Examples of Russian

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
Он нагрузил сено на телегу.
On nagruzil seno na telegu.
on
he
na-gruzil
PFV-loaded
seno
hay.ACC
na
on
teleg-u
cart-ACC
‘He loaded the hay onto the cart.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc LOC3
(2)
Он загрузил телегу сеном.
On zagruzil telegu senom.
on
he
za-gruzil
PFV-loaded
teleg-u
cart-ACC
sen-om
hay-INS
‘He loaded the cart with hay.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Prefixal Goal-Instrumental alternation
(3)
Они привязали верёвку к дереву.
Oni privjazali verëvku k derevu.
oni
they
privjaza-l-i
tie-PST-PL
verëvk-u
rope-ACC
k
to
derev-u
tree-DAT
‘They tied the rope to a tree.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc k+3-dat (4-instr)
(4)
Он обвязал дерево верёвкой.
On obvjazal derevo verëvkoj.
on
he
ob-vjaza-l
PFV-tie-PST.M.SG
derevo
tree.ACC
verëvk-oj
rope-INS
‘He tied (around) the tree with the rope.’
TIE an Alternation:
Prefixal Goal-Instrumental alternation
(5)
Вода залила поля.
Voda zalila polja.
voda
water
za-lila
PFV-pour.PST
polja
fields.ACC
‘The water poured into fields.’
POUR an Alternation:
Instrumental subject alternation
(6)
Он украл вещи у соседа.
On ukral vešči u soseda.
on
he
ukral
steal.PST.M.SG
vešči
thing.PL.ACC
u
from
sosed-a
neighbor-GEN
‘He stole property from his neighbor.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (u+3-gen)
(7)
Он обокрал соседа.
On obokral soseda.
on
he
obo-kral
PFV-steal
sosed-a
neighbor-ACC
‘He robbed a neighbor.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Prefixal Source-promoting alternation
(8)
Он обтёр стол.
On obtër stol.
on
he
ob-tër
PFV-wipe.PST.M.SG
stol
table.ACC
‘He wiped down the table.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Prefixal Source-promoting alternation
(9)
Она вытерла грязь со стола.
Ona vyterla grjazʹ so stola.
ona
she
vyter-l-a
wipe-PST-F.SG
grjazʹ
dirt.ACC
so
off
stol-a
table-GEN
‘She wiped the dirt off the table.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc s+3-gen
(10)
Он сломал палку.
On slomal palku.
on
he
s-loma-l
PFV-break-PST.M.SG
palk-u
stick-ACC
‘He broke the stick.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (3-instr)
(11)
Палка сломалась.
Palka slomalasʹ.
palka
stick.NOM
s-lomala-s'
PFV-break-REFL
‘The stick broke.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Reflexive Anticausative
(12)
Рабочие строят дом.
Rabočie strojat dom.
rabočie
workers
strojat
build.3PL
dom
house.ACC
‘The workers are building the house.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (iz+3-gen)
(13)
Дом строится рабочими.
Dom stroitsja rabočimi.
dom
house.NOM
stroit-sja
build.PRS.3SG-REFL
raboči-m-i
worker-INS-PL
‘The house is (being) built by the workers.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(14)
Он искал оленя в лесу.
On iskal olenja v lesu.
on
he
iska-l
search-PST.M.SG
olenja
deer.SG.ACC
v
in
lesu
forest.LOC
‘He looked for (a) deer in the forest.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc
(15)
Он обыскал лес.
On obyskal les.
on
he
ob-iska-l
PFV-search-PST.M.SG
les
forest.ACC
‘He searched the forest.’
SEARCH FOR the Verb form iskatʹ
(16)
Они встретились.
Oni vstretilisʹ.
oni
they
vstreti-l-i-s'
meet-PST-PL-REFL
‘They met.’
MEET an Alternation:
Reflexive Reciprocal
(17)
Боюсь собаки.
Bojusʹ sobaki.
boju-s'
fear.1SG-REFL
sobak-i
dog-GEN
‘I am afraid of the dog.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Accusative-Genitive alternation
(18)
Боюсь собаку.
