.’
RUN a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(112)
ʔawθmut qʼətxʷ tə= pipa.
ʔawθ-mut
suddenly-very
qʼətxʷ
burn
tə=
DET=
pipa
paper
‘All of a sudden, the paper burned.’
BURN a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(113)
ʔuʔuɬqʷu =č.
ʔu-ʔuɬqʷu
IMPF-dig.clams
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
‘I am digging clams.’
DIG a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(114)
ʔuɬqʷusxʷas təyʼta čuyʼ.
ʔuɬqʷu-sxʷ-∅-as
dig.clams-CAU-3.OBJ-3.ERG
təyʼta
DEM
čuyʼ
child
‘He makes this child dig clams.’
DIG an Alternation:
Causative
(115)
ʔuɬqʷuʔəmsxʷ =ga!
ʔuɬqʷu-ʔəm-sxʷ-∅
dig.clams-IND-CAU-3.OBJ
=ga
=IMP
‘Make him dig clams!’
DIG an Alternation:
Active-intransitive-causative
(116)
ʔuʔuɬqʷuʔəmθis.
ʔu-ʔuɬqʷu-ʔəm-θi-s
IMPF-dig.clams-IND-CTR:2SG.OBJ-3.ERG
‘He is digging clams for me.’
DIG an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(117)
tuyuwʔap tə= tᶿ= qəmʼqəm.
tuy<uw>ʔap
follow<PL>
tə=tᶿ=qəmʼqəm
DET=1SG.POSS=relative
‘My relatives followed (me).’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Unsuffixed
(118)
tuyʔəptas tə= saɬtxʷ.
tuyʔəp-t-∅-as
follow-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
saɬtxʷ
woman
‘He followed the girl.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(119)
kʷa= qəyʼ šə= tᶿ= manʼuɬ.
kʷa=
CLT=
qəyʼ
die
šə=
DET=
tᶿ=
1SG.POSS=
manʼ-uɬ
father-PAST
‘My father passed away.’
DIE an Alternation:
Unsuffixed
(120)
kʷukʷtəm John.
kʷu-kʷt-əm
IMPF-sick-MDL
John
pers.name
‘John is sick.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(121)
qaqsimʼsxʷ =tᶿəm.
qaqs-imʼ-sxʷ-∅
play-MDL-CAU-3.OBJ
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ:FUT
‘I will play with her.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Causative
(122)
qaqsimʼ.
qaqs-imʼ
play-MDL
=∅
=3.INDC.SBJ
‘She plays.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(123)
qəsəm.
qəs-əm
laugh-MDL
=∅
=3.INDC.SBJ
‘She laughs.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(124)
qəqəsmiθas.
qə-qəs-mi-θ-as
IMPF-laugh-RLT-CTR:1SG.OBJ-3.ERG
‘They are laughing at me.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Relational applicative
(125)
θiqʔəm =tᶿəm ʔə= tə= qawθ.
θiq-ʔəm
dig-A.INTR
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ:FUT
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
qawθ
potato
‘I am going to dig some potatoes.’
DIG an Alternation:
Active-intransitive
(126)
θiqit =čxʷ.
θiq-i-t-∅
dig-LV-CTR-3.OBJ
=čxʷ
=2SG.INDC.SBJ
‘You dig it.’
DIG a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(127)
məkʷtas tə= saplin.
məkʷ-t-∅-as
eat-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
saplin
bread
‘He ate bread.’
EAT a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(128)
nəgi =səm ʔə= məkʷʔəmstumin.
nəgi
2SG.INDP
=səm
=FUT
ʔə=
CLF=
məkʷ-ʔəm-stu-mi-n
eat-A.INTR-CAU-2SG.OBJ-1SG.ERG
‘I will let you eat it.’
EAT an Alternation:
Active-intransitive-causative
(129)
məkʷʔəmθas ʔə= tə= tᶿ= ʔiɬtən.
məkʷ-ʔəm-θ-as
eat-IND-CTR:1SG.OBJ-3.ERG
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
tᶿ=
1SG.POSS=
ʔiɬtən
food
‘He ate my food.’
EAT an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(130)
ʔiɬtən =tᶿəm ʔə= tə= ǰanxʷ.
ʔiɬtən
eat
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ:FUT
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
ǰanxʷ
fish
‘I will eat the fish.’
