Prefixal Source-promoting alternation C

Description

The source/counteragent argument, introduced by preposition u (counteragent), or preposition s (inanimate source), is promoted to direct object (the source remains unexpressed).
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
STEAL ukrastʹ R
(6)
on
he
ukral
steal.PST.M.SG
vešči
thing.PL.ACC
u
from
sosed-a
neighbor-GEN
‘He stole property from his neighbor.’

(7)
on
he
obo-kral
PFV-steal
sosed-a
neighbor-ACC
‘He robbed a neighbor.’
TEAR otorvatʹ R
(68)
Maša
Mary
oto-rva-l-a
PFV-tear-PST-F.SG
pugovicu
button.ACC
ot
from
rubax-i
shirt-GEN
‘Mary tore a button off the shirt.’
(110)
on
he
oto-rva-l
PFV-tear-PST.M.SG
vetku
twig.ACC
ot
from
dereva
tree.GEN
‘He tore a twig off the tree.’
WIPE vyteretʹ R
(9)
ona
she
vyter-l-a
wipe-PST-F.SG
grjazʹ
dirt.ACC
so
off
stol-a
table-GEN
‘She wiped the dirt off the table.’

(8)
on
he
ob-tër
PFV-wipe.PST.M.SG
stol
table.ACC
‘He wiped down the table.’
COVER nakrytʹ N
(36)
mama
mother
nakry-l-a
cover-PST-F.SG
pirog
pie.ACC
polotencem
towel.INS
‘Mom covered the pie with a towel.’
FILL napolnitʹ N
(41)
ona
she
napolni-l-a
fill-PST-F.SG
vedro
bucket.ACC
vod-oj
water-INS
‘She filled the bucket with water.’
LOAD nagruzitʹ N
(1)
on
he
na-gruzil
PFV-loaded
seno
hay.ACC
na
on
teleg-u
cart-ACC
‘He loaded the hay onto the cart.’
TIE privjazatʹ N
(3)
oni
they
privjaza-l-i
tie-PST-PL
verëvk-u
rope-ACC
k
to
derev-u
tree-DAT
‘They tied the rope to a tree.’
POUR litʹ N
(57)
otec
father
na-lil
PFV-pour.PST.M.SG
kipjatok
boiling.water.ACC
v
into
čajnik
teapot.ACC
‘Father poured the boiling water into the teapot.’
PUT položitʹ N
(58)
ona
she
položi-l-a
put.PFV-PST-F.SG
rebënk-a
child-ACC
v
into
krovat'
bed.ACC
‘She put the child to bed.’
THROW brositʹ N
(69)
ja
1SG
brosi-l
throw-PST.M.SG
bank-u
can-ACC
v
into
musornoe
trash
vedro
bucket.ACC
‘I threw the can into the trash bin.’
BRING prinesti N
(75)
ona
she
prines-l-a
bring-PST-F.SG
babušk-e
gramdmother-DAT
ovošči
groceries.ACC
‘She brought the grandma groceries.’
CARRY nesti N
(32)
ona
she
u-nes-l-a
PFV-carry-PST-F.SG
vešči
thing.PL.ACC
dom-oj
home-LOC
‘She carried the things home.’
(108)
deti
children
nes-l-i
carry-PST-PL
igruški
toy.PL.ACC
v
in
komnat-u
room-ACC
‘The children carried toys into the room.’
SEND poslatʹ N
(109)
my
we
posla-l-i
send-PST-PL
ej
her.DAT
podarok
gift.ACC
‘We sent her a gift.’
GIVE datʹ N
(44)
Maša
Mary
da-l-a
give-PST-F.SG
čerepax-e
turtle-DAT
morkovʹ
carrot.ACC
‘Mary gave the turtle a carrot.’
SHOW pokazatʹ N
(63)
policejskij
policeman
pokaza-l
show-PST.M.SG
oružie
weapon.ACC
sledovatel-ju
investigator-DAT
‘The policeman showed the weapon to the investigator.’
TAKE vzjatʹ N
(76)
syn
son
vzja-l
take-PST.M.SG
mašin-u
car-ACC
u
from
otca
father.GEN
‘The son took his father’s car.’
HIDE sprjatatʹ N
(46)
dačnik-i
summer_resident-PL
sprjata-l-i
hide-PST-PL
cennye
valuable.PL
vešči
thing.PL.ACC
ot
from
vor-ov
thief-GEN.PL
‘The summer residents hid their valuables from the thieves.’
CUT rezatʹ N
(37)
ja
1SG
reza-l
cut-PST.M.SG
nož-om
knife-INS
ogurec
cucumber.ACC
‘I was cutting the cucumber with the knife.’
