Examples of Ojibwe

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
Gwiiwzens gii-miijin maanwang.
Gwiiwzens gii-miijin maanwang.
gwiiwizens
boy.AN
o-gii-miij-i-n
3ERG-PAST-VTI.eat.IN-IN.OBJ-N
maaniwang
IN.PT.fruit
‘The boy ate the fruit.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(2)
Kwe gii-aabtoojiinaan gwiiwzensman.
Kwe gii-aabtoojiinaan gwiiwzensman.
akwew
woman.AN
o-gii-aabitoojiin-aa-an
3ERG-PAST-VTA.hug.AN-3OBJ-AN.OBV
o-gwiiwizensim-an
3POSS-little.boy-AN.OBV
‘The woman hugged her little boy.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(3)
Gwiiwzens gii-gnawaabmaan kwezensan.
Gwiiwzens gii-gnawaabmaan kwezensan.
gwiiwizens
boy.AN
o-gii-ganawaabam-aa-an
3ERG-PAST-look.at.AN-3OBJ-AN.OBV
akwezens-an
girl.AN-AN.OBV
‘The boy saw the girl.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(4)
Nini gii-waabmaan mkoon.
Nini gii-waabmaan mkoon.
aniniw
man.AN
o-gii-waabam-aa-an
3ERG-PAST-see.AN-3OBJ-AN.OBV
makwa-an
bear.AN-AN.OBV
‘The man saw the bear.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(5)
Mko gii-biijmaamaan gwiiwzensan.
Mko gii-biijmaamaan gwiiwzensan.
makwa
bear.AN
gii-biijimaam-aa-an
PAST-VTA.smell.AN-3OBJ-AN.OBV
gwiiwizens-an
boy.AN-AN.OBV
‘The bear smelled the boy.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1 V.objI[2] 2
(6)
Nini gii-gsaan mkoon
Nini gii-gsaan mkoon.
aniniw
man.AN
gii-goS-aa-an
PAST-VTA.fear.AN-3OBJ-AN.OBV
makwa-an
bear.AN-AN.OBV
‘The man feared the bear.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1 V.objI[2] 2
(7)
Mko gii-zeghaan ninwan.
Mko gii-zeghaan ninwan.
makwa
bear.AN
o-gii-zegih-aa-an
3ERG-PAST-VTA.frighten.AN-3OBJ-AN.OBV
aniniw-an
man.AN-AN.OBV
‘The bear frightened the man.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(8)
Kwezens gii-kenmaan gwiiwzensan.
Kwezens gii-kenmaan gwiiwzensan.
akwezens
girl.AN
o-gii-gikenim-aa-an
3ERG-PAST-VTA.know.AN-3OBJ-AN.OBV
gwiiwizens-an
boy.AN-AN.OBV
‘The girl knew the boy.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(9)
Ninwag gii-ndanewaawaan kwewan.
Ninwag gii-ndanewaawaan kwewan.
aniniw-ag
man.AN-AN.PL
o-gii-nandaneh-w-aa-waa-an
3ERG-PAST-search.for-TR.AN-3OBJ-3PL-AN.OBV
akwew-an
woman.AN-AN.OBV
‘The men searched for the women.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(10)
Gashwan binoojiins gii-gziibiignigoon.
Gashwan binoojiins gii-gziibiignigoon.
o-gashiw-an
3POSS-mother.AN-OBV
abinoojiins
baby.AN
o-gii=giziibiigin-igo-an
3ERG-PAST=wash.TR-INV-OBV
‘His mother (obv.) washed the boy (prox.).’
WASH a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(11)
Gii-biiskon’yehgoon kwezens ’gashwan
Gii-biiskon’yehgoon kwezens ’gashwan.
o-gii=biizikonaye-ih-igo-an
3ERG-PAST=wear.clothes/dress.AI-CAUS.TR.AN-INV-OBV
akwezens
girl.AN
o-gashiw-an
3POSS-mother.AN-OBV
‘The girl (prox.) was dressed by her mother (obv.).’
DRESS the Verb form biiskon'yehaad
(12)
Nini gii-gaashkbaazo.
Nini gii-gaashkbaazo.
aniniw
man.AN
gii=gaashkibaa-zo-w
PAST=shave-AN.INTR.MIDDLE-3SBJ
‘The man shaved (his beard).’
SHAVE (self) a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(13)
Ngii-naadmawaag gwiiwzensag.
ni
1SBJ
gii=naadam-aw-aa-ag
PAST=help-TR.AN-3OBJ-AN.PL
gwiiwizens-ag
boy.AN-AN.PL
‘I helped the boys.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(14)
Gwiiwzensag ’gii-bminaashkwaawaan kwezensan.
Gwiiwzensag ’gii-bminaashkwaawaan kwezensan.
gwiiwizens-ag
boy.AN-AN.PL
o-gii=noopinaN-aa-waa-an
3ERG-PAST=follow.AN-3OBJ-3PL-OBV
akwezans-an
girl.AN-OBV
‘The boys followed the girls.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(15)
Zgimenyag wdamwaawaan bemaadzin'jin.