EAT a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1 obl-2
(131)
ʔəystənamut.
ʔəy-stə-namut
good-CAU-RFL
‘He likes himself.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Causative with Reflexive
(132)
hustaʔam =čxʷ ʔə= kʷə= θ= nəgin!
hu-st-aʔam
go-CAU-A.INTR
=čxʷ
=2SG.INDC.SBJ
ʔə=
OBL=
kʷə=
DET=
θ=
2SG.POSS=
nəgin
lunch
‘Take some for your lunch!’
GO an Alternation:
Causative with Active-intransitive
(133)
x̣əypəxʷ =čxʷəm tə= čuyʼ.
x̣əyp-əxʷ-∅
startle-NTR-3.OBJ
=čxʷəm
=2SG.INDC.SBJ:FUT
tə=
DET=
čuyʼ
child
‘You are going to scare the baby.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Noncontrol transitive
(134)
x̣əypmiθi =č.
x̣əyp-mi-θi
startle-RLT-CTR:2SG.OBJ
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
‘You startled me.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Relational applicative
(135)
x̣̣ayʼpəm kitlin.
x̣ayʼp-əm
startle-MDL
kitlin
Catherine
‘Catherine gets scared easily.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Middle
(136)
x̣̣ʷay tə= məmmimaw.
x̣ʷay
die(PL)
tə=
DET=
məm-mimaw
PL-cat
‘All the cats died.’
DIE a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(137)
x̣̣ʷaǰat =čxʷ tə= qəwqigaθ.
x̣ʷaǰ-a-t-∅
die(PL)-LV-CTR-3.OBJ
=čxʷ
=2SG.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
qəw-qigaθ
PL-deer
‘You killed all the deer.’
DIE an Alternation:
Control transitive
(138)
məkʷəxʷas tə= čəyčuyʼ.
məkʷ-əxʷ-∅-as
eat-NTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
čəy-čuyʼ
PL-child
‘She [Basket Ogress] has eaten the children.’
EAT an Alternation:
Noncontrol transitive
(139)
məkʷθim =səm ʔə= tə= miXəɬ.
məkʷ-θi-m
eat-CTR:2SG.OBJ-PASS
=səm
=FUT
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
miXəɬ
bear
‘The bear will eat you. / You will be eaten by the bear.’
EAT an Alternation:
Passive
(140)
čəwʼuɬʔəmsxʷas.
čəwʼuɬ-ʔəm-sxʷ-∅-as
steal-A.INTR-CAU-3.OBJ-3.ERG
‘He made him steal it.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Active-intransitive-causative
(141)
kʷi= čʼagəxʷan.
kʷi=
CLT=
čʼag-əxʷ-∅-an
help-NTR-3.OBJ-1SG.ERG
‘I finished helping him.’
HELP an Alternation:
Noncontrol transitive
(142)
čʼagaθiyəm =kʼʷa =səm ʔə= tom.
čʼag-a-θiy-əm
help-LV-1SG.OBJ-PASS
=kʼʷa
=QUOT
=səm
=FUT
ʔə=
OBL=
tom
PSN
‘Tom will help me. / I will be helped by Tom.’
HELP an Alternation:
Passive
(143)
čʼəɬstum ʔə= ɬə= tʼitʼistʼis.
čʼəɬ-stu-∅-m
rain-CAU-3.OBJ-PASS
ʔə=
OBL=
ɬə=
DET=
tʼitʼistʼis
birds
‘The bird made it rain, the bird called for rain.’
RAIN an Alternation:
Causative with Passive
(144)
čʼəɬtuwəm.
čʼəɬ-t-uw-əm
rain-CTR-1PL.OBJ-PASS
‘It is raining on us.’
RAIN an Alternation:
Passive
(145)
čʼətʔəmtas tə= tutamʼiš ʔə= tə= saplin.
čʼət-ʔəm-t-∅-as
cut-IND-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
tutamʼiš
boy
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
saplin
bread
‘He cut the bread for the boy.’
CUT an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(146)
čʼətʔəmsxʷuɬ =č.
čʼət-ʔəm-sxʷ-∅-uɬ
cut-A.INTR-CAU-3.OBJ-PAST
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
‘I let him cut (it).’
CUT an Alternation:
Active-intransitive-causative
(147)
čʼət tə= tᶿ= ʔiyčsən.
