Active-intransitive-causative C

Description

To express a construction like "X causes Y to Vt P" (Vt=transitive verb ), the transitive verb has to be detransitivized, in this case with the active-intransitive marker. The participants now indexed are the causer and the causee. The third participant, i.e., the logical patient, can only be expressed in an oblique NP.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
POUR kʼʷəɬ-aš R
(40)
kʼʷəɬ-aš-∅
spill-CTR-3.OBJ
=ga
=IMP
tə=
DET=
qayʼa
water
‘Spill the water out!’
PUT kʷa(ʔ)-t N
(45)
kʷa-t-∅-as
put.down-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
ƛas
glass
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
θiwuθitən
table
‘He put the glass on the table.’
NAME nan-a-t R
(71)
nan-a-t-∅
name-LV-CTR-3.OBJ
=čxʷ
=2SG.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
čuyʼ
child
‘(You) name the baby!’
BUILD həy-t R
(72)
həy-t-∅-as-uɬ
make-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG-PAST
tə=
DET=
ʔayaʔ
house
‘He built the house.’
WASH θap-a-t R
(73)
θap-a-t-∅-as
bathe-LV-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
čuyʼ
child
‘She bathed the baby.’
WIPE tʼᶿəkʷ-t R
(76)
tʼᶿə-tʼᶿkʷ-t-∅-as
IMPF-wipe-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
θiwuθitən
table
‘He is wiping the table.’
FALL ǰaqʼ R
(77)
ǰaqʼ
fall
tə=
DET=
ǰaǰʼa
tree
‘The tree fell.’
GET ma(ʔ)-t R
(78)
ma-mʼa-t-∅-as
IMPF-obtain-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
ɬə=
DET=
paʔa
one
ǰanxʷ
fish
‘He is taking one fish.’
COOK čʼəx̣-a-t R
(87)
čʼi-čʼx̣-a-t-∅
IMPF-cook-LV-CTR-3.OBJ
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
tᶿ=
1SG.POSS=
ʔiɬtən
food
‘I am cooking my food.’
APPEAR ših-imut R
(90)
ših-ig-imut
appear-PL-MDL
tə=
DET=
qayʼawmixʷ
people
‘The people (all) appeared.’
CUT čʼət-t R
(109)
čʼət-t-∅-as
cut-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
saplin
bread
‘He cut the bread.’
KILL qəyʼ-t R
(110)
qəy-t-∅-as
die-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
mušmuš
cow
‘He killed the cow.’
(229)
qəyʼ-t-∅
die-CTR-3.OBJ
=čan
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
=səm
=FUT
tə=
DET=
mix̣aɬ
bear
‘I am going to kill the bear.’
DIG ʔuɬqʷu M
(113)
ʔu-ʔuɬqʷu
IMPF-dig.clams
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
‘I am digging clams.’
FOLLOW tuyʔap-t R
(118)
tuyʔəp-t-∅-as
follow-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
saɬtxʷ
woman
‘He followed the girl.’
EAT məkʷ-t M
(127)
məkʷ-t-∅-as
eat-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
saplin
bread
‘He ate bread.’
LOOK AT kʼʷən-t R
(3)
kʼʷən-t-∅-as
see-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
tutamʼiš
boy
‘He looked at the boy.’
KNOW təx̣ʷ-nixʷ
(24)
təx̣ʷ-n<i>xʷ-∅-as
find.out-NTR<STV>-OBJ-3.ERG
tə=tutamʼiš
DET=
‘He knew the boy.’
SEARCH FOR tʼᶿiy-i-t R
(12)
tʼᶿiy-i-t-∅-as
search-LV-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
tutamiš
boy
‘He looked for the boy.’
STEAL čəwʼu-ni-t R
(60)
čəwʼu-ni-θ-as
steal-IND-CTR:1SG.OBJ-3.ERG
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
tᶿ=
1SG.POSS=
tala
money
‘He stole money from me.’
HELP čʼag-a-t
(4)
čʼag-a-t-∅-as
help-LV-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
saɬtxʷ
woman
‘He helped the woman.’