Zgimeny-ag
mosquito-AN.PL
wd-amw-aa-waa-an
pref-eat.AN-TH-3PL-OBV
bemaadzin'jin.
people.AN.OBV
‘Mosquitoes eat human beings.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(16)
Weweni dash gii-aabtoojiinaan niw mtigoon.
weweni
properly
dash
then
o-gii-aabitoojiiN-aa-an
3ERG-PAST-grip.AN-3OBJ-OBV
aniw
that.AN.OBV
mitigw-an
tree.AN-OBV
‘He got a good grip round that tree.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(17)
Gii-gmiwan dbikong.
gii-gimiwan-w
PAST-rain.II-3SBJ
dibikong
last.night
‘It rained last night.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
V.subjS[1]
(18)
Maaba bsagaak nakaazan; baasa maaba.
maaba
this.AN
basagaakw
board.AN
anakaazo-n
use-2S.IMP
baaso-w
dry.AI-3SBJ
maaba
this.AN
‘Use this board; it's dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(19)
Baate ki.
baate-w
dry.II-0SBJ
aky
ground.IN
‘The ground is dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(20)
Zkide wiigwaam.
zakide-w
burn.II-0SBJ
wiigiwaam
house.IN
‘The house is burning.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(21)
Megwaa giiwenh miikkamgak waya gii-mdwe-noondaagzid, "Gzakzomi!".
megwaa
while
giiwenh
evidently
miikakamigad-g
have.a.good.time-0SBJ
waya
someone
gii-madwe-noondaagozi-d
PAST-within.earshot-shout-3SBJ
gi-zakizo-mi
2SBJ-be.on.fire.AI-1PL
‘One time in one of these hotels, everybody was having a good time, when somebody shouted in the distance: 'We're on fire!'.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(22)
Gii-gzaabii jiimaan.
gii-gonzaabii-w
PAST-sink.II-0SBJ
jiimaan
boat.IN
‘The boat sank.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(23)
Gtigse bkaakod.
gotigose-w
roll.II-0SBJ
bikaakod
ball.IN
‘The ball is rolling.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(24)
Njiimaan gii-gtigse.
ni-jiimaan
1POSS-canoe.IN
gii-gotigose-w
PAST-roll.II-0SBJ
‘My canoe tipped over.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(25)
Giiwse-nini aawi.
giiwose-aniniw
hunter.AN-man.AN
aawi-w
be.AI-3SBJ
‘This man is a hunter.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
V.subjS[1]
(26)
Giiwse-nini maaba.
giiwose-aniniw
hunter.AN-man.AN
maaba
this.AN
‘This (man) is a hunter.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
V.subjS[1]
(27)
Bkade binoojiins.
bakade-w
be.hungry.AI-3SBJ
abinoojiins
child.AN
‘The baby is hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(28)
Maanaadendam kwezens.
maanaadendam-w
be.sad.AI-3SBJ
akwezens
girl.AN
‘The little girl is/was sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(29)
Gnebig gii-nbo.
ginebigw
snake.AN
gii-nibo-w
PAST-die.AI-3SBJ
‘The snake died.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(30)
Nbiingej.
ni-biingeji
1SBJ-be.cold.AI
‘I'm cold.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(31)
Ngiikiijnike.
ni-giikiijinike
1SBJ-have.sore.arm.AI
‘My arm is hurting.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1 < 2 > V.subjS[1]
(32)
Ndaakzin ko ngidig mdookak.
ni(d)-aakozi-n
1SBJ-be.ill.AI-N
ako
usually
ni-gidig
1POSS-knee
midookad-g
be.damp.II-0SBJ
‘I usually have pain in my knee when the weather is damp.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1 subjS[1].V.objII[2] 2
(33)
Gii-mbiigzi nini.
gii-ombiigizi-w
PAST-scream.AI-3SBJ
aniniw
man.AN
‘The man screamed.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(34)
Aw kwezens gii-baapi.
aw
that.AN
akwezens
girl.AN
gii-baapi-w
PAST-laugh.AI-3SBJ
‘The little girl laughed.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(35)
Binoojiinh damno.
abinoojiinh
child.AN
odamino-w
play.AI-3SBJ
‘The child is playing.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(36)
Gekaajig oodenaang daawag.
gekaad-ig
old.person.AI-AN.PL
oodenaw-ing
town.IN-LOC
daa-w-ag
live.there.AI-3SBJ-AN.PL
‘The old people live in town.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1] 2-loc
(37)
Oodenaang dnakii.
oodenaw-ing
town.IN-LOC
danakii-w
live.there.AI-3SBJ
‘He lives in Detroit.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1] 2-loc
(38)
Gwiiwzens wgii-n'gadaan oodena.
gwiiwizens
boy.AN
o-gii-nagad-am-n
3ERG-PAST-leave.IN-IN.OBJ-N
oodena
town.IN
‘The boy left the village/town.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(39)
Aaniish igo naa gaa-ikidoyeg wii-nagazhiyaang?
aaniish
how
igo
EMPH
naa
EMPH
IC-gii-ikido-eg
REL.CL-PAST-speak.AI-2P.SBJ
wii-nagaN-i-aang
DES-leave.AN-1OBJ-1PL
‘How can you (pl.) speak of leaving us?’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(40)
Kwe gii-zhaa daawegamgong.
akwew
woman.AN
gii-izhaa-w
PAST-go.AI-3SBJ
adaawewigamigw-ing
store.IN-LOC
‘The woman went to the store.’
GO a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1] 2-loc
(41)
Gwiiwzens gii-n'gamo.
gwiiwizens
boy.AN
gii-nagamo-w
PAST-sing.AI-3SBJ
‘The boy sang (a song).’