Bojus' sobaku.
boju-s'
fear.1SG-REFL
sobak-u
dog-ACC
‘I am afraid of the dog.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc
(19)
Отец надел пальто на ребёнка.
Otec nadel palʹto na rebënka.
otec
father
na-del
on-dress.PST.M.SG
pal'to
coat.ACC
na
on
rebënk-a
child-ACC
‘The father put the coat on the child.’
DRESS the Verb form odetʹ
(20)
Отец одел ребёнка (в пальто).
Otec odel rebënka (v pal'to).
otec
father
odel
dress.PST.M.SG
rebënk-a
child-ACC
v
in
pal'to
coat.ACC
‘The father dressed the child in a coat.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (v+3-acc)
(21)
Он моется.
On moetsja.
on
he
moet-sja
wash-REFL
‘He washes himself.’
WASH an Alternation:
Semantic reflexive
(22)
Пришли три человека.
Prišli tri čeloveka.
prišl-i
come.PST-PL
tri
three
čelovek-a
man-GEN
‘(These) three people came.’
COME (2) a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] (LOC2)
(23)
Он поёт.
On poët.
on
he
poët
sing.PRS.3SG
‘He sings.’
SING a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1]
(24)
Он поёт песню.
On poët pesnju.
on
he
poët
sing.PRS.3SG
pesn-ju
song-ACC
‘He is singing a song.’
SING an Alternation:
Cognate object alternation
(25)
Мальчик (был) побит соседом.
Mal'čik (byl) pobit sosedom.
mal'čik
boy
byl
was
po-bit
PFV-beat.PF.PART
sosed-om
neighbor-INS
‘The boy was beaten up by the neighbor.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Participial Passive
(26)
Мальчик бьётся соседом.
??Mal'čik bʹëtsja sosedom.
mal'čik
boy
b'ët-sja
beat.3SG-REFL
sosed-om
neighbor-INS
‘The boy is being beaten by the neighbor.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(27)
Из окна она видела берёзу.
Iz okna ona videla berëzu.
iz
out.of
okna
window
ona
she
vide-l-a
see-PST-F.SG
berëz-u
birch-ACC
‘Out of the window she could see the birch tree.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc
(28)
Вы просили у премьера денег?
Vy prosili u premʹera deneg?
vy
2PL
prosi-l-i
ask-PST-PL
u
from
prem'er-a
prime.minister-GEN
deneg
money.GEN
‘Did you ask the prime minister for money?’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (u+3-gen)
(29)
Я голодный, как зверь.
Ja golodnyj, kak zverʹ.
ja
1SG
golodnyj
hungry
kak
like
zverʹ
beast
‘I am hungry as a beast.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1]
(30)
Он с силой бьёт его ладонью по затылку.
On s siloj b'ët ego ladonʹju po zatylku.
on
he
s
with
siloj
force.INS
b'ët
beat.3SG
ego
he.ACC
ladon'-ju
palm-INS
po
on
zatylku
back.of.head.DAT
‘He fiercely hits him on the back of the head with his palm.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (3-instr)
(31)
Воры сломали дверь ломом.
Vory slomali dverʹ lomom.
vor-y
thief-PL
s-loma-l-i
PFV-break-PST-PL
dver'
door.ACC
lom-om
crowbar-INS
‘The thieves broke the door with a crowbar.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (3-instr)
(32)
Она унесла вещи домой.
Ona unesla vešči domoj.
ona
she
u-nes-l-a
PFV-carry-PST-F.SG
vešči
thing.PL.ACC
dom-oj
home-LOC
‘She carried the things home.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc LOC3
(33)
Они взобрались на гору.
Oni vzobralisʹ na goru.
oni
they
vzobra-l-i-s'
climb-PST-PL-REFL
na
onto
kryš-u
roof-ACC
‘They climbed onto the roof.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] na+2-acc
(34)
Сценарий Совета законодателей […] был сломан […] самим Путиным.
Scenarij soveta zakonodatelej […] byl sloman […] samim Putinym.
scenarij
scenario
soveta
council.GEN
zakonodatelej
legislators.GEN
byl
was
sloman
break.PF.PART
sam-im
self-INS
Putinym
Putin.INS
‘The legislators’ council’s scenario was broken by Putin himself.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Participial Passive
(35)
Она громко кашляла.