FEEL COLD čʼaʔ-čʼəm
(105)
čʼaʔ-čʼəm
RDPL-cold
=∅
=3.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
tutamʼiš
boy
‘The boy is cold.’
RAIN čʼəɬ
(1)
čʼəɬ
rain
‘It rains. / It rained.’
HEAR čʼiy-i-t
(91)
čʼiy-i-t-∅
hear-LV-CTR-3.OBJ
=a
=QN
=čxʷ
=2SG.INDC.SBJ
ɬ=
DET=
tʼitʼəstʼis
bird
‘Do you hear the bird?’
ASK FOR gay-a-t
(102)
gay-a-t-∅-as
ask-LV-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
=kʷu
=CLT
ɬ=
DET=
tan-s
mother-3.POSS
‘He asked his mother.’
SMELL həqʷ-t R
(66)
həqʷ-t-∅
smell-CTR-3.OBJ
=čaxʷ
=2SG.INDC.SBJ
tiyʼta
DEM
qʷasəm
flower
‘(You) smell that flower!’
GO hu
(8)
hu
go
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ:FUT
‘I will go.’
(170)
hu-h-uɬ
go-EPEN-PAST
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
ʔə=
OBL=
kʷ=
DET=
tiyskʷat
place.name
sǰasuɬ
yesterday
‘I went to Powell River yesterday.’
RUN ǰəƛʼ
(111)
ǰəƛʼ
run
=čat
=1PL.INDC.SBJ
=səm
=FUT
‘We will run.’
PUSH ǰuθ-u-t
(63)
ǰu-ǰuθ-u-t-∅
IMPF-push-LV-CTR-3.OBJ
=št
=1PL.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
ʔatnupil
car
‘We are pushing the car.’
SIT DOWN kʷanač-əm
(97)
kʷanač-əm
sit-MDL
=∅
=3.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
tutamiš
boy
‘The boy sat down.’
HIDE kʷay-iš R
(15)
kʷay-iš-∅
hide-CTR-3.OBJ
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ:FUT
tə=
DET=
pəču
basket
‘I will hide the basket.’
BE ILL kʷə-kʷt-əm
(120)
kʷu-kʷt-əm
IMPF-sick-MDL
John
pers.name
‘John is sick.’
CARRY kʷinat-t R
(16)
kʷinat-t-∅-as
carry-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
kʼʷawʔis
bucket
‘She is carrying the bucket.’
SHOW kʼʷən-sxʷ R
(30)
kʼʷən-sxʷ-∅-as
see-CAU-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
tiča
teacher
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
pukʷ
book
‘He showed the book to the teacher.’
JUMP kʼʷitʼᶿ-im N
(6)
kʼʷitʼᶿ-im
jump-MDL
‘He jumped.’
LEAVE ɬaw-š
(39)
ɬaw-š-∅
leave-CTR-3.OBJ
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
tᶿ=
1SG.POSS=
ʔayaʔ
house
‘I am leaving my house.’
PEEL ɬupʼ-u-t
(85)
ɬupʼ-u-t-∅
peel-LV-CTR-3.OBJ
=ga
=IMP
tə=
DET=
θ=
2SG.POSS=
'banana'
banana
‘Peel your banana!’
CRY ƛʼux̣ʷt
(86)
ƛʼux̣ʷt
cry
=∅
=3.INDC.SBJ
‘She cries.’
SAY na-t N
(108)
na-t-∅-as
say-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
čičiyaʔ-s
grandmother-3.POSS
‘He spoke to his grandmother.’
DRESS niʔ-i-t R
(13)
niʔ-i-t-∅-as
put.on-LV-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
ʔiʔagikʼʷ-s
clothes-3.POSS
‘He put his clothes on.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
THINK nu-np-igan-mi-t
(104)
nu-np-igən-mi-t-∅-as-iw
RDPL-think-feeling-RLT-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG-PL
‘They thought about it.’
BOIL paɬuqʼʷ-um
(88)
paɬuqʼʷ-um
boil-MDL
tə=
DET=
qayʼa
water
‘The water is boiling.’
ROLL pəlʼkʷ
(101)
pəlʼkʷ
roll
tə=
DET=
ǰaǰʼa
tree
‘The log rolled down.’