SING a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(42)
Kwezens gii-mbigwaashkni.
akwezens
girl.AN
gii-ombigwaashkoni-w
PAST-jump.up.AI-3SBJ
‘The girl jumped.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(43)
Biiji-gwaashknin.
biiji-gwaashkoni-n
hither-jump.AI-2S.IMP
‘Jump towards me.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(44)
Binoojiinyag gii-nmadbiwag maa mchisag.
abinoojiinh-ag
child.AN-AN.PL
gii-namadabi-w-ag
PAST-sit.AI-3SBJ-AN.PL
maa
there
michisag
on.the.floor
‘The children sat on the floor.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(45)
Bezhgoogzhiinh bmibtoo.
bezhigooganzhiinh
horse.AN
bimibatoo-w
run.along.AI-3SBJ
‘The horse is running.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(46)
Ninwag gii-bmaandwaawaan mtigoon.
aniniw-ag
man.AN-AN.PL
gii-bimaandaw-aa-waa-an
PAST-climb.AN-3OBJ-3PL-OBV
‘The men climbed (the tree).’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1 V.objI[2] 2
(47)
Kiwenzii gii-zosdam.
akiwenziiy
old.man.AN
gii-ozosodam-w
PAST-cough.AI-3SBJ
‘The old man coughed.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(48)
Ngii-pasknaab.
ni-gii-bapaskinaabi
1SBJ-PAST-blink.AI
‘I blinked.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(49)
Wgii-biiskon'yehgoon kwezens wgashwan.
o-gii-biiskonayeh-igoo-an
3ERG-PAST-dress.AN-INV-OBV
akwezens
girl.AN
o-gashiw-an
3POSS-mother.AN-OBV
‘Her mother dressed the girl (i.e., her own daughter).’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(50)
Ninwag wgii-nkweshkwaawaan wgwiiwzensman.
aniniw-ag
man.AN-AN.PL
o-gii-nakweshkaw-aa-waa-an
3ERG-PAST-meet.AN-3OBJ-3PL-AN.OBV
o-gwiiwizensim-an
3POSS-little.boy-AN.OBV
‘The men met the boys.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(51)
Kwezens wgii-tanenmaan ookmisan bjiinaago.
akwezens
girl.AN
o-gii-dadanemin-aa-an
3SBJ-PAST-think.about.AN-3OBJ-OBV
o-ookomis-an
3POSS-grandmother.AN-OBV
bijiinaago
yesterday
‘The girl thought about her grandmother yesterday.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(52)
Gwiiwzens wgii-mdaagwendaan da-shki-damnowin.
gwiiwizens
boy.AN
o-gii-mandaagwend-am-n
3ERG-PAST-like.IN-IN.OBJ-N
o-oshki-odaminowin
3POSS-new-toy.IN
‘The boy liked his new toy.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(53)
Gbishgendaan na?
gi-bishigend-am-n
2ERG-like.IN-IN.OBJ-N
na
YES/NO.Q
‘Do you like it?’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(54)
Maaba genii dnawa mndaamin nbishgenmaa.
maaba
this.AN
genii
as.for.me
danawa
kind
mandaamin
corn.AN
ni-bishigenim-aa
1SBJ-like.AN-3OBJ
‘I like this kind of corn.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(55)
Ggii-gnawaabndaan na Titanic?
gi-gii-ganawaaband-am-n
2ERG-PAST-watch.IN-IN.OBJ-N
na
YES/NO.Q
Titanic
Titanic.IN
‘Did you watch [the movie] "Titanic"?’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(56)
Aanoodwewemaan niwin wmamaanyin pane zhoonyaans ndadmawaad.
aanoodwewem-aa-an
exasperate.AN-3OBJ-OBV
niwin
that.OBV
o-mamaanh-an
3POSS-mother.AN-OBV
apane
always
zhooniyaans
money.IN
andodamaw-aa-d
ask.AN.for-3OBJ-3SBJ
‘He exasperates his mother always asking her for money.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(57)
Ogii-ganoonaan dash aw gwiiwizens aniw oosan.
o-gii-ganooN-aa-an
3SBJ-PAST-speak.to.AN-3OBJ-OBV
dash
then
aw
that.AN
gwiiwizens
boy.AN
aniw
that.AN.OBV
o-oos-an
3POSS-father.AN-OBV
‘Then that young man addressed his father.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(58)
Ngii-wiindmaag wiidgemaagnan aakzinid.
ni-gii-wiindamaw-igw
1SBJ-PAST-tell.AN-INV
o-wiidigemaagan-an
3POSS-spouse.AN-OBV
aakozi-ni-d
be.ill.AI-OBV-3SBJ
‘He told me his wife was ill.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2 UTT3
(59)
Aa nii nga-waabndaan, kido dash aw kiwenziinh.
aa
well
nii
I
ni-ga-waaband-am-n
1SBJ-FUT-see.IN-IN.OBJ-N
ikido-w
say.AN-3SBJ
dash
then
aw
that.AN
akiwenziiny
old.man.AN
‘"Well, let me take a look at it," says the old man.’
SAY a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1] UTT2
(60)
Gii-naan dash wshiimenyan, Gego wiin zegziken.
o-gii-iN-aa-an
3ERG-PAST-say.to.AN-3OBJ-OBV
dash
then
o-shiimeny-an
3POSS-younger.sibling.AN-AN.OBV
gego
don't
wiin
at.all
zegizi-ke-n
be.afraid.AN-PROHIB-2SBJ
‘Then he said to his younger brother, "Don't be afraid.".’