TOUCH kosnutʹsja N
(70)
ona
she
kosnulas'
touch.PST.F.REFL
ruk-oj
hand-INS
odejala
blanket.GEN
‘She touched the blanket with her hand.’
(112)
on
he
kosnu-l-sja
touch-PST.M.SG-REFL
rukoj
hand.INS
stekla
glass.GEN
‘He touched the glass with his hand.’
HIT udaritʹ N
(47)
on
he
udari-l
hit-PST.M.SG
protivnik-a
opponent-ACC
kulak-om
fist-INS
‘He hit his opponent with the fist.’
KILL ubitʹ N
(49)
ego
he.ACC
ubi-l
kill-PST.M.SG
nož-om
knife-INS
neizvestnyj
unknown
ubijca
killer
‘An unidentified killer killed him with a knife.’
BEAT bitʹ N
(30)
on
he
s
with
siloj
force.INS
b'ët
beat.3SG
ego
he.ACC
ladon'-ju
palm-INS
po
on
zatylku
back.of.head.DAT
‘He fiercely hits him on the back of the head with his palm.’
BREAK slomatʹ N
(10)
on
he
s-loma-l
PFV-break-PST.M.SG
palk-u
stick-ACC
‘He broke the stick.’
(31)
vor-y
thief-PL
s-loma-l-i
PFV-break-PST-PL
dver'
door.ACC
lom-om
crowbar-INS
‘The thieves broke the door with a crowbar.’
BUILD stroitʹ N
(12)
rabočie
workers
strojat
build.3PL
dom
house.ACC
‘The workers are building the house.’
(126)
deti
children
stroi-l-i
build-PST-PL
xižin-u
hut-ACC
iz
out.of
glin-y
mud-GEN
‘The children were building a hut out of mud.’
NAME nazvatʹ N
(55)
oni
they
nazva-l-i
name-PST-PL
syn-a
son-ACC
Mixail-om
Michael-INS
‘They named their son Michael.’
(56)
on
he
nazva-l
name-PST.M.SG
menja
me.ACC
durak-om
fool-INS
‘He called/named me a fool.’
SAY skazatʹ N
(61)
on
he
skaza-l
tell-PST.M.SG
žene
wife.DAT
čto
that
pojdët
go.FUT.3SG.M
v
in
magazin
store
‘He told his wife that he would go to the store.’
(62)
ona
she
skaza-l-a
tell-PST-F.SG
emu
he.DAT
ne
NEG
trogaj
touch.IMP
menja
me.ACC
‘She said to him: "Don't touch me!".’
SHOUT AT kričatʹ N
(92)
načalnik
boss
kriča-l
shout-PST.M.SG
na
at
podčinënnyx
subordinates.ACC
‘The boss was shouting at his subordinates.’
ASK FOR prositʹ N
(28)
vy
2PL
prosi-l-i
ask-PST-PL
u
from
prem'er-a
prime.minister-GEN
deneg
money.GEN
‘Did you ask the prime minister for money?’
(111)
on
he
prosi-t
ask-3SG
u
from
menja
me.GEN
mašin-u
car-ACC
‘He is asking me for my car.’
SAY govoritʹ N
(67)
on
he
govori-l
tell-PST.M.SG
nam
1PL.DAT
čto
that
pridët
come.FUT.3SG
vovremja
on.time
‘He told us that he would come on time.’
KNOW znatʹ N
(50)
ona
she
zna-l-a
know-PST-F.SG
ego
he.ACC
s
since
detstva
childhood.GEN
‘She knew him since his childhood.’
REMEMBER zapomnitʹ N
(74)
on
he
navsegda
forever
zapomni-l
remember-PST.M.SG
ètot
this
zapax
smell.ACC
‘He remembered that smell forever.’
SEE videtʹ N
(27)
iz
out.of
okna
window
ona
she
vide-l-a
see-PST-F.SG
berëz-u
birch-ACC
‘Out of the window she could see the birch tree.’
LOOK AT smotretʹ N
(53)
ona
she
dolgo
long_time
smotre-l-a
look-PST-F.SG
na
on
dosku
chalkboard.ACC
‘She looked at the chalkboard for a long while.’
FRIGHTEN pugatʹ N
(43)
staršij
older
brat
brother
is-puga-l
PFV-frighten-PST.M.SG
sestru
sister.ACC
‘The elder brother scared his sister.’
FEAR bojatʹsja N
(18)
boju-s'
fear.1SG-REFL
sobak-u
dog-ACC
‘I am afraid of the dog.’
LIKE nravitʹsja N
(51)
mne
1SG.DAT
očenʹ
very
nravitsja
like.PRS.3SG
ètot
this
rasskaz
short.story.M.SG
‘I like this short story very much.’