čʼət
cut
=∅
=3.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
tᶿ=
1SG.POSS=
ʔiyčsən
forehead
‘My forehead got cut.’
CUT an Alternation:
Unsuffixed
(148)
čʼətəxʷan tə= ǰanxʷ.
čʼət-əxʷ-∅-an
cut-NTR-3.OBJ-1.ERG
tə=
DET=
ǰanxʷ
fish
‘I have already cut the fish.’
CUT an Alternation:
Noncontrol transitive
(149)
čʼətʔəm =ga ʔə= kʷ= qʼʷayʼx̣!
čʼət-ʔəm
cut-A.INTR
=ga
=IMP
ʔə=
OBL=
kʷ=
DET=
qʼʷayʼx̣
firewood
‘Cut some wood!’
CUT an Alternation:
Active-intransitive
(150)
qəhit =səm tə= ǰaǰʼa ʔiy čaʔat čʼəttəm.
qəh-it
lift-STV
=səm
=FUT
tə=
DET=
ǰaǰʼa
tree
ʔiy
and
čaʔat
now
čʼət-t-∅-əm
cut-CTR-3.OBJ-PASS
‘The log will be lifted before they cut it.’
CUT an Alternation:
Passive
(151)
čʼəXʔəm =tᶿəm ʔə= kʷ= saplin.
čʼəX-ʔəm
cook-A.INTR
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ:FUT
ʔə=
OBL=
kʷ=
DET=
saplin
bread
‘I will bake bread.’
COOK an Alternation:
Active-intransitive
(152)
čʼəXʔəθasuɬ ʔə= tə= saplin.
čʼəX-ʔəm-θ-as-uɬ
cook-IND-CTR:1SG.OBJ-3.ERG-PAST
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
saplin
bread
‘She cooked some bread for me.’
COOK an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(153)
čʼəX tə= saplin.
čʼəX
cook
tə=
DET=
saplin
bread
‘The bread is cooked.’
COOK an Alternation:
Unsuffixed
(154)
čʼaXəxʷan.
čʼaX-əxʷ-∅-an
cook-NTR-3.OBJ-1.ERG
‘I have cooked it.’
COOK an Alternation:
Noncontrol transitive
(155)
čʼəXʔəmstumšasuɬ.
čʼəX-ʔəm-stu-mš-as-uɬ
cook-A.INTR-CAU-1SG.OBJ-3.ERG-PAST
‘She made me cook.’
COOK an Alternation:
Active-intransitive-causative
(156)
čʼəXsxʷmut.
čʼəX-sxʷ-mut
cook-CAU-very
‘Let it cook well.’
COOK an Alternation:
Causative
(157)
hahays čʼəXtəm (ʔə=) Mary tə= məǰaθ.
hahays
slowly
čʼəX-t-∅-əm
cook-CTR-3.OBJ-PASS
ʔə=
OBL=
Mary
PSN
tə=
DET=
məǰaθ
meat
‘Mary cooked the meat slowly. / The meat was cooked slowly by Mary.’
COOK an Alternation:
Passive
(158)
čʼiyəxʷuɬ =č.
čʼiy-əxʷ-∅-uɬ
hear-NTR-3.OBJ-PAST
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
‘I heard it.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Noncontrol transitive
(159)
gayəxʷas =kʷu ɬə= tans.
gay-əxʷ-∅-as
ask-NTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
=kʷu
=CLT
ɬə=
DET=
tan-s
mother-3.POSS
‘She has already asked her mother.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Noncontrol transitive
(160)
gagʼayaθayamʼuɬ =ga hahan =səm.
ga-gʼay-a-θay-amʼ-uɬ
IMPF-ask-LV-CTR:1SG.OBJ-PASS-PAST
=ga
=CLT
ha-h-an
go-EPEN-1SG.CNJ.SBJ
=səm
=FUT
‘They were asking me if I would go.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Passive
(161)
həqʷʔəmsxʷas tə= čʼanʼu.
həqʷ-ʔəm-sxʷ-∅-as
smell-A.INTR-CAU-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
čʼanʼu
dog
‘They let the dog smell (it).’