Ona gromko kašljala.
ona
she
gromko
loudly
kašlja-l-a
cough-PST-F.SG
‘She was coughing loudly.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1]
(36)
Мама накрыла пирог полотенцем.
Mama nakryla pirog polotencem.
mama
mother
nakry-l-a
cover-PST-F.SG
pirog
pie.ACC
polotencem
towel.INS
‘Mom covered the pie with a towel.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (3-instr)
(37)
Я резал ножом огурец.
Ja rezal nožom ogurec.
ja
1SG
reza-l
cut-PST.M.SG
nož-om
knife-INS
ogurec
cucumber.ACC
‘I was cutting the cucumber with the knife.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (3-instr)
(38)
Он умер в возрасте девяноста лет.
On umer v vozraste devjanosta let.
on
he
umer
die.PFV.PST.M.SG
v
in
vozraste
age.LOC
devjanosta
ninety.GEN
let
year.GEN.PL
‘He died at the age of ninety.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1]
(39)
Девочка ела кашу ложкой.
Devočka ela kašu ložkoj.
devočka
girl
ela
eat.PST.F.SG
kaš-u
porridge-ACC
ložk-oj
spoon-INS
‘The girl was eating the porridge with a spoon.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (3-instr)
(40)
Собака мёрзла во дворе.
Sobaka mërzla vo dvore.
sobaka
dog.NOM
mërz-l-a
be.cold-PST-F.SG
vo
in
dvore
yard.LOC
‘The dog felt cold in the yard.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1]
(41)
Она наполнила ведро водой.
Ona napolnila vedro vodoj.
ona
she
napolni-l-a
fill-PST-F.SG
vedro
bucket.ACC
vod-oj
water-INS
‘She filled the bucket with water.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (3-instr)
(42)
Машина следовала за автобусом.
Mašina sledovala za avtobusom.
mašina
car.NOM
sledova-l-a
follow-PST-F.SG
za
after
avtobus-om
bus-INS
‘The car was following the bus.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] za+2-instr
(43)
Старший брат испугал сестру.
Staršij brat ispugal sestru.
staršij
older
brat
brother
is-puga-l
PFV-frighten-PST.M.SG
sestru
sister.ACC
‘The elder brother scared his sister.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (3-instr)
(44)
Маша дала черепахе морковь.
Maša dala čerepaxe morkovʹ.
Maša
Mary
da-l-a
give-PST-F.SG
čerepax-e
turtle-DAT
morkovʹ
carrot.ACC
‘Mary gave the turtle a carrot.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc 3-dat
(45)
Он помог другу в беде.
On pomog drugu v bede.
on
he
pomog
help.PST.M.SG
drug-u
friend-DAT
v
in
bed-e
peril-LOC
‘He helped a friend in a hard time.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-dat
(46)
Дачники спрятали ценные вещи от воров.
Dačniki sprjatali cennye vešči ot vorov.
dačnik-i
summer_resident-PL
sprjata-l-i
hide-PST-PL
cennye
valuable.PL
vešči
thing.PL.ACC
ot
from
vor-ov
thief-GEN.PL
‘The summer residents hid their valuables from the thieves.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (ot+3-gen)
(47)
Он ударил противника кулаком.
On udaril protivnika kulakom.
on
he
udari-l
hit-PST.M.SG
protivnik-a
opponent-ACC
kulak-om
fist-INS
‘He hit his opponent with the fist.’
HIT a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (3-instr)
(48)
Таня прыгнула в воду.
Tanja prygnula v vodu.
Tanja
Tanja
prygnu-l-a
jump-PST-F.SG
v
into
vod-u
water-ACC
‘Tanja jumped into the water.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] (LOC2)
(49)
Его убил ножом неизвестный убийца.
Ego ubil nožom neizvestnyj ubijca.
ego
he.ACC
ubi-l
kill-PST.M.SG
nož-om
knife-INS
neizvestnyj
unknown
ubijca
killer
‘An unidentified killer killed him with a knife.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (3-instr)
(50)
Она знала его с детства.
