Cognate object alternation U

Description

Introduces a new argument which is a cognate object to the verb meaning, usually for the purpose of object modification. The cognate object can be in the accusative or the instrumental case. Verbs marked as "Regular" permit both, while those marked "Marginal" only allow for the instrumental.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
SING petʹ R
(23)
on
he
poët
sing.PRS.3SG
‘He sings.’

(24)
on
he
poët
sing.PRS.3SG
pesn-ju
song-ACC
‘He is singing a song.’
COVER nakrytʹ N
(36)
mama
mother
nakry-l-a
cover-PST-F.SG
pirog
pie.ACC
polotencem
towel.INS
‘Mom covered the pie with a towel.’
FILL napolnitʹ N
(41)
ona
she
napolni-l-a
fill-PST-F.SG
vedro
bucket.ACC
vod-oj
water-INS
‘She filled the bucket with water.’
LOAD nagruzitʹ N
(1)
on
he
na-gruzil
PFV-loaded
seno
hay.ACC
na
on
teleg-u
cart-ACC
‘He loaded the hay onto the cart.’
TIE privjazatʹ N
(3)
oni
they
privjaza-l-i
tie-PST-PL
verëvk-u
rope-ACC
k
to
derev-u
tree-DAT
‘They tied the rope to a tree.’
POUR litʹ N
(57)
otec
father
na-lil
PFV-pour.PST.M.SG
kipjatok
boiling.water.ACC
v
into
čajnik
teapot.ACC
‘Father poured the boiling water into the teapot.’
PUT položitʹ N
(58)
ona
she
položi-l-a
put.PFV-PST-F.SG
rebënk-a
child-ACC
v
into
krovat'
bed.ACC
‘She put the child to bed.’
THROW brositʹ N
(69)
ja
1SG
brosi-l
throw-PST.M.SG
bank-u
can-ACC
v
into
musornoe
trash
vedro
bucket.ACC
‘I threw the can into the trash bin.’
BRING prinesti N
(75)
ona
she
prines-l-a
bring-PST-F.SG
babušk-e
gramdmother-DAT
ovošči
groceries.ACC
‘She brought the grandma groceries.’
CARRY nesti N
(32)
ona
she
u-nes-l-a
PFV-carry-PST-F.SG
vešči
thing.PL.ACC
dom-oj
home-LOC
‘She carried the things home.’
(108)
deti
children
nes-l-i
carry-PST-PL
igruški
toy.PL.ACC
v
in
komnat-u
room-ACC
‘The children carried toys into the room.’
SEND poslatʹ N
(109)
my
we
posla-l-i
send-PST-PL
ej
her.DAT
podarok
gift.ACC
‘We sent her a gift.’
GIVE datʹ N
(44)
Maša
Mary
da-l-a
give-PST-F.SG
čerepax-e
turtle-DAT
morkovʹ
carrot.ACC
‘Mary gave the turtle a carrot.’
SHOW pokazatʹ N
(63)
policejskij
policeman
pokaza-l
show-PST.M.SG
oružie
weapon.ACC
sledovatel-ju
investigator-DAT
‘The policeman showed the weapon to the investigator.’
TAKE vzjatʹ N
(76)
syn
son
vzja-l
take-PST.M.SG
mašin-u
car-ACC
u
from
otca
father.GEN
‘The son took his father’s car.’
STEAL ukrastʹ N
(6)
on
he
ukral
steal.PST.M.SG
vešči
thing.PL.ACC
u
from
sosed-a
neighbor-GEN
‘He stole property from his neighbor.’
HIDE sprjatatʹ N
(46)
dačnik-i
summer_resident-PL
sprjata-l-i
hide-PST-PL
cennye
valuable.PL
vešči
thing.PL.ACC
ot
from
vor-ov
thief-GEN.PL
‘The summer residents hid their valuables from the thieves.’
TEAR otorvatʹ N
(68)
Maša
Mary
oto-rva-l-a
PFV-tear-PST-F.SG
pugovicu
button.ACC
ot
from
rubax-i
shirt-GEN
‘Mary tore a button off the shirt.’
(110)
on
he
oto-rva-l
PFV-tear-PST.M.SG
vetku
twig.ACC
ot
from
dereva
tree.GEN
‘He tore a twig off the tree.’
WIPE vyteretʹ N
(9)
ona
she
vyter-l-a
wipe-PST-F.SG
grjazʹ
dirt.ACC
so
off
stol-a
table-GEN
‘She wiped the dirt off the table.’
CUT rezatʹ N
(37)
ja
1SG
reza-l
cut-PST.M.SG
nož-om
knife-INS
ogurec
cucumber.ACC
‘I was cutting the cucumber with the knife.’