SEARCH FOR iskatʹ N
(14)
on
he
iska-l
search-PST.M.SG
olenja
deer.SG.ACC
v
in
lesu
forest.LOC
‘He looked for (a) deer in the forest.’
HUNT (FOR) oxotitʹsja N
(72)
ego
his
pra-ded
great-grandfather
oxoti-l-sja
hunt-PST.M.SG-REFL
na
at
olenej
deer.PL.ACC
‘His great-grandfather used to hunt for deer.’
MEET vstretitʹ N
(54)
ja
1SG
vstreti-l
meet-PST
her.ACC
na
at
vyxode
exit
iz
out.of
biblioteki
library.GEN
‘I met her at the library doors.’
FOLLOW sledovatʹ N
(42)
mašina
car.NOM
sledova-l-a
follow-PST-F.SG
za
after
avtobus-om
bus-INS
‘The car was following the bus.’
HELP pomočʹ N
(45)
on
he
pomog
help.PST.M.SG
drug-u
friend-DAT
v
in
bed-e
peril-LOC
‘He helped a friend in a hard time.’
EAT estʹ N
(39)
devočka
girl
ela
eat.PST.F.SG
kaš-u
porridge-ACC
ložk-oj
spoon-INS
‘The girl was eating the porridge with a spoon.’
DRESS odetʹ N
(20)
otec
father
odel
dress.PST.M.SG
rebënk-a
child-ACC
v
in
pal'to
coat.ACC
‘The father dressed the child in a coat.’
WASH mytʹ N
(71)
on
he
často
often
moet
wash
mašin-u
car-ACC
‘He often washes his car.’
COUGH kašljatʹ N
(35)
ona
she
gromko
loudly
kašlja-l-a
cough-PST-F.SG
‘She was coughing loudly.’
CLIMB vzobratʹsja N
(33)
oni
they
vzobra-l-i-s'
climb-PST-PL-REFL
na
onto
kryš-u
roof-ACC
‘They climbed onto the roof.’
SIT DOWN sestʹ N
(65)
gostʹ
guest
sel
sit.down.PFV.PST
v
in
kreslo
armchair.ACC
‘The guest took a seat in the armchair.’
SIT sidetʹ N
(64)
on
he
vesʹ
all
denʹ
day
side-l
sit-PST.M.SG
na
on
divan-e
couch-LOC
‘He was sitting on the couch all day.’
RUN bežatʹ N
(60)
Maša
Mary
bystro
fast
beža-l-a
run-PST-F.SG
v
in
školu
school.ACC
‘Mary was running swiftly to school.’
JUMP prygnutʹ N
(48)
Tanja
Tanja
prygnu-l-a
jump-PST-F.SG
v
into
vod-u
water-ACC
‘Tanja jumped into the water.’
COME (2) prijti N
(22)
prišl-i
come.PST-PL
tri
three
čelovek-a
man-GEN
‘(These) three people came.’
LEAVE ujti N
(73)
on
he
ušël
leave.PST.M.SG
iz
out.of
dom-a
house-GEN
v
at
pjatʹ
five
utra
morning.GEN
‘He left the house at five o'clock in the morning.’
SING petʹ N
(23)
on
he
poët
sing.PRS.3SG
‘He sings.’
LIVE žitʹ N
(52)
ego
his
sem'ja
family
žila
live.PST.SG.F
v
in
Berline
Berlin.LOC
‘His family lived in Berlin.’
APPEAR pojavitʹsja N
(78)
prizrak
ghost
pojavi-l-sja
appear-PST-REFL
na
on
dorog-e
road-LOC
v
at
polnoč'
midnight
‘The ghost appeared on the road at midnight.’
FEEL PAIN boletʹ N
(77)
u
at
nego
he.GEN
strašno
terribly
bole-l-a
hurt-PST-F.SG
golova
head
‘He felt a terrible pain in his head.’
DIE umeretʹ N
(38)
on
he
umer
die.PFV.PST.M.SG
v
in
vozraste
age.LOC
devjanosta
ninety.GEN
let
year.GEN.PL
‘He died at the age of ninety.’
FALL upastʹ N
(79)
derevo
tree.NOM
upalo
fall.PFV.PST.SG.N
na
on
zabor
fence.ACC
‘The tree fell onto the fence.’
FEEL COLD mërznutʹ N
(40)
sobaka
dog.NOM
mërz-l-a
be.cold-PST-F.SG
vo
in
dvore
yard.LOC
‘The dog felt cold in the yard.’
BE HUNGRY bytʹ golodnym N
(29)
ja
1SG
golodnyj
hungry
kak
like
zverʹ
beast
‘I am hungry as a beast.’