SAY a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2 UTT3
(61)
Mookmaanens gii-giishkkodaan mtigoons.
mookomaanens
little.knife.IN
o-gii-giishkikod-am-n
3SBJ-PAST-cut.IN-IN.OBJ-N
mitigoons
stick.IN
‘With his pocketknife he whittled through the stick.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2 (3)
(62)
Mii dash eta niiwin gii-daapnaawaad pwaagnan.
mii
and
dash
so
eta
just
niiwin
four
o-gii-odaapiN-aa-waa-d
3SBJ-PAST-take.AN-3OBJ-3P.SBJ-3SBJ
opwaagan-an
pipe.AN-OBV
‘Only four of them took the pipe.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(63)
Wgii-bchi-gaakbidoon wi bbagoyaan; wiiksatoonaaba wii-bna'ang.
o-gii-bichi-gaakibid-oo-n
3SBJ-PAST-accidentally-tear.IN-IN.OBJ-N
iwi
that.IN
babagoyaan
shirt.IN
o-wiikasat-oo-n(aa)-ban
3SBJ-jerk.IN-IN.OBJ-N-PRET
‘She tore the shirt by mistake; she was jerking it to take it off the [clothes]line.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(64)
Gii-bnagjiiknaag na mshi piniig?
gi-gii-banagijiikoN-aa-ag
2SBJ-PAST-peel.AN-3OBJ-AN.PL
ina
yes/no.Q
mashi
yet
opiny-ag
potato.AN-AN.PL
‘Did you peel the potatoes yet?’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(65)
Nga-bnagjiikdaanan na jiisensan?
ni-ga-banagijiikod-am-n-an
1SBJ-FUT-peel.IN-IN.OBJ-N-IN.PL
ina
yes/no.Q
jiisens-an
carrot.IN-IN.PL
‘Shall I peel the carrots?’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(66)
Ngii-nagjiibnaa wa ezaamin'gaanh.
ni-gii-banagijiibiN-aa
1ERG-PAST-peel.AN-3OBJ
iwa
that.AN
ezaaminagaany
orange.AN
‘I peeled that/the orange.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(67)
Baamaa dash zhgwa nendwenmaajin aw kiwenziinh gii-bwaanaanid...
baamaa
later
dash
then
zhigwa
now
IC
when
nandawenim-aa-d-in
want.AN-3OBJ-3SBJ-OBV
aw
that.AN
akiwenziiny
old.man.AN
gii-bawaaN-aa-ni-d
PAST-dream.of.AN-3OBJ-OBV-3SBJ
‘Finally, when the other had dreamt of that being which the old man desired, then he would give his son something to eat...’
WANT a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(68)
Gnandwenmin da-miijyan.
gi-nandawenim-in
2SBJ-want.AN-INV
da-miij-i-yan
to-eat.IN-IN.OBJ-2SBJ
‘I want you to eat it.’
WANT a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(69)
Gaa dash iw dnawa nokiiwin ngii-ndawendnziin.
gaa
not
dash
but
iw
that.IN
danawa
kind
anokiiwin
work.IN
ni-gii-andawend-am-sii-n
1SBJ-PAST-want.IN-IN.OBJ-NEG-N
‘I didn't want that kind of work.’
WANT a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(70)
Mii maa zhaazhi go giw bemaadzijig ndo-nsaawaad niw sa Nishnaaben bkaan enwen'jin.
mii
it's
imaa
there
zhaazhi
long.ago
igo
EMPH
agiw
those.AN
bemaadizij-ig
person-AN.PL
ando-nis-aa-waa-d
seek-kill.AN-3OBJ-3PL-3SBJ
aniw
those.AN
sa
EMPH
anishinaabe-an
Indian-OBV
bakaan
different
enwenijin
language
‘For in the old time those people tried to kill the Indian of other tongue.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(71)
Ngii-bkigdoonehog, ngii-bkitehog ndooning.
ni-gii-bakigidoonehw-igw
1SBJ-PAST-hit.AN.on.mouth-INV
ni-gii-bakitehw
1SBJ-PAST-hit.AN
ni-doon-ing
1POSS-mouth.IN-LOC
‘He hit me on my mouth; he gave me a blow on my mouth.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(72)
Mii dash bakitehang iw biiwaanagwaabik.
mii
and
dash
then
bakiteh-am-g
hit.IN-IN.OBJ-3SBJ
iw
that.IN
biiwaanagwaabik
flint.IN
‘Then he strikes that flint stone.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(73)
Wewiib ogii-gakinaawaan agiw gaa-wiidookaagojig.
wewiib
right.away
o-gii-gakin-aa-waa
3SUBJ-PAST-conceal.AN-3OBJ-3PL
agiw
those.AN
gaawiidookaagojig
who.OBV.helped.him.PROX
‘Those whom he helped had quickly concealed him.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(74)
Gii-bookbidoon dabwi.
o-gii-bookobid-oo-n
3SBJ-PAST-break.IN-IN.OBJ-N
od-abwi
3POSS-paddle.IN
‘He broke his paddle.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(75)
Gii-zhiwnaan widi megyaak; gii-zhinoohmawaan zaagkiinig iw mshkiki.
o-gii-izhiwin-aa-an
3SBJ-PAST-take.AN-3OBJ-OBV
widi
there
megwayaak
woods
o-gii-zhinoohamaw-aa-an
3SBJ-PAST-show.AN-3OBJ-OBV
zaagakii-ni-g
grow.IN-OBV-0SBJ
iw
that.IN
mashkikiw
medicine.IN
‘He took him into the woods; and showed him where that herb grew.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(76)
Gonda-sh bnewag gga-miin'goo.
agonda
these.AN
dash
then
binew-ag
partridge.AN-AN.PL
gi-ga-miiN-igoo
2SBJ-FUT-give.AN-PASS
‘We will give you these partridges.’