SMELL an Alternation:
Active-intransitive-causative
(162)
həqʷəxʷan =kʷu.
həqʷ-əxʷ-∅-an
smell-NTR-3.OBJ-1SG.ERG
=kʷu
=CLT
‘I smell it now.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Noncontrol transitive
(163)
həyʔəm =č ʔə= kʷ= kʼʷaxʷa.
həy-ʔəm
make-A.INTR
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
ʔə=
OBL=
kʷ=
DET=
kʼʷaxʷa
box
‘I will build a box.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Active-intransitive
(164)
həyʔəmsxʷan tə= tumiš.
həy-ʔəm-sxʷ-∅-an
make-A.INTR-CAU-3.OBJ-1.ERG
tə=
DET=
tumiš
man
‘I made the man make (it).’
BUILD an Alternation:
Active-intransitive-causative
(165)
həyʔəmθi =tᶿəm ʔə= kʷə= θ= ʔayaʔ.
həy-ʔəm-θi
make-IND-2SG.OBJ.
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ:FUT
ʔə=
OBL=
kʷə=
DET=
θ=
2SG.POSS=
ʔayaʔ
house
‘I will build your house for you.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(166)
haǰʼəxʷan.
haǰʼ-əxʷ-∅-an
make-NTR-3.OBJ-1SG.ERG
‘I finally made it.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Noncontrol transitive
(167)
hustanapi =tᶿəm ʔə= kʷ= tiyskʷat.
hu-st-anapi
go-CAU-1PL.OBJ
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ:FUT
ʔə=
OBL=
kʷ=
DET=
tiyskʷat
place.name
‘I will take you guys to Powell River.’
GO an Alternation:
Causative
(168)
θumitas tə= tʼᶿəstaya.
θu-mi-t-∅-as
go-RLT-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
tʼᶿəstaya
knothole
‘He went towards the knot(hole) in the wall.’
GO an Alternation:
Relational applicative
(169)
θumitəm =kʼʷa (ʔə=) qayX tə= tʼᶿəstaya.
θu-mi-t-∅-əm
go-RLT-CTR-3.OBJ-PASS
=kʼʷa
=QUOT
ʔə=
OBL=
qayX
Mink
tə=
DET=
tʼᶿəstaya
knothole
‘Mink went towards the knot in the wall.’
GO an Alternation:
Relational applicative with Passive
(170)
huhuɬ =č ʔə= kʷ= tiyskʷat sǰasuɬ.
hu-h-uɬ
go-EPEN-PAST
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
ʔə=
OBL=
kʷ=
DET=
tiyskʷat
place.name
sǰasuɬ
yesterday
‘I went to Powell River yesterday.’
GO a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(171)
ǰaqʼʔəm.
ǰaqʼ-ʔəm
fall-A.INTR
‘fell trees’
FALL an Alternation:
Active-intransitive
(172)
ǰaǰaqʼagatas tə= ǰaǰiyʔəm.
ǰa-ǰaqʼ-ag-a-t-∅-as
IMPF-fall-PL-LV-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
ǰaǰiyʔəm
trees
‘He is felling the trees.’
FALL an Alternation:
Control transitive
(173)
ǰəƛʼstumi =tᶿəm.
ǰəƛʼ-stu-mi
run-CAU-2SG.OBJ
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ+FUT
‘I will run away with you.’
RUN an Alternation:
Causative
(174)
ǰəƛʼmit =ga tə= θ= man!
ǰəƛʼ-mi-t-∅
run-RLT-CTR-3.OBJ
=ga
=IMP
tə=
DET=
θ=
2SG.POSS=
man
father
‘You run to your father!’
RUN an Alternation:
Relational applicative
(175)
ǰəƛʼʔəmθ =ga!
ǰəƛʼ-ʔəm-θ
run-IND-CTR+1SG.OBJ
=ga!
=IMP
‘Run for me!’
RUN an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(176)
ǰaqʼəxʷas.
ǰaqʼ-əxʷ-∅-as
fall-NTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
‘He made it fall.’
FALL an Alternation:
Noncontrol transitive
(177)
ǰəƛʼnumi =č.
ǰəƛʼ-nu-mi
run-NTR-2SG.OBJ
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
‘I made you run.’
RUN an Alternation:
Noncontrol transitive
(178)
ǰuθuθayəm ʔə= John.