TOUCH kosnutʹsja N
(70)
ona
she
kosnulas'
touch.PST.F.REFL
ruk-oj
hand-INS
odejala
blanket.GEN
‘She touched the blanket with her hand.’
(112)
on
he
kosnu-l-sja
touch-PST.M.SG-REFL
rukoj
hand.INS
stekla
glass.GEN
‘He touched the glass with his hand.’
HIT udaritʹ N
(47)
on
he
udari-l
hit-PST.M.SG
protivnik-a
opponent-ACC
kulak-om
fist-INS
‘He hit his opponent with the fist.’
KILL ubitʹ N
(49)
ego
he.ACC
ubi-l
kill-PST.M.SG
nož-om
knife-INS
neizvestnyj
unknown
ubijca
killer
‘An unidentified killer killed him with a knife.’
BEAT bitʹ N
(30)
on
he
s
with
siloj
force.INS
b'ët
beat.3SG
ego
he.ACC
ladon'-ju
palm-INS
po
on
zatylku
back.of.head.DAT
‘He fiercely hits him on the back of the head with his palm.’
BREAK slomatʹ N
(10)
on
he
s-loma-l
PFV-break-PST.M.SG
palk-u
stick-ACC
‘He broke the stick.’
(31)
vor-y
thief-PL
s-loma-l-i
PFV-break-PST-PL
dver'
door.ACC
lom-om
crowbar-INS
‘The thieves broke the door with a crowbar.’
BUILD stroitʹ N
(12)
rabočie
workers
strojat
build.3PL
dom
house.ACC
‘The workers are building the house.’
(126)
deti
children
stroi-l-i
build-PST-PL
xižin-u
hut-ACC
iz
out.of
glin-y
mud-GEN
‘The children were building a hut out of mud.’
NAME nazvatʹ N
(55)
oni
they
nazva-l-i
name-PST-PL
syn-a
son-ACC
Mixail-om
Michael-INS
‘They named their son Michael.’
(56)
on
he
nazva-l
name-PST.M.SG
menja
me.ACC
durak-om
fool-INS
‘He called/named me a fool.’
SAY skazatʹ N
(61)
on
he
skaza-l
tell-PST.M.SG
žene
wife.DAT
čto
that
pojdët
go.FUT.3SG.M
v
in
magazin
store
‘He told his wife that he would go to the store.’
(62)
ona
she
skaza-l-a
tell-PST-F.SG
emu
he.DAT
ne
NEG
trogaj
touch.IMP
menja
me.ACC
‘She said to him: "Don't touch me!".’
SHOUT AT kričatʹ N
(92)
načalnik
boss
kriča-l
shout-PST.M.SG
na
at
podčinënnyx
subordinates.ACC
‘The boss was shouting at his subordinates.’
ASK FOR prositʹ N
(28)
vy
2PL
prosi-l-i
ask-PST-PL
u
from
prem'er-a
prime.minister-GEN
deneg
money.GEN
‘Did you ask the prime minister for money?’
(111)
on
he
prosi-t
ask-3SG
u
from
menja
me.GEN
mašin-u
car-ACC
‘He is asking me for my car.’
SAY govoritʹ N
(67)
on
he
govori-l
tell-PST.M.SG
nam
1PL.DAT
čto
that
pridët
come.FUT.3SG
vovremja
on.time
‘He told us that he would come on time.’
KNOW znatʹ N
(50)
ona
she
zna-l-a
know-PST-F.SG
ego
he.ACC
s
since
detstva
childhood.GEN
‘She knew him since his childhood.’
REMEMBER zapomnitʹ N
(74)
on
he
navsegda
forever
zapomni-l
remember-PST.M.SG
ètot
this
zapax
smell.ACC
‘He remembered that smell forever.’
SEE videtʹ N
(27)
iz
out.of
okna
window
ona
she
vide-l-a
see-PST-F.SG
berëz-u
birch-ACC
‘Out of the window she could see the birch tree.’
LOOK AT smotretʹ N
(53)
ona
she
dolgo
long_time
smotre-l-a
look-PST-F.SG
na
on
dosku
chalkboard.ACC
‘She looked at the chalkboard for a long while.’
FRIGHTEN pugatʹ N
(43)
staršij
older
brat
brother
is-puga-l
PFV-frighten-PST.M.SG
sestru
sister.ACC
‘The elder brother scared his sister.’
FEAR bojatʹsja N
(18)
boju-s'
fear.1SG-REFL
sobak-u
dog-ACC
‘I am afraid of the dog.’
LIKE nravitʹsja N
(51)
mne
1SG.DAT
očenʹ
very
nravitsja
like.PRS.3SG
ètot
this
rasskaz
short.story.M.SG
‘I like this short story very much.’