GIVE the Verb form miinaad
(77)
Ngii-ni-niindaahaa zhoon'yaa.
ni-gii-ani-niindaah-aa
1ERG-PAST-AWAY-send.to.AN-3OBJ
zhooniyaa
money.IN
‘I sent him some money.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2 (3)
(78)
Nahii dash giiwenh giwi gii-bmiwdoonaawaa zhmaagnishii-gimaag gchi-gozhewin giiwenh.
nahii
well
dash
then
giiwenh
allegedly
giwi
those.AN
o-gii-bimiwid-oo-naawaa
3SBJ-PAST-carry.IN-IN.OBJ-3PL
zhimaaganishiiogimaa-ag
military.officer.AN-AN.PL
gichi-agozhewin
big-covering.IN
‘Military officers evidently used to carry large blankets with them.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(79)
Ngii-dkobdoon nmakzin.
ni-gii-dakobid-oo-n
1SBJ-PAST-tie.IN-IN.OBJ-N
ni-makizin
1POSS-shoe.IN
‘I have tied my shoe.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(80)
Ogii-dakobinaan asabaab ji-awa-gwaabahaminid iw nibiish.
o-gii-dakobiN-aa-an
3SBJ-PAST-tie.AN-3OBJ-OBV
asabaab
rope.AN
ji-awa-gwaabah-am-ini-d
COMP-TRANS-scoop.IN-IN.OBJ-OBV-3SBJ
iw
that.IN
nibiish
water.IN
‘He tied him on a rope and he was to go scoop up water.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2 (3)
(81)
Binoojiinyag gii-nmadbiwag maa e-gnooyaag gwiidbwining.
abinoojiiny-ag
child.AN-AN.PL
gii-namadabi-w-ag
PAST-sit.AN-3SBJ-AN.PL
imaa
there
e-ginooyaa-g
REL-be.long.IN-3SBJ
gwiidabiwin-ing
chair.IN-LOC
‘The children sat down on the bench.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(82)
Dasaan niw gaawyan makzining.
o-aS-aa-an
3SBJ-put.on.AN-3OBJ-OBV
aniw
that.AN.OBV
gaaway-an
porcupine.quill.AN-OBV
makizin-ing
shoe.IN-LOC
‘She is putting those quills on her moccasins.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2 3-loc
(83)
Nbiish gii-toon kikong.
nibiish
water.IN
o-gii-at-oo-n
3SBJ-PAST-put.IN-IN.OBJ-N
akikw-ing
kettle.AN-LOC
‘She put some water in the kettle.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2 3-loc
(84)
Pii wii-aabjitooyan maanda wiikwebjigan mii da-ziignaman maa moozhwegaansing.
apii
when
wii-aabajit-oo-an
FUT-use.IN-IN.OBJ-2SBJ
maanda
this.IN
wiikwebijigan
love.medicine.IN
mii
then
da-ziigan-am-an
FUT-pour.IN-IN.OBJ-2SBJ
maa
there
moozhwegaans-ing
handkerchief.IN-LOC
‘When you are ready to use this love medicine, then you must pour it on a handkerchief.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2 3-loc
(85)
Gbahan wi mnoomin mnazman, wii-bwaa-bengdeg.
gibah-am-n
cover.IN-IN.OBJ-2SBJ
awi
that.IN
manoomin
rice.IN
minaz-am-an
cook.IN-IN.OBJ-2SBJ
wii-bwaa-bengide-g
FUT-NEG-dry.II-3SBJ
‘Cover that rice when you cook it so it doesn't dry out.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(86)
Kina aabdeg gwii-gbawaag giwi gindaaswinag blackout pii damnang.
gakina
all
aabideg
necessary
gi-wii-gibaw-aa-ag
2SBJ-FUT-cover.AN-3OBJ-AN.PL
agiwi
those.AN
agindaasowin-ag
number.AN-AN.PL
blackout
blackout
apii
when
odamino-ng
play.AI-XSBJ
‘You have to cover all the numbers when playing blackout [in bingo].’
COVER a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(87)
Nwaabndaan wjiimaanwaa.
ni-waaband-am-n
1SBJ-see.IN-IN.OBJ-N
o-jiimaan-waa
3POSS-boat.IN-3P.POSS
‘I see their boat.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(88)
Ga-biijmaandaan maanda mshkiki.
o-ga-biijimaand-am-g
3ERG-FUT-smell.IN-IN.OBJ-3SBJ
maanda
this.IN
mashkikiw
medicine.IN
‘He will smell this medicine.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(89)
Waasechganaabik aawan maanda, plastic dash gewii aawan wi.
waasechiganaabikw
glass.IN
aawan-w
be.IN-0SBJ
maanda
this.IN
plastic
plastic.IN
dash
but
gewii
as.for.it
aawan-w
be.IN-0SBJ
wi
that.IN
‘This is glass, whereas that is plastic.’