Ona znala ego s detstva.
ona
she
zna-l-a
know-PST-F.SG
ego
he.ACC
s
since
detstva
childhood.GEN
‘She knew him since his childhood.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc
(51)
Мне очень нравится этот рассказ.
Mne očenʹ nravitsja ètot rasskaz.
mne
1SG.DAT
očenʹ
very
nravitsja
like.PRS.3SG
ètot
this
rasskaz
short.story.M.SG
‘I like this short story very much.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-dat
(52)
Его семья жила в Берлине.
Ego semʹja žila v Berline.
ego
his
sem'ja
family
žila
live.PST.SG.F
v
in
Berline
Berlin.LOC
‘His family lived in Berlin.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] (LOC2)
(53)
Она долго смотрела на доску.
Ona dolgo smotrela na dosku.
ona
she
dolgo
long_time
smotre-l-a
look-PST-F.SG
na
on
dosku
chalkboard.ACC
‘She looked at the chalkboard for a long while.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] na+2-acc
(54)
Я встретил её на выходе из библиотеки.
Ja vstretil eë na vyxode iz biblioteki.
ja
1SG
vstreti-l
meet-PST
her.ACC
na
at
vyxode
exit
iz
out.of
biblioteki
library.GEN
‘I met her at the library doors.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc
(55)
Они назвали сына Михаилом.
Oni nazvali syna Mixailom.
oni
they
nazva-l-i
name-PST-PL
syn-a
son-ACC
Mixail-om
Michael-INS
‘They named their son Michael.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (3-instr)
(56)
Он назвал меня дураком.
On nazval menja durakom.
on
he
nazva-l
name-PST.M.SG
menja
me.ACC
durak-om
fool-INS
‘He called/named me a fool.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (3-instr)
(57)
Отец налил кипяток в чайник.
Otec nalil kipjatok v čajnik.
otec
father
na-lil
PFV-pour.PST.M.SG
kipjatok
boiling.water.ACC
v
into
čajnik
teapot.ACC
‘Father poured the boiling water into the teapot.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc LOC3
(58)
Она положила ребёнка в кровать.
Ona položila rebënka v krovatʹ.
ona
she
položi-l-a
put.PFV-PST-F.SG
rebënk-a
child-ACC
v
into
krovat'
bed.ACC
‘She put the child to bed.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc LOC3
(59)
Целый день шёл дождь.
Celyj den' šël dožd'.
celyj
whole
den'
day
šël
go.PST.M.SG
dožd'
rain.M
‘It was raining all day.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
V
(60)
Маша быстро бежала в школу.
Maša bystro bežala v školu.
Maša
Mary
bystro
fast
beža-l-a
run-PST-F.SG
v
in
školu
school.ACC
‘Mary was running swiftly to school.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] (LOC2)
(61)
Он сказал жене, что пойдёт в магазин.
On skazal žene, čto pojdët v magazin.
on
he
skaza-l
tell-PST.M.SG
žene
wife.DAT
čto
that
pojdët
go.FUT.3SG.M
v
in
magazin
store
‘He told his wife that he would go to the store.’
SAY a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-dat UTT3
(62)
Она сказала ему: "Не трогай меня!".
Ona skazala emu: "Ne trogaj menja!".
ona
she
skaza-l-a
tell-PST-F.SG
emu
he.DAT
ne
NEG
trogaj
touch.IMP
menja
me.ACC
‘She said to him: "Don't touch me!".’
SAY a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-dat UTT3
(63)
Полицейский показал оружие следователю.
Policejskij pokazal oružie sledovatelju.
policejskij
policeman
pokaza-l
show-PST.M.SG
oružie
weapon.ACC
sledovatel-ju
investigator-DAT
‘The policeman showed the weapon to the investigator.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc 3-dat
(64)
Он весь день сидел на диване.
On vesʹ denʹ sidel na divane.
on
he
vesʹ
all
denʹ
day
side-l
sit-PST.M.SG
na
on
divan-e
couch-LOC
‘He was sitting on the couch all day.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] (LOC2)
(65)
Гость сел в кресло.