SEARCH FOR iskatʹ N
(14)
on
he
iska-l
search-PST.M.SG
olenja
deer.SG.ACC
v
in
lesu
forest.LOC
‘He looked for (a) deer in the forest.’
HUNT (FOR) oxotitʹsja N
(72)
ego
his
pra-ded
great-grandfather
oxoti-l-sja
hunt-PST.M.SG-REFL
na
at
olenej
deer.PL.ACC
‘His great-grandfather used to hunt for deer.’
MEET vstretitʹ N
(54)
ja
1SG
vstreti-l
meet-PST
her.ACC
na
at
vyxode
exit
iz
out.of
biblioteki
library.GEN
‘I met her at the library doors.’
FOLLOW sledovatʹ N
(42)
mašina
car.NOM
sledova-l-a
follow-PST-F.SG
za
after
avtobus-om
bus-INS
‘The car was following the bus.’
HELP pomočʹ N
(45)
on
he
pomog
help.PST.M.SG
drug-u
friend-DAT
v
in
bed-e
peril-LOC
‘He helped a friend in a hard time.’
EAT estʹ N
(39)
devočka
girl
ela
eat.PST.F.SG
kaš-u
porridge-ACC
ložk-oj
spoon-INS
‘The girl was eating the porridge with a spoon.’
DRESS odetʹ N
(20)
otec
father
odel
dress.PST.M.SG
rebënk-a
child-ACC
v
in
pal'to
coat.ACC
‘The father dressed the child in a coat.’
WASH mytʹ N
(71)
on
he
často
often
moet
wash
mašin-u
car-ACC
‘He often washes his car.’
COUGH kašljatʹ N
(35)
ona
she
gromko
loudly
kašlja-l-a
cough-PST-F.SG
‘She was coughing loudly.’
CLIMB vzobratʹsja N
(33)
oni
they
vzobra-l-i-s'
climb-PST-PL-REFL
na
onto
kryš-u
roof-ACC
‘They climbed onto the roof.’
SIT DOWN sestʹ N
(65)
gostʹ
guest
sel
sit.down.PFV.PST
v
in
kreslo
armchair.ACC
‘The guest took a seat in the armchair.’
SIT sidetʹ N
(64)
on
he
vesʹ
all
denʹ
day
side-l
sit-PST.M.SG
na
on
divan-e
couch-LOC
‘He was sitting on the couch all day.’
RUN bežatʹ N
(60)
Maša
Mary
bystro
fast
beža-l-a
run-PST-F.SG
v
in
školu
school.ACC
‘Mary was running swiftly to school.’
JUMP prygnutʹ N
(48)
Tanja
Tanja
prygnu-l-a
jump-PST-F.SG
v
into
vod-u
water-ACC
‘Tanja jumped into the water.’
COME (2) prijti N
(22)
prišl-i
come.PST-PL
tri
three
čelovek-a
man-GEN
‘(These) three people came.’
LEAVE ujti N
(73)
on
he
ušël
leave.PST.M.SG
iz
out.of
dom-a
house-GEN
v
at
pjatʹ
five
utra
morning.GEN
‘He left the house at five o'clock in the morning.’
LIVE žitʹ R
(52)
ego
his
sem'ja
family
žila
live.PST.SG.F
v
in
Berline
Berlin.LOC
‘His family lived in Berlin.’
APPEAR pojavitʹsja N
(78)
prizrak
ghost
pojavi-l-sja
appear-PST-REFL
na
on
dorog-e
road-LOC
v
at
polnoč'
midnight
‘The ghost appeared on the road at midnight.’
FEEL PAIN boletʹ N
(77)
u
at
nego
he.GEN
strašno
terribly
bole-l-a
hurt-PST-F.SG
golova
head
‘He felt a terrible pain in his head.’
DIE umeretʹ M
(38)
on
he
umer
die.PFV.PST.M.SG
v
in
vozraste
age.LOC
devjanosta
ninety.GEN
let
year.GEN.PL
‘He died at the age of ninety.’
FALL upastʹ N
(79)
derevo
tree.NOM
upalo
fall.PFV.PST.SG.N
na
on
zabor
fence.ACC
‘The tree fell onto the fence.’
FEEL COLD mërznutʹ N
(40)
sobaka
dog.NOM
mërz-l-a
be.cold-PST-F.SG
vo
in
dvore
yard.LOC
‘The dog felt cold in the yard.’
BE HUNGRY bytʹ golodnym N
(29)
ja
1SG
golodnyj
hungry
kak
like
zverʹ
beast
‘I am hungry as a beast.’
RAIN dožd' idët N
(59)
celyj
whole
den'
day
šël
go.PST.M.SG
dožd'
rain.M
‘It was raining all day.’