ǰuθ-u-θay-əm
push-LV-CTR:1SG.OBJ-PASS
ʔə=
OBL=
John
pers.name
‘John pushed me. / I was pushed by John.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Passive
(179)
kʷayʔəm =č ʔə= kʷ= tala.
kʷay-ʔəm
hide-A.INTR
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
ʔə=
OBL=
kʷ=
DET=
tala
money
‘I hid some money.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Active-intransitive
(180)
kʷayʔəmsxʷas.
kʷay-ʔəm-sxʷ-∅-as
hide-A.INTR-CAU-3.OBJ-3.ERG
‘He made him hide (sth.).’
HIDE an Alternation:
Active-intransitive-causative
(181)
kʷayʔəmθ =čxʷ ʔə= tə= tᶿ= tala!
kʷay-ʔəm-θ
hide-A.INTR-CTR:1SG.OBJ
=čxʷ
=2SG.INDC.SBJ
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
tᶿ=
1SG.POSS=
tala!
money
‘Hide my money for me!’
HIDE an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(182)
kʷinatəm ʔə= John.
kʷinat-t-∅-əm
carry-CTR-3.OBJ-PASS
ʔə=
OBL=
John
pers.name
‘John is carrying it.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Passive
(183)
nunpiganʼəm =ga ʔə= kʷ= payʼatat =səm.
nu-np-iganʼ-əm
RDPL-think-body-MDL
=ga
=IMP
ʔə=
OBL=
kʷ=
DET=
payʼa-t-at
always/next-CTR-1PL.ERG
=səm
=FUT
‘Think about the next one we are going to do.’
THINK an Alternation:
Lexical suffix with Middle
(184)
pəx̣ tə= tᶿ= pʼaʔačʼ.
pəx̣
rip
tə=
DET=
tᶿ=
1SG.POSS=
pʼaʔačʼ
net
‘My net ripped.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Unsuffixed
(185)
qəptamʼuɬ ʔə= John tə= ǰanxʷ sǰasuɬ.
qəp-t-amʼ-uɬ
touch-CTR-PASS-PAST
ʔə=
OBL=
John
PSN
tə=
DET=
ǰanxʷ
fish
sǰasuɬ
yesterday
‘John touched the fish yesterday.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Passive
(186)
səpʼʔəmθ =ga!
səpʼ-ʔəm-θ
club-IND-CTR+1SG.OBJ
=ga!
=IMP
‘Hit it for me!’
HIT an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(187)
səpʼ =čan.
səpʼ
club
=čan
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
‘I got hit.’
HIT an Alternation:
Unsuffixed
(188)
šamʼəxʷan.
šamʼ-əxʷ-∅-an
dry-NTR-3.OBJ-1SG.ERG
‘I got it dry.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Noncontrol transitive
(189)
tuqʼʷt tə= tumiš.
tuqʼʷt
cough
tə=
DET=
tumiš
man
‘The man coughed.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(190)
tuqʼʷtsxʷas.
tuqʼʷt-sxʷ-∅-as
cough-CAU-3.OBJ-3.ERG
‘She made him cough.’
COUGH an Alternation:
Causative
(191)
θayʼaš =tᶿəm tə= nəxʷiɬ.
θayʼ-aš-∅
sink-CTR-3.OBJ
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ+FUT
tə=
DET=
nəxʷiɬ
canoe
‘I will sink the boat (canoe).’
SINK an Alternation:
Control transitive
(192)
sax̣ʷʔəm.
sax̣ʷ-ʔəm
shave-A.INTR
‘shave/scrape something’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Active-intransitive
(193)
θapʔəmt =tᶿəm ʔə= š= čuyʼs Norma.
θap-ʔəm-t-∅
bathe-IND-CTR-3.OBJ
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ+FUT
ʔə=
OBL=
š=
DET=
čuyʼ-s
child-3.POSS
Norma
PSN
‘I will bathe Norma's baby/child.’
WASH an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(194)
θaθapatəm =kʼʷa ʔə= Mary tə= čuyʼ.
θa-θap-a-t-∅-əm
IMPF-bathe-LV-CTR-3.OBJ-PASS
=kʼʷa
=QUOT
ʔə=
OBL=
Mary
PSN
tə=
DET=
čuyʼ
child
‘Mary is bathing a baby. / lit. 'A baby/child is being bathed by Mary.'’