BE A HUNTER the Verb form no direct counterpart
(90)
Pinaaboo genii nga-ndodaan.
pinaaboo
potato.soup.IN
genii
as.for.me
ni-ga-andod-am-n
1SBJ-FUT-ask.for.IN-IN.OBJ-N
‘I'll ask for potato soup. [e.g. at a restaurant].’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(91)
Penag ngii-kwedwenag.
pen-ag
pen.AN-AN.PL
ni-gii-gagwedwe-n-ag
1SBJ-PAST-ask.for-N-AN.PL
‘I asked for the pens.’
ASK FOR the Verb form ndodang
(92)
Lemon pie ngii-ndodmaagen.
lemon_pie
lemon_pie.AN
ni-gii-andodamaage-n
1SBJ-PAST-ask.for.VAIO-N
‘I asked for lemon pie.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1 subjS[1].V.objII[2] 2
(93)
Gii-bmaandwaadaanaawaa binoojiinyag pakwan.
o-gii-bimaandawaad-am-n(aa)-waa
3SBJ-PAST-climb.IN-IN.OBJ-N-3PL
abinjoojiinh-ag
child.AN-AN.PL
pakwan
roof.IN
‘The children climbed on the roof.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(94)
Giigoonyin mnozwaan.
giigoonh-an
fish.AN-OBV
o-minozw-aa-an
3SBJ-cook.AN-3OBJ-OBV
‘He's cooking fish.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(95)
Nenaabgaanh nga-mnozaan.
nenaabgaanh
rolled.oat.IN
ni-ga-minoz-am-n
1SBJ-FUT-cook.IN-IN.OBJ-N
‘I'll cook rolled oats.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(96)
Piniin moon'hwaan.
opiny-an
potato.AN-OBV
o-moonahw-aa-an
3SBJ-dig.AN-3OBJ-OBV
‘He's digging up potatoes.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(97)
Gtaan nbiish.
o-got-am-n
3SBJ-fear.IN-IN.OBJ-N
nbiish
water.IN
‘He's afraid of water.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(98)
Ngii-mooshknadoon kokbinaagan.
ni-gii-mooshkonad-oo
1SBJ-PAST-fill.IN-IN.OBJ
akokobinaagan
basket.IN
‘I filled the basket.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(99)
Ngii-mooshknanaa kik.
ni-gii-mooshkonan-aa
1SBJ-PAST-fill.AN-3OBJ
akikw
pail.AN
‘I fillled the pail.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(100)
Ngii-mooshknebdoon mooday.
ni-gii-mooshkonebid-oo-n
1SBJ-PAST-fill.IN-IN.OBJ-N
omooday
bottle.IN
‘I filled the bottle.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(101)
Ngii-mooshknebnaa kik.
ni-gii-mooshkonebiN-aa
1SBJ-PAST-fill.AN.by.hand-3OBJ
akikw
kettle.AN
‘I filled the kettle.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(102)
Gii-noondaan gdotaagan.
o-gii-noond-am-n
3ERG-PAST-hear.IN-IN.OBJ-N
godotaagan
bell.IN
‘He heard the bell.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(103)
Gookookoo ngii-noondwaa.
gookookohoo
owl.AN
ni-gii-noondaw-aa
1ERG-PAST-hear.AN-3OBJ
‘I heard an owl.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(104)
Gii-gkidoonan ziizbaakdoonsan.
o-gii-gakid-oo-n-an
3ERG-PAST-hide.IN-IN.OBJ-N-IN.PL
ziizibaakwadoons-an
candy.IN-IN.PL
‘He hid the candies.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(105)
Ngii-ntoon nzaagkiichgan.
ni-gii-nit-oo-n
1ERG-PAST-kill.IN-IN.OBJ-N
ni-zaagikiichigan
1POSS-house.plant.IN
‘I killed my houseplant.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(106)
Gkendaan wi edming.
o-gikend-am-n
3ERG-know.IN-IN.OBJ-N
iwi
that.IN
IC-id-am-ing
REL.CL-mean.IN-IN.OBJ-X
‘He knows what that means.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(107)
?Ngii-booz'haa detbisenh truckoonsing.
ni-gii-boozih-aa
1ERG-PAST-load.AN-3OBJ
detibisenh
tire.AN
truckoons-ing
truck.AN-LOC
‘I loaded the tire onto the truck.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2 3-loc
(108)
Gii- boozdoon niwin mkakoonyin.
o-
3ERG-
gii-
PAST-
boozid-oo-n
load.IN-IN.OBJ-N
aniwin
those.IN
makakoony-an
box.IN-IN.PL
‘He loaded those boxes [on the vehicle].’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(109)
Ngoding go gewii da-nkweshkaan gichi-znagendmowin.
ningoding
one.day
igo
EMPH
gewiin
he.too
o-nakweshk-am-n
3ERG-encounter.IN-IN.OBJ-N
gichi-zanagendamowin
big-problem.IN
‘One day he too will encounter a big problem.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(110)
Gaawii mshi waawiinaasiin nimshan.
gaawiin
not
mashi
yet
o-waawiiN-aa-sii-n
3ERG-name.AN-3OBJ-NEG-N
animosh-an
dog.AN-OBV
‘He hasn't named the dog yet.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(111)
Waawiindaanaawaan jiimaanwaan Zhaagnaashag.
o-waawiind-am-n(aa)-waa-an
3ERG-name.IN-IN.OBJ-N-3PL-IN.PL
o-jiimaan-waa-an
3POSS-boat.IN-3PL-IN.PL
zhaaganaash-ag
white.person-AN.PL
‘White people name their boats.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(112)
'Fido' gii-zhinkaanaan dayan.