BLINK morgnutʹ N
(80)
ona
she
morgnu-l-a
blink-PST-F.SG
glaza-mi
eyes-INS
‘She blinked with her eyes.’
BURN goretʹ N
(81)
dom
house.NOM
gore-l
burn-PST
‘The house was on fire.’
(82)
v
in
ego
his
komnat-e
room-LOC
gore-l
burn-PST
svet
light
‘The lights were on in his room.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) britʹ N
(83)
on
he
každyj
every
den'
day
bri-l
shave-PST.M.SG
borod-u
beard-ACC
èlektro-britv-oj
electric-shaver-INS
‘He shaved his beard with an electric shaver daily.’
GO idti N
(84)
rabočie
workers
idut
go.3PL
na
to
fabrik-u
factory-ACC
‘The workers are going to the factory.’
HUG obnjatʹ N
(85)
on
he
obnja-l
hug-PST.M.SG
svoego
his
syn-a
son-ACC
‘He hugged his son.’
LAUGH smejatʹsja N
(86)
Maša
Mary
dolgo
long_time
smeja-l-a-s'
laugh-PST-F.SG-REFL
‘Mary laughed for a long while.’
LEAVE uexatʹ N
(87)
v
in
prošlom
previous
godu
year
on
he
uexa-l
leave-PST.M.SG
iz
out.of
gorod-a
town-GEN
‘He left the town last year.’
PEEL očistitʹ N
(88)
povarënok
kitchen.boy
očisti-l
peel.PFV-PST.M.SG
kartošk-u
potatoes-ACC
ot
from
kožur-y
skin-GEN
‘The kitchen boy peeled the potatoes.’
PLAY igratʹ (1) N
(90)
Saša
Alex
igra-l
play-PST.M.SG
v
in
šaxmaty
chess.ACC
s
with
Dim-oj
Dmitrij-INS
‘Alex played chess with/against Dmitrij.’
ROLL katitʹsja N
(91)
mjač
ball
katit-sja
roll-REFL
po
on
futbol'nomu
football.LOC
polju
field.LOC
‘The ball is rolling on the soccer field.’
SCREAM vopit' N
(93)
rebënok
child.NOM
gromko
loudly
vopi-l
shout-PST.M.SG
‘The child was screaming loudly.’
DROWN utonutʹ N
(94)
posle
after
stolknovenija
crash.GEN
korablʹ
ship
utonu-l
PFV.sink-PST.M.SG
‘After the crash the ship sank.’
SMELL njuxatʹ N
(95)
devočka
girl
njuxa-l-a
smell-PST-F.SG
cvety
flowers.ACC
‘The girl smelled the flowers.’
THINK dumatʹ R
(96)
on
he
duma-l
think-PST.M.SG
tol'ko
only
o
about
rabote
work.LOC
‘He was thinking about work only.’

(122)
ona
she
duma-l-a
think-PST-F.SG
tiazheluju
sad.ACC
dumu
thought.ACC
‘Lit. She was thinking a sad thought.’
BOIL kipetʹ N
(97)
voda
water
uže
already
kipit
boils
‘The water is boiling already.’
COOK gotovitʹ N
(98)
on
he
gotovi-l
prepare-PST.M.SG
očenʹ
very
vkusnye
tasty
salaty
salads.ACC
‘He could make very tasty salads.’
DIG kopatʹ N
(99)
oni
they
kopa-l-i
dig-PST-PL
zemlju
ground.ACC
‘They were digging the ground / the soil.’
GRIND molotʹ N
(100)
ona
she
molo-l-a
grind-PST-F.SG
svežij
fresh
kofe
coffee.ACC
‘She was grinding fresh coffee.’
HEAR uslyšatʹ N
(101)
ja
1SG
uslyša-l
hear-PST.M.SG
šum
noise.ACC
reki
river.GEN
‘I heard the noise of the river.’
PUSH tolknutʹ N
(102)
mal'čik
boy
tolknu-l
push-PST.M.SG
drug-a
friend-ACC
v
into
lužu
puddle.ACC
‘The boy pushed his friend into a puddle.’
TEACH naučitʹ N
(103)
roditeli
parents
nauči-l-i
teach-PST-PL
ego
he.ACC
ispanskomu
spanish.DAT
jazyk-u
language-DAT
‘His parents taught him Spanish.’
PLAY igratʹ (2) N
(89)
ego
his
doč
daughter
xorošo
well
igra-et
play-3SG
na
on
skripk-e
violin-LOC
‘His daughter plays the violin well.’
COOK varitʹ N
(106)
ona
she
varit
cook.3SG
sup
soup.ACC
‘She is cooking soup.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
BE SAD grustitʹ N
(113)
ona
she
dolgo
long_time
grusti-l-a
be_sad-PST-F.SG
‘She was sad for a long time.’