TEAR pəx̣-t R
(29)
pəx̣-t-∅-uɬ
tear-CTR-3.OBJ-PAST
=čən
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
tiʔi
DEM
qʼəsnayʼ
shirt
‘I tore this shirt apart.’
PLAY qaqs-imʼ
(122)
qaqs-imʼ
play-MDL
=∅
=3.INDC.SBJ
‘She plays.’
SING qaqsamʼuθinʼ-əm
(34)
qaqsamʼuθin-amʼ-uɬ
sing-MDL-PAST
plit
Fred
‘Fred sang.’
TOUCH qəp-t R
(14)
qəp-t-∅
touch-CTR-3.OBJ
=čən
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
‘I touch it.’
LAUGH qəs-əm
(123)
qəs-əm
laugh-MDL
=∅
=3.INDC.SBJ
‘She laughs.’
DIE qəyʼ R
(119)
kʷa=
CLT=
qəyʼ
die
šə=
DET=
tᶿ=
1SG.POSS=
manʼ-uɬ
father-PAST
‘My father passed away.’
(136)
x̣ʷay
die(PL)
tə=
DET=
məm-mimaw
PL-cat
‘All the cats died.’
TALK qʷi-qʷay-sxʷ
(79)
qʷi-qʷay-sxʷ-∅-as
RDPL-talk-CAU-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
wiwʼlus
young.man
niniǰi
about
tə=
DET=
saɬtxʷ
woman
‘He talked to the young man about the girl.’
BE HUNGRY qʼa-qʼa
(19)
qʼaqʼa
hungry
tə=
DET=
čuyʼ
child
‘The child is hungry.’
BURN qʼətxʷ
(112)
ʔawθ-mut
suddenly-very
qʼətxʷ
burn
tə=
DET=
pipa
paper
‘All of a sudden, the paper burned.’
TIE qʼis-i-t R
(32)
qʼis-i-t-∅-as
tie-LV-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
tiqiw
horse
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
ǰaǰʼa
tree
‘He tied the horse to the tree.’
SHOUT AT qʼiya-t R
(83)
qʼiya-θ-as
shout-CTR:1SG.OBJ-3.ERG
‘He hollered at me.’
TELL qʼʷaqʼʷθus-t
(69)
qʼʷaqʼʷθus-t-∅-as
tell.stories-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
saɬtxʷ
woman
ʔə=
OBL=
kʷ=
DET=
x̣ʷax̣ʷaǰʼimʼ
legend
‘He told the woman a legend.’
BEAT sapʼ-a-t
(27)
hihiw
very
tih
big
sapʼ-a-t-∅-as
club[PL]-LV-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
ʔuɬqay
snake
‘He beat the snake.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) sax̣ʷ-a-t R
(22)
sax̣ʷ-a-t-∅
scrape-LV-CTR-3.OBJ
‘Scrape it.’
FEAR saysaǰʼ-mi-t
(5)
CVC-saǰʼ-mi-t-∅-as
RDPL-fear-RLT-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
tumiš
man
‘He feared the man. / He was scared of the man.’
CLIMB šaʔ
(98)
šaʔ
climb
tə=
DET=
tutamʼiš
boy
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
ǰaǰʼa
tree
‘The boy climbed the tree.’
BE DRY šəmʼ
(20)
šəmʼ
dry
tə=tʼəy-tʼayš'
DET=PL-blanket
‘The blankets dried up.’
HIT səpʼ-t R
(26)
səpʼ-t-∅-as
club-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
ʔuɬqay
snake
‘He hit the snake. / He clubbed the snake.’
THROW səytʼ-a-t R
(17)
səytʼ-a-t-∅
throw-LV-CTR-3.OBJ
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ:FUT
tə=
DET=
ləstəpuwl
ball
‘I will throw the ball.’
TEACH tiwš-am-sxʷ
(57)
ti-tiwš-am-sxʷ-∅
IMPF-learn-MDL-CAU-3.OBJ
=1SG.INDC.SBJ
ʔə=
OBL=
kʷ=
DET=
ʔayʔaǰuθəm
Native.language
‘I am teaching her the native language.’