WASH an Alternation:
Passive
(195)
yəpʼʔəm =ga ʔə= tə= təwʼ!
yəpʼ-ʔəm
break-A.INTR
=ga
=IMP
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
təwʼ
ice
‘Break (off) the ice!’
BREAK an Alternation:
Active-intransitive
(196)
yəpʼʔəmsxʷas ʔə= tə= lamaya.
yəpʼ-ʔəm-sxʷ-∅-as
break-A.INTR-CAU-3.OBJ-3.ERG
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
lamaya
bottle
‘He made him break the bottles.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Active-intransitive-causative
(197)
yəpʼʔəmθ =ga!
yəpʼ-ʔəm-θ
break-IND-CTR+1SG.OBJ
=ga!
=IMP
‘Break it for me!’
BREAK an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(198)
yəpʼ tə= ƛas.
yəpʼ
break
=∅
=3.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
ƛas
glass
‘The glass broke.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Unsuffixed
(199)
ʔəyʼ =səm =t.
ʔəyʼ
good
=∅
=3.INDC.SBJ
=səm
=FUT
=t
=CLT
‘He will be okay. / lit. 'He will be good.'’
LIKE an Alternation:
Unsuffixed
(200)
tʼayšaʔamsxʷan Cynthia ʔə= tə= čuyʼ.
tʼayš-aʔam-sxʷ-∅-an
blanket-A.INTR-CAU-3.OBJ-1SG.ERG
Cynthia
PSN
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
čuyʼ
child
‘I made Cynthia cover the baby (child) with a blanket.’
COVER an Alternation:
Active-intransitive-causative
(201)
tʼayš.
tʼayš
blanket
‘blanket’
COVER an Alternation:
Unsuffixed
(202)
tʼᶿikʼt tə= saɬtxʷ.
tʼᶿikʼt
scream
=∅
=3.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
saɬtxʷ
woman
‘The woman screamed.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
V.sbj[1] 1
(203)
tuyʔəpʔəmstumšas ʔə= tə= qigaθ.
tuyʔəp-ʔəm-stu-mš-as
follow-A.INTR-CAU-1SG.OBJ-3.ERG
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
qigaθ
deer
‘He made me follow the deer.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Active-intransitive-causative
(204)
tʼᶿəkʷʔəm =ga ʔə= tə= kʼʷaʔkʼʷaʔsta!
tʼᶿəkʷ-ʔəm
wipe-A.INTR
=ga
=IMP
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
kʼʷaʔ-kʼʷaʔsta
PL-cup
‘Wipe some of the cups!’
WIPE an Alternation:
Active-intransitive
(205)
tʼᶿəkʷʔəmstumšas ʔə= tə= θiwuθitən.
tʼᶿəkʷ-ʔəm-stu-mš-as
wipe-A.INTR-CAU-1SG.OBJ-3.ERG
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
θiwuθitən
table
‘He made me wipe the table.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Active-intransitive-causative
(206)
tʼᶿəkʼʷʔəmθ =čxʷ ʔə= tə= θiwuθitən.
tʼᶿəkʼʷ-ʔəm-θ
wipe-IND-CTR+1SG.OBJ
=čxʷ
=2SG.INDC.SBJ
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
θiwuθitən
table
‘You wipe the table for me.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(207)
tʼᶿətʼᶿkʷšənəm =č ʔə= tə= tʼᶿəkʷšətən.
tʼᶿə-tʼᶿkʷ-šən-əm
IMPF-wipe-foot-MDL
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
tʼᶿəkʷšətən
mat
‘I am wiping my foot on the mat.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Lexical suffix with Middle
(208)
kʷən =a tʼᶿəkʷ tə= θiwuθitən?
kʷən
INTRR
=a
=QN
tʼᶿəkʷ
wipe
tə=
DET=
θiwuθitən?
table
‘Did the table get wiped?’
WIPE an Alternation:
Unsuffixed
(209)
x̣ənatʔəm.
x̣ənat-ʔəm
give-A.INTR
‘He gave it away.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Active-intransitive
(210)
x̣ənatʔəmsxʷas.
x̣ənat-ʔəm-sxʷ-∅-as
give-A.INTR-CAU-3.OBJ-3.ERG
‘He had him give (e.g. donations).’