Gostʹ sel v kreslo.
gostʹ
guest
sel
sit.down.PFV.PST
v
in
kreslo
armchair.ACC
‘The guest took a seat in the armchair.’
SIT DOWN a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] (LOC2)
(66)
Он поговорил с ней о её работе.
On pogovoril s nej o eë rabote.
on
he
pogovori-l
talk.PFV-PST.M.SG
s
with
nej
her.INS
o
about
her
rabote
work.LOC
‘He talked to her about her work.’
SAY an Alternation:
Comitative alternation
(67)
Он говорил нам, что придёт вовремя.
On govoril nam, čto pridët vovremja.
on
he
govori-l
tell-PST.M.SG
nam
1PL.DAT
čto
that
pridët
come.FUT.3SG
vovremja
on.time
‘He told us that he would come on time.’
SAY a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-dat UTT3
(68)
Маша оторвала пуговицу от рубахи.
Maša otorvala pugovicu ot rubaxi.
Maša
Mary
oto-rva-l-a
PFV-tear-PST-F.SG
pugovicu
button.ACC
ot
from
rubax-i
shirt-GEN
‘Mary tore a button off the shirt.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (ot+3-gen)
(69)
Я бросил банку в мусорное ведро.
Ja brosil banku v musornoe vedro.
ja
1SG
brosi-l
throw-PST.M.SG
bank-u
can-ACC
v
into
musornoe
trash
vedro
bucket.ACC
‘I threw the can into the trash bin.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc LOC3
(70)
Она коснулась рукой одеяла.
Ona kosnulasʹ rukoj odejala.
ona
she
kosnulas'
touch.PST.F.REFL
ruk-oj
hand-INS
odejala
blanket.GEN
‘She touched the blanket with her hand.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-gen (3-instr)
(71)
Он часто моет машину.
On často moet mašinu.
on
he
často
often
moet
wash
mašin-u
car-ACC
‘He often washes his car.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (3-instr)
(72)
Его прадед охотился на оленей.
Ego praded oxotilsja na olenej.
ego
his
pra-ded
great-grandfather
oxoti-l-sja
hunt-PST.M.SG-REFL
na
at
olenej
deer.PL.ACC
‘His great-grandfather used to hunt for deer.’
HUNT (FOR) a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] na+2-acc
(73)
Он ушёл из дома в пять утра.
On ušël iz doma v pjatʹ utra.
on
he
ušël
leave.PST.M.SG
iz
out.of
dom-a
house-GEN
v
at
pjatʹ
five
utra
morning.GEN
‘He left the house at five o'clock in the morning.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] (iz/ot 2-gen)
(74)
Он навсегда запомнил этот запах.
On navsegda zapomnil ètot zapax.
on
he
navsegda
forever
zapomni-l
remember-PST.M.SG
ètot
this
zapax
smell.ACC
‘He remembered that smell forever.’
REMEMBER a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc
(75)
Она принесла бабушке овощи.
Ona prinesla babuške ovošči.
ona
she
prines-l-a
bring-PST-F.SG
babušk-e
gramdmother-DAT
ovošči
groceries.ACC
‘She brought the grandma groceries.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc 3-dat
(76)
Сын взял машину у отца.
Syn vzjal mašinu u otca.
syn
son
vzja-l
take-PST.M.SG
mašin-u
car-ACC
u
from
otca
father.GEN
‘The son took his father’s car.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (u+3-gen)
(77)
У него страшно болела голова.
U nego strašno bolela golova.
u
at
nego
he.GEN
strašno
terribly
bole-l-a
hurt-PST-F.SG
golova
head
‘He felt a terrible pain in his head.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] u+2-gen
(78)
Призрак появился на дороге в полночь.
Prizrak pojavilsja na doroge v polnoč'.
prizrak
ghost
pojavi-l-sja
appear-PST-REFL
na
on
dorog-e
road-LOC
v
at
polnoč'
midnight
‘The ghost appeared on the road at midnight.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] (LOC2)
(79)
Дерево упало на забор.
Derevo upalo na zabor.
derevo
tree.NOM
upalo
fall.PFV.PST.SG.N
na
on
zabor
fence.ACC
‘The tree fell onto the fence.’