Fido
Fido
o-gii-izhinikaaN-aa-an
3ERG-PAST-name.AN-3OBJ-AN.OBV
o-day-an
3POSS-dog.AN-OBV
‘He named his dog, 'FIdo.'.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2 (3)
(113)
Ngii-bnagjiibdoon mbananoo.
ni-gii-banagijiibid-oo-n
1ERG-PAST-peel.IN-IN.OBJ-N
mbananoo
banana.IN
‘I peeled the banana.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(114)
Shawekna gii-zhi-gaandnaawaan daabaanan.
ashawekana
side.of.road
o-gii-izhi-gaandin-aa-waa-an
3ERG-PAST-there-push.AN-3OBJ-3PL-OBV
odaabaan-an
car.AN-OBV
‘They pushed the car to the side of the road.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(115)
Gaandnaan bshkozhgan.
o-gaandin-am-n
3ERG-push.IN-IN.OBJ-N
bashkozhigan
lawnmower.IN
‘He's pushing the lawnmower.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(116)
Gtigse detbisenh.
gotigise-w
roll.AN-3SBJ
detibisenh
tire.AN
‘The tire is rolling.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(117)
Gii-noondaagzi nini.
gii-noondaagozi-w
PAST-scream.AI-3SBJ
aniniw
man.AN
‘The man is screamed.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(118)
Ndanehan sabaab.
andaneh-am-n
search.for.IN-IN.OBJ-2S.IMP
asabaab
rope.IN
‘Look for a rope.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(119)
Ngii-waabndahaa gaa-zhitooyin waabowaan.
ni-gii-waabandah-aa
1ERG-PAST-show.AN-3OBJ
IC-gii-ozhit-oo-an
REL.CL-PAST-make.IN-IN.OBJ-2SBJ
waabowaan
quilt.IN
‘I showed her the quilt you made.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(120)
Gaawii gii-ntaa-bgizsii, mii dash gii-gzaabiid.
gaawii
not
gii-nitaa-bgizo-sii-w
PAST-be.good.at-swim.AI-NEG-3SBJ
mii
so
dash
then
gii-gonzaabii-d
PAST-sink-3SBJ
‘He wasn't a good swimmer, so he drowned.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(121)
Gii-gmoodmaan zhoon'yaans.
o-gii-gimoodim-aa-an
3ERG-PAST-steal.from.AN-3OBJ-OBV
zhooniyaans
money.IN
‘He stole money from her.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2 (3)
(122)
Ngii-daapnaan wi jiimaan.
ni-gii-odaapin-am-n
1ERG-PAST-take.IN-IN.OBJ-N
wi
that.IN
jiimaan
boat.IN
‘I took that boat.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(123)
Weweni gii-gkinoohmawaan niijaansan.
weweni
well
o-gii-gikinoohamaw-aa-an
3ERG-PAST-teach.AN-3OBJ-OBV
o-niijaanis-an
3POSS-child.AN-OBV
‘She taught her children well.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(124)
Gii-gaakbinaan mooshkweniiganan.
o-gii-gaakibiN-aa-an
3ERG-PAST-tear.AN-3OBJ-OBV
mooshkweniigan-an
handkerchief.AN-OBV
‘She tore the handkerchief.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(125)
Ngoji gii-pagdaan wi gete-miijmenh.
ningoji
away
o-
3ERG-
gii-
PAST-
apagid-am-n
throw.IN-IN.OBJ-N
iwi
that.IN
gete-miijim-enh
old-food.IN-CNT
‘He threw that old food away.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(126)
Ngoji gii-pagnaan niwi kikwaabkoonyin.
ningoji
away
o-
3ERG-
gii-
PAST-
apagiN-aa-an
throw.AN-AN.OBJ-OBV
niwi
those.AN.OBV
akikwaabikoonh-an
tin.can.AN-AN.OBV
‘He threw those tin cans away.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(127)
Gdaa-piichidehesii wii-daangnad wa gnebig!
gi-daa-apiichidehe-sii
2SBJ-would-be.brave.enough.AI-NEG
wii-daangin-ad
would-touch.AN-2S:3S
awa
that.AN
ginebigw
snake.AN
‘You're not brave enough to touch that snake!’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(128)
Gego daangnange wi, bjiinag wi ngii-shoosgahaan.
gego
don't
daangin-am-ken
touch.IN-IN.OBJ-NEG
iwi
that.IN
bijiinag
recently
iwi
that.IN
ni-gii-zhazhoosagah-am-n
1ERG-PAST-paint.IN-IN.OBJ-N
‘Don't touch that, I just recently painted it.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(129)
Weweni gziibiignan niwin moodyin.
weweni
properly
giziibiigin-am-n
wash.IN-IN.OBJ-2S.IMP
niwin
those.IN
mooday-an
bottle.IN-IN.PL
‘Wash those bottles properly.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(130)
Gii-giiwseniniiwi.
gii-giiwseniniiwi-w
PAST-be.hunter-3SBJ
‘He was a hunter.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(131)
Gaawii wii go gii-jaagzosii.
gaawii
not
wii
EMPH
go
EMPH
gii-jaagizo-sii-w
PAST-burn.AN-NEG-3SBJ
‘It (anim.) didn't burn (up).’