GIVE an Alternation:
Active-intransitive-causative
(211)
x̣ənatəxʷan.
x̣ənat-əxʷ-∅-an
give-NTR-3.OBJ-1.ERG
‘I already gave (it/sth.) to him.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Noncontrol transitive
(212)
yəčʼʔəm =ga ʔə= tə= θ= yax̣ay!
yəčʼ-ʔəm
fill-A.INTR
=ga
=IMP
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
θ=
2SG.POSS=
yax̣ay!
basket
‘Fill up your basket!’
FILL an Alternation:
Active-intransitive
(213)
x̣əypaʔam.
x̣əyp-aʔam
startle-A.INTR
‘to startle s.o.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Active-intransitive
(214)
x̣əypaθas.
x̣əyp-a-θ-as
startle-LV-CTR+1SG.OBJ-3.ERG
‘She startled me.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1
(215)
tʼᶿiyʔəmstumuɬas ʔə= šə= talahawustəns.
tʼᶿiy-ʔəm-st-umuɬ-as
search-A.INTR-CAU-1PL.OBJ-3.ERG
ʔə=
OBL=
šə=
DET=
talahawustən-s
glasses-3.POSS
‘He made us search for his glasses.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Active-intransitive-causative
(216)
hu =kʷa təx̣ʷtas kʼʷinas =səm ƛʼaʔayin.
hu
go
=kʷa
=CLT
təx̣ʷ-t-∅-as
find.out-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
kʼʷin-as
how.many-3.CNJ.SBJ
=səm
=FUT
ƛʼaʔayin
start
‘He went to find out what time it's going to start.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Control transitive
(217)
tʼaʔqʼəxʷan =kʷu šə= tᶿ= supayu.
tʼaʔqʼ-əxʷ-∅-an
bring-NTR-3.OBJ-1SG.ERG
=kʷu
=CLT
šə=
DET=
tᶿ=
1SG.POSS=
supayu
ax
‘I brought my ax back.’
BRING an Alternation:
Noncontrol transitive
(218)
tʼᶿipʼənxʷsxʷas ɬə= saʔɬtxʷ.
tʼᶿipʼənxʷ-sxʷ-∅-as
close.eyes-CAU-3.OBJ-3.ERG
ɬə=
DET=
saʔɬtxʷ
little.girl
‘He closed the little girl's eyes.’
BLINK an Alternation:
Causative
(219)
šihʔəmtəm ʔə= kʷ= ʔaǰumiš kapu.
ših-ʔəm-t-∅-əm
appear-IND-CTR-3.OBJ-PASS
ʔə=
OBL=
kʷ=
DET=
ʔaǰumiš
pretty
kapu
coat
‘They brought out a pretty coat for him/her.’
APPEAR an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(220)
šihitas tə= ʔəyʼ ʔiɬtəns.
ših-i-t-∅-as
appear-LV-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
ʔəyʼ
good
ʔiɬtən-s
food-3.POSS
‘He brought out the (his) good food.’
APPEAR an Alternation:
Control transitive
(221)
saysay =č ʔə= tə= tʼəl.
say-say
RDPL-scare
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
tʼəl
basket.ogress
‘I am scared of the basket ogress.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Unsuffixed
(222)
šamitas tə= ʔapls.
ša-mi-t-∅-as
go.upward-RLT-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
ʔapls
apple
‘He is climbing for (toward) the apples.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Relational applicative
(223)
šasxʷas tə= supayu.
ša-sxʷ-∅-as
go.upward-CAU-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
supayu
ax
‘He took the ax up (e.g. as he climbed the tree).’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Causative
(224)
Kʷanačsxʷas tə= ƛʼax̣ay.
kʷanač-sxʷ-∅-as
sit-CAU-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
ƛʼax̣ay
elderly.person
‘She had/has the elder sitting down.’
SIT DOWN an Alternation:
Causative
(225)
Kʷanačtas tə= čičiyaʔs.
kʷanač-t-∅-as
sit-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
čičiyaʔ-s
grandmother-3.POSS
‘He sat his grandmother down.’
SIT DOWN an Alternation:
Control transitive
(226)
kʷanačmiθ =čxʷ.
kʷanač-mi-θ
sit-RLT-CTR:1SG.OBJ
=čxʷ
=2SG.INDC.SBJ
‘You are sitting on me.’
SIT DOWN an Alternation:
Relational applicative
(227)
ʔaham =č.