FALL a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] (LOC2)
(80)
Она моргнула глазами.
Ona morgnula glazami.
ona
she
morgnu-l-a
blink-PST-F.SG
glaza-mi
eyes-INS
‘She blinked with her eyes.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1]
(81)
Дом горел.
Dom gorel.
dom
house.NOM
gore-l
burn-PST
‘The house was on fire.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1]
(82)
В его комнате горел свет.
V ego komnate gorel svet.
v
in
ego
his
komnat-e
room-LOC
gore-l
burn-PST
svet
light
‘The lights were on in his room.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1]
(83)
Он каждый день брил бороду электробритвой.
On každyj denʹ bril borodu èlektrobritvoj.
on
he
každyj
every
den'
day
bri-l
shave-PST.M.SG
borod-u
beard-ACC
èlektro-britv-oj
electric-shaver-INS
‘He shaved his beard with an electric shaver daily.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (3-instr)
(84)
Рабочие идут на фабрику.
Rabočie idut na fabriku.
rabočie
workers
idut
go.3PL
na
to
fabrik-u
factory-ACC
‘The workers are going to the factory.’
GO a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] (LOC2)
(85)
Он обнял своего сына.
On obnjal svoego syna.
on
he
obnja-l
hug-PST.M.SG
svoego
his
syn-a
son-ACC
‘He hugged his son.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc
(86)
Маша долго смеялась.
Maša dolgo smejalas'.
Maša
Mary
dolgo
long_time
smeja-l-a-s'
laugh-PST-F.SG-REFL
‘Mary laughed for a long while.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1]
(87)
В прошлом году он уехал из города.
V prošlom godu on uexal iz goroda.
v
in
prošlom
previous
godu
year
on
he
uexa-l
leave-PST.M.SG
iz
out.of
gorod-a
town-GEN
‘He left the town last year.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] (iz/ot 2-gen)
(88)
Поварёнок очистил картошку от кожуры.
Povarënok očistil kartošku ot kožury.
povarënok
kitchen.boy
očisti-l
peel.PFV-PST.M.SG
kartošk-u
potatoes-ACC
ot
from
kožur-y
skin-GEN
‘The kitchen boy peeled the potatoes.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (ot+3-gen)
(89)
Его дочь хорошо играет на скрипке.
Ego doč xorošo igraet na skripke.
ego
his
doč
daughter
xorošo
well
igra-et
play-3SG
na
on
skripk-e
violin-LOC
‘His daughter plays the violin well.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] (na+2-loc)
(90)
Саша играл в шахматы с Димой.
Saša igral v šaxmaty s Dimoj.
Saša
Alex
igra-l
play-PST.M.SG
v
in
šaxmaty
chess.ACC
s
with
Dim-oj
Dmitrij-INS
‘Alex played chess with/against Dmitrij.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] (v+2-acc)
(91)
Мяч катится по футбольному полю.
Mjač katitsja po futbol'nomu polju.
mjač
ball
katit-sja
roll-REFL
po
on
futbol'nomu
football.LOC
polju
field.LOC
‘The ball is rolling on the soccer field.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1]
(92)
Начальник кричал на подчинённых.
Načalnik kričal na podčinënnyx.
načalnik
boss
kriča-l
shout-PST.M.SG
na
at
podčinënnyx
subordinates.ACC
‘The boss was shouting at his subordinates.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] na+2-acc
(93)
Ребёнок громко вопил.
Rebënok gromko vopit'.
rebënok
child.NOM
gromko
loudly
vopi-l
shout-PST.M.SG
‘The child was screaming loudly.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1]
(94)
После столкновения корабль утонул.
Posle stolknovenija korablʹ utonul.
posle
after
stolknovenija
crash.GEN
korablʹ
ship
utonu-l
PFV.sink-PST.M.SG
‘After the crash the ship sank.’
DROWN a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1]
(95)
Девочка нюхала цветы.
Devočka njuxala cvety.
devočka
girl
njuxa-l-a
smell-PST-F.SG
cvety
flowers.ACC
‘The girl smelled the flowers.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc
(96)
Он думал только о работе.