RAIN dožd' idët N
(59)
celyj
whole
den'
day
šël
go.PST.M.SG
dožd'
rain.M
‘It was raining all day.’
BLINK morgnutʹ N
(80)
ona
she
morgnu-l-a
blink-PST-F.SG
glaza-mi
eyes-INS
‘She blinked with her eyes.’
BURN goretʹ N
(81)
dom
house.NOM
gore-l
burn-PST
‘The house was on fire.’
(82)
v
in
ego
his
komnat-e
room-LOC
gore-l
burn-PST
svet
light
‘The lights were on in his room.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) britʹ N
(83)
on
he
každyj
every
den'
day
bri-l
shave-PST.M.SG
borod-u
beard-ACC
èlektro-britv-oj
electric-shaver-INS
‘He shaved his beard with an electric shaver daily.’
GO idti N
(84)
rabočie
workers
idut
go.3PL
na
to
fabrik-u
factory-ACC
‘The workers are going to the factory.’
HUG obnjatʹ N
(85)
on
he
obnja-l
hug-PST.M.SG
svoego
his
syn-a
son-ACC
‘He hugged his son.’
LAUGH smejatʹsja N
(86)
Maša
Mary
dolgo
long_time
smeja-l-a-s'
laugh-PST-F.SG-REFL
‘Mary laughed for a long while.’
LEAVE uexatʹ N
(87)
v
in
prošlom
previous
godu
year
on
he
uexa-l
leave-PST.M.SG
iz
out.of
gorod-a
town-GEN
‘He left the town last year.’
PEEL očistitʹ N
(88)
povarënok
kitchen.boy
očisti-l
peel.PFV-PST.M.SG
kartošk-u
potatoes-ACC
ot
from
kožur-y
skin-GEN
‘The kitchen boy peeled the potatoes.’
PLAY igratʹ (1) N
(90)
Saša
Alex
igra-l
play-PST.M.SG
v
in
šaxmaty
chess.ACC
s
with
Dim-oj
Dmitrij-INS
‘Alex played chess with/against Dmitrij.’
ROLL katitʹsja N
(91)
mjač
ball
katit-sja
roll-REFL
po
on
futbol'nomu
football.LOC
polju
field.LOC
‘The ball is rolling on the soccer field.’
SCREAM vopit' N
(93)
rebënok
child.NOM
gromko
loudly
vopi-l
shout-PST.M.SG
‘The child was screaming loudly.’
DROWN utonutʹ N
(94)
posle
after
stolknovenija
crash.GEN
korablʹ
ship
utonu-l
PFV.sink-PST.M.SG
‘After the crash the ship sank.’
SMELL njuxatʹ N
(95)
devočka
girl
njuxa-l-a
smell-PST-F.SG
cvety
flowers.ACC
‘The girl smelled the flowers.’
THINK dumatʹ N
(96)
on
he
duma-l
think-PST.M.SG
tol'ko
only
o
about
rabote
work.LOC
‘He was thinking about work only.’
BOIL kipetʹ N
(97)
voda
water
uže
already
kipit
boils
‘The water is boiling already.’
COOK gotovitʹ N
(98)
on
he
gotovi-l
prepare-PST.M.SG
očenʹ
very
vkusnye
tasty
salaty
salads.ACC
‘He could make very tasty salads.’
DIG kopatʹ N
(99)
oni
they
kopa-l-i
dig-PST-PL
zemlju
ground.ACC
‘They were digging the ground / the soil.’
GRIND molotʹ N
(100)
ona
she
molo-l-a
grind-PST-F.SG
svežij
fresh
kofe
coffee.ACC
‘She was grinding fresh coffee.’
HEAR uslyšatʹ N
(101)
ja
1SG
uslyša-l
hear-PST.M.SG
šum
noise.ACC
reki
river.GEN
‘I heard the noise of the river.’
PUSH tolknutʹ N
(102)
mal'čik
boy
tolknu-l
push-PST.M.SG
drug-a
friend-ACC
v
into
lužu
puddle.ACC
‘The boy pushed his friend into a puddle.’
TEACH naučitʹ N
(103)
roditeli
parents
nauči-l-i
teach-PST-PL
ego
he.ACC
ispanskomu
spanish.DAT
jazyk-u
language-DAT
‘His parents taught him Spanish.’
PLAY igratʹ (2) N
(89)
ego
his
doč
daughter
xorošo
well
igra-et
play-3SG
na
on
skripk-e
violin-LOC
‘His daughter plays the violin well.’
COOK varitʹ N
(106)
ona
she
varit
cook.3SG
sup
soup.ACC
‘She is cooking soup.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
BE SAD grustitʹ N
(113)
ona
she
dolgo
long_time
grusti-l-a
be_sad-PST-F.SG
‘She was sad for a long time.’