ʔah-am
sore-MDL
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
‘I got hurt.’
FEEL PAIN an Alternation:
Middle
(228)
qəyʼsxʷ =gut!
qəyʼ-sxʷ-∅
die-CAU-3.OBJ
=gut!
=IMP
‘Let it die!’
DIE an Alternation:
Causative
(229)
qəyʼt =čan =səm tə= mix̣aɬ.
qəyʼ-t-∅
die-CTR-3.OBJ
=čan
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
=səm
=FUT
tə=
DET=
mix̣aɬ
bear
‘I am going to kill the bear.’
DIE an Alternation:
Control transitive
(230)
qəytəm tə= čʼačʼnuʔ.
qəy-t-∅-əm
die-CTR-3.OBJ-PASS
tə=
DET=
čʼačʼnuʔ
little.dog
‘The little dog got killed.’
DIE an Alternation:
Passive
(231)
qəyʼʔəmθi =tᶿəm.
qəyʼ-ʔəm-θi
die-IND-CTR+2SG.OBJ
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ+FUT
‘I will kill it for you.’
DIE an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(232)
qəyʔəmsxʷas.
qəy-ʔəm-sxʷ-∅-as
die-A.INTR-CAU-3.OBJ-3.ERG
‘He made him kill it.’
DIE an Alternation:
Active-intransitive-causative
(233)
səytʼaʔamθ =ga ʔə= ɬə= tᶿ= kapu!
səytʼ-aʔam-θ
throw-IND-CTR+1SG.OBJ
=ga
=IMP
ʔə=
OBL=
ɬə=
DET=
tᶿ=
1SG.POSS=
kapu!
coat
‘Throw my coat to/for me!’
THROW an Alternation:
Indirective applicative
(234)
səytʼaʔamstumšas ʔə= tə= qʼʷayʼx̣.
səytʼ-aʔam-stu-mš-as
throw-A.INTR-CAU-1SG.OBJ-3.ERG
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
qʼʷayʼx̣
wood
‘He made me throw the wood (into fire).’
THROW an Alternation:
Active-intransitive-causative
(235)
qʷaymiθi =tᶿəm.
qʷay-mi-θi
talk-RLT-CTR+2SG.OBJ
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ+FUT
‘I will scold you.’
TALK an Alternation:
Relational applicative
(236)
qʼaqʼamstumiyəm ʔə= tə= paʔaǰa.
qʼa-qʼa-m-stu-may-əm
RDPL-hungry-MDL-CAU-1SG.OBJ-PASS
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
paʔaǰa
salmonberry.shoot
‘Salmonberry shoots made me hungry. / Salmonberry shoots whetted my appetite.’
BE HUNGRY an Alternation:
Middle with Causative
(237)
qʼaqʼʔat =č.
qʼa-qʼʔ-a-t-∅
RDPL-hungry-LV-CTR-3.OBJ
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
‘I let it get hungry.’
BE HUNGRY an Alternation:
Control transitive
(238)
čʼamʼatas.
čʼamʼ-a-t-∅-as
cold-LV-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
‘He made it cold.’
FEEL COLD an Alternation:
Control transitive
(239)
ʔahsxʷas tə= ǰišəns.
ʔah-sxʷ-∅-as
sore-CAU-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
ǰišən-s
foot-3.POSS
‘His foot is hurting (him).’
FEEL PAIN an Alternation:
Causative
(240)
kʼʷənʔəmstumšas ʔə= tə= ǰanxʷ.
kʼʷən-ʔəm-stu-mš-as
see-A.INTR-CAU-1SG.OBJ-3.ERG
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
ǰanxʷ
fish
‘He showed me the fish.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Active-intransitive-causative
(241)
kʼʷənit =št tə= ʔasxʷ.
kʼʷən-i-t-∅
see-STV-CTR-3.OBJ
=št
=1PL.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
ʔasxʷ
seal
‘We see the seal.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Control transitive
(242)
kʼʷənəxʷas tə= tutamʼiš.
kʼʷən-əxʷ-∅-as
see-NTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
tutamʼiš
boy
‘He saw the boy.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Noncontrol transitive
(243)
tawtas.
taw-t-∅-as
tell-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
‘He told her.’
TELL a Coding frame:
V.obj[1].sbj[2] 1 (obl-3)