COUGH tuqʼʷt N
(189)
tuqʼʷt
cough
tə=
DET=
tumiš
man
‘The man coughed.’
COVER tʼayš-a-t R
(47)
tʼayš-a-t-∅-as
blanket-LV-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
čuyʼ
child
‘He covered the baby with a blanket.’
BRING tʼaʔqʼ-aš
(94)
hu
go
=ga
=IMP
tʼaʔqʼ-aš
bring-CTR
tə=
DET=
supayu
ax
‘Go bring the ax back!’
SCREAM tʼᶿikʼt
(99)
tʼᶿikʼ<i>t
scream<STV>
tə=čəy-čuyʼ
DET=
‘The kids are screaming.’
(202)
tʼᶿikʼt
scream
=∅
=3.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
saɬtxʷ
woman
‘The woman screamed.’
BLINK tʼᶿipʼnəxʷ
(107)
tʼᶿipʼnəxʷ
close.eyes
=ga
=IMP
‘Close your eyes!’
SING wuw-um
(36)
wuw-um
sing-MDL
=ga
=IMP
‘Sing! / Go ahead and sing!’
WANT x̣aƛʼ
(92)
ʔətᶿ=
1SG.POSS=
x̣aƛʼ
want
kʷ=
DET=
qayʼa
water
‘I want water.’
GIVE x̣ənat-t R
(9)
x̣ənat-t-∅-as
give-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
tiča
teacher
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
pukʷ
book
‘He gave the book to the teacher.’
FRIGHTEN x̣əyp-a-t
(214)
x̣əyp-a-θ-as
startle-LV-CTR+1SG.OBJ-3.ERG
‘She startled me.’
HUG x̣ʷuǰ-u-t
(103)
x̣ʷuǰ-u-t-∅
put.arm.around-LV-CTR-3.OBJ
=čxʷ
=2SG.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
čuyʼ
child
‘(You) hold the baby with your arms around him!’
FILL yaʔčʼ-aš R
(51)
yaʔcʼ-aš-∅
full-CTR-3.OBJ
=čxʷ
=2SG.INDC.SBJ
tə=
DET=
kʼʷawʔis
bucket
‘(You) fill up the bucket!’
BREAK yəpʼ-t R
(28)
yəpʼ-t-∅-as
break-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
lamaya
bottle
‘He broke the bottle.’
FEEL PAIN ʔah
(33)
ʔah
sore
tə=
DET=
tᶿ=
1SG.POSS=
čayiš
hand
‘My hand is hurting.’
BE SAD ʔah qʷayigən-s
(106)
ʔah
sore
=səm
=FUT
kʷ=
DET=
qʷayigan-ap
feeling-2PL.POSS
‘You all will be sad.’
LIKE ʔəy-sxʷ
(25)
ʔəy-sxʷ-as-uɬ
good-CAU-3.ERG-PAST
tə=
DET=
tumiš
man
‘He liked the man.’
EAT ʔiɬtən
(130)
ʔiɬtən
eat
=tᶿəm
=1SG.INDC.SBJ:FUT
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
ǰanxʷ
fish
‘I will eat the fish.’
LOAD ʔuwuɬ-sxʷ
(55)
ʔuwuɬ-sxʷ-∅-as
embark-CAU-3.OBJ-3.ERG
tə=
DET=
ʔasxʷ
seal
‘He loads the seal.’
SINK θayʼ-əm
(21)
θayʼ-əm
sink-MDL
tə=nəxʷiɬ
DET=canoe
‘The boat sank.’
DIG θiq-i-t
(126)
θiq-i-t-∅
dig-LV-CTR-3.OBJ
=čxʷ
=2SG.INDC.SBJ
‘You dig it.’
SIT kʷanač
(96)
kʷanač
sit
=∅
=3.INDC.SBJ
ʔə=
OBL=
tə=
DET=
θiyumixʷtən
floor
‘He is sitting on the floor.’
TELL taw-t
(243)
taw-t-∅-as
tell-CTR-3.OBJ-3.ERG
‘He told her.’