On dumal tol'ko o rabote.
on
he
duma-l
think-PST.M.SG
tol'ko
only
o
about
rabote
work.LOC
‘He was thinking about work only.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] o+2-LOC
(97)
Вода уже кипит.
Voda uže kipit.
voda
water
uže
already
kipit
boils
‘The water is boiling already.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1]
(98)
Он готовил очень вкусные салаты.
On gotovil očenʹ vkusnye salaty.
on
he
gotovi-l
prepare-PST.M.SG
očenʹ
very
vkusnye
tasty
salaty
salads.ACC
‘He could make very tasty salads.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc
(99)
Они копали землю.
Oni kopali zemlju.
oni
they
kopa-l-i
dig-PST-PL
zemlju
ground.ACC
‘They were digging the ground / the soil.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (3-instr)
(100)
Она молола свежий кофе.
Ona molola svežij kofe.
ona
she
molo-l-a
grind-PST-F.SG
svežij
fresh
kofe
coffee.ACC
‘She was grinding fresh coffee.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc
(101)
Я услышал шум реки.
Ja uslyšal šum reki.
ja
1SG
uslyša-l
hear-PST.M.SG
šum
noise.ACC
reki
river.GEN
‘I heard the noise of the river.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc
(102)
Мальчик толкнул друга в лужу.
Malčik tolknul druga v lužu.
mal'čik
boy
tolknu-l
push-PST.M.SG
drug-a
friend-ACC
v
into
lužu
puddle.ACC
‘The boy pushed his friend into a puddle.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (LOC3)
(103)
Родители научили его испанскому языку.
Roditeli naučili ego ispanskomu jazyku.
roditeli
parents
nauči-l-i
teach-PST-PL
ego
he.ACC
ispanskomu
spanish.DAT
jazyk-u
language-DAT
‘His parents taught him Spanish.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (3-dat)
(104)
Друзья давно не виделись.
Druzja davno ne videlis'.
druzja
friends
davno
long.time
ne
NEG
vide-l-i-s'
see-PST-PL-REFL
‘The friends haven't seen each other for a long time.’
SEE an Alternation:
Reflexive Reciprocal
(105)
Он ел каждый день в шесть часов.
On el každyj den' v šest' časov.
on
he
el
ate
každyj
every
den'
day
v
at
šest'
six
časov
o_clock
‘He ate at six o'clock every day.’
EAT an Alternation:
Object deletion
(106)
Она варит суп.
Ona varit sup.
ona
she
varit
cook.3SG
sup
soup.ACC
‘She is cooking soup.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc
(107)
Эта ткань легко рвётся.
Èta tkanʹ legko rvëtsja.
èta
this.F
tkanʹ
cloth.F
legko
easily
rvët-sja
tear.PRS.3SG-REFL
‘This cloth tears easily.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Reflexive Middle
(108)
Дети несли игрушки в комнату.
Deti nesli igruški v komnatu.
deti
children
nes-l-i
carry-PST-PL
igruški
toy.PL.ACC
v
in
komnat-u
room-ACC
‘The children carried toys into the room.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc LOC3
(109)
Мы послали ей подарок.
My poslali ej podarok.
my
we
posla-l-i
send-PST-PL
ej
her.DAT
podarok
gift.ACC
‘We sent her a gift.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc 3-dat
(110)
Он оторвал ветку от дерева.
On otorval vetku ot dereva.
on
he
oto-rva-l
PFV-tear-PST.M.SG
vetku
twig.ACC
ot
from
dereva
tree.GEN
‘He tore a twig off the tree.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (ot+3-gen)
(111)
Он просит у меня машину.
On prosit u menja mašinu.
on
he
prosi-t
ask-3SG
u
from
menja
me.GEN
mašin-u
car-ACC
‘He is asking me for my car.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (u+3-gen)
(112)
Он коснулся рукой стекла.
On kosnulsja rukoj stekla.
on
he
kosnu-l-sja
touch-PST.M.SG-REFL
rukoj
hand.INS
stekla
glass.GEN
‘He touched the glass with his hand.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-gen (3-instr)
(113)
Она долго грустила.
Ona dolgo grustila.
ona
she
dolgo
long_time
grusti-l-a
be_sad-PST-F.SG
‘She was sad for a long time.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1]
(114)
Он искал убежища.
On iskal ubežišča.
on
he
iska-l
search-PST.M.SG
ubežišč-a
refuge-GEN
‘He was looking for a refuge.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Accusative-Genitive alternation
(115)
Он не знал забот
On ne znal zabot.
on
he
ne
NEG
zna-l
know-PST.M.SG
zabot
problem.PL.GEN
‘He did not know (any) problems.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Negative Accusative-Genitive alternation
(116)
Я не вижу солнца.
Ja ne vižu solnca.
ja
1SG
ne
NEG
vižu
see.PRS.1SG
solnc-a
sun-GEN
‘I don't see the sun.’
SEE an Alternation:
Negative Accusative-Genitive alternation
(117)
Дом был построен рабочими.
Dom byl postroen rabočimi.
dom
house.NOM
byl
was
postroen
build.PF.PART
raboč-im-i
worker-INS-PL
‘The house has been built by the workers.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Participial Passive
(118)
Мне запомнилась эта мелодия.
Mne zapomnilas' èta melodija.
mne
1SG.DAT
zapomni-l-a-s'
remember-PST-F.SG-REFL
èta
this.F
melodija
melody
‘I remembered this melody.’
REMEMBER an Alternation:
Reflexive Anticausative
(119)
Ему здесь хорошо живётся.
Emu zdes' xorošo živëtsja.
emu
he.DAT
zdes'
here
xorošo
well
živët-sja
live.PRS.3SG-REFL
‘He has a good life here. (lit. it lives well to him).’
LIVE an Alternation:
Reflexive Middle (impersonal)
(120)
Ему не сиделось.
Emu ne sidelos'.
emu
he.DAT
ne
NEG
side-l-o-s'
sit-PST-3SG.N-REFL
‘He could barely sit still. (lit. It didn't sit itself to him).’
SIT an Alternation:
Reflexive Middle (impersonal)
(121)
Актёрам не игралось.
Aktëram ne igralos'.
aktër-am
actor-DAT.PL
ne
NEG
igra-l-o-s'
play-PST-3SG.N-REFL
‘The actors had great difficulty playing / were not in the mood for playing. (Lit. It didn't play itself to the authors).’
PLAY an Alternation:
Reflexive Middle (impersonal)
(122)
Она думала простую мысль.
Ona dumala prostuju mysl'.
ona
she
duma-l-a
think-PST-F.SG
tiazheluju
sad.ACC
dumu
thought.ACC
‘Lit. She was thinking a sad thought.’
THINK an Alternation:
Cognate object alternation
(123)
Каждое утро канистра наполняется водой.
Každoe utro kanistra napolnjaetsja vodoj.
každoe
each
utro
morning
kanistra
canister
napolnjaet-sja
fill.IPFV.PRS.3SG-REFL
vod-oj
water-INS
‘Every morning the canister is filled with water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(124)
Король был привязан разбойниками к дереву.
Korol' byl privjazan razbojnikami k derevu.
korol'
king
byl
was
privjaza.n
tie.PF.PART
razbojnik-am-i
robber-INS-PL
k
to
derev-u
tree-DAT
‘The king was tied to a tree by the robbers.’
TIE an Alternation:
Participial Passive
(125)
Мой номер легко запоминается.
Moj nomer legko zapominaetsja.
moj
my
nomer
number
legko
easily
zapomina-et-sja
remember-3SG.PRS-REFL
‘My (phone) number is easy to remember.’
REMEMBER an Alternation:
Reflexive Middle
(126)
Дети строили хижину из глины.
Deti stroili xižinu iz gliny.
deti
children
stroi-l-i
build-PST-PL
xižin-u
hut-ACC
iz
out.of
glin-y
mud-GEN
‘The children were building a hut out of mud.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1-nom V.subj[1] 2-acc (iz+3-gen)
(127)
Нина вытерлась полотенцем.
Nina vyterlas' polotencem.
Nina
Nina
vyter-l-a-s'
wipe-PST-F.SG-REFL
polotence-m
towel-INS
‘Nina dried herself with a towel.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Semantic reflexive