BURN a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(132)
Nmooshknadoon wi naagaans mii dash aazhta-ziignagwaa kokbinaaganing giwi mskomnag.
ni-mooshkad-oo-n
1SBJ-fill.IN-IN.OBJ-N
wi
that.IN
naagaans
cup
mii
and
dash
then
aazhita-ziigin-ag-waa
one.to.another-pour.AN-1SBJ-3PL
kokbinaagan-ing
basket-LOC
giwi
those.AN
miskomin-ag
raspberry-AN.PL
‘I fill up the cup then I pour [transfer] those raspberries into the basket.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2 3-loc
(133)
Ngii-miinaa ndoodaabaanan ngwis.
ni-gii=miiN-aa
1SBJ-PAST=give.AN-3OBJ
ni(d)-odaabaan-an
1POSS-car.AN-OBV
ni-gwis
1POSS-son.AN
‘I gave my car to my son.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2 (3)
(134)
Ngii-biidoon mnikewin.
ni-gii=bii-d-oo-n
1SBJ-PAST=bring-TR.IN-IN.OBJ-N
minikewin
drink.IN
‘I brought the drinks.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(135)
Ngii-biidmawaa mnikwewin.
ni-gii=bii-d-am-aw-aa
1SBJ-PAST=bring-STEM-APPL-TR.AN-3OBJ
minikewin
drink.IN
‘I brought the drinks for him.’
BRING an Alternation:
Applicative
(136)
Mookmaan ngii-miindizon.
mookomaan
knife.IN
ni-gii=miiN-idizo-n(aa)
1SBJ-PAST=give.AN-REFL.AN.INTR-N
‘I gave myself a knife.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Reflexive
(137)
Mookmaan 'gii-miindinaawaa.
mookomaan
knife.IN
o-gii=miiN-idi-naa-waa
3ERG-PAST=give.AN-RECIP.AN.INTR-N-3PL
‘They gave each other a knife.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(138)
Ngii-waabmaa maaba Menomini girl dzhi-gziibiignang waasechganan.
ni-gii-waabm-aa
1ERG-PAST-see.AN-3OBJ
maaba
this.AN
Menomini
Menomini
girl
girl
dzhi-gziibiignan-g
there-wash.IN-3SBJ
waasechgan-an
window-IN.PL
‘I saw this Menonimee girl washing the windows.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(139)
Nga-moon'haan mshkiki.
ni-ga-moon'h-am-n
1ERG-FUT-dig.IN-IN.OBJ-N
mshkiki
medicine
‘I will dig medicine.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(140)
Gii-biinaan niw jiiskiiwninwan.
o-gii-biin-aa-an
3ERG-PAST-bring.AN-3OBJ-AN.OBV
niw
shaman
jiiskwiinini-an
that:AN.OBV-OBV
‘He brought the shaking-tent shaman.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(141)
Naagaans nde.
onaagaans
cup
onde-w
boil.IN-3SBJ
‘The cup has come to a boil.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(142)
Jiimaan sa gga-zhitoomin.
jiimaan
boat
sa
EMPH
gi-ga-ozhitoo-min
2ERG-FUT-make.IN.OBJ-1P
‘We (incl.) will build a boat.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(143)
Baashkiziganan ogii-bimiwidoonaawaan.
baashkizigan-an
gun-IN.PL
o-gii-bimiwid-oo-naawaa-an
3ERG-PAST-carry.IN-IN.OBJ-2P/3P.ERG-IN.PL
‘They carried guns.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(144)
Ngii-zhihaa pwaagan.
ni-gii-ozhih-aa
3ERG-PAST-make.AN-3OBJ
opwaagan
pipe.AN
‘I made a pipe (for smoking).’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(145)
Mooz ngii-nsaa.
mooz
moose
ni-gii-niS-aa
1ERG-PAST-kill.AN-3OBJ
‘I killed a moose.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(146)
Waaswaani gii-zhinkaadaanaawaa.
waaswaani
shining.light
o-gii-izhinikaad-am-naawaa
3ERG-PAST-name.IN-IN.OBJ-2P/3P.ERG
‘They named it "Shining Lights".’
NAME a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2 (3)
(147)
Mookmaanens ngii-giishkkonaa mshiimin.
mookomaanens
pocket.knife
ni-gii-giishkikoN-aa
1ERG-PAST-cut.AN-3OBJ
mishiimin
apple
‘I cut the apple with my pocket knife.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(148)
Gii-daangnaan gnebigoon gwiiwzens.
o-gii-daangin-aa-an
3ERG-PAST-touch.AN-3OBJ-AN.OBV
ginebigw-an
snake-AN.OBV
gwiiwizens
boy.AN
‘The boy touched the snake.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(149)
Ngii-wiindmawaa maanda gaa-zhiwebziyaanh.
ni-gii-wiindamaw-aa
1ERG-PAST-tell.AN-3OBJ
maanda
this.IN
IC-gaa-izhiwebizi-yaanh
IC-PAST-happen-1S
‘I told him what happened to me.’
TELL an Alternation:
Antipassive -ige
(150)
Gii-ndodmawaa gwiiwzens maamaayin zhoon'yaa.
o-gii-andodamaw-aa
3ERG-PAST-ask.AN.for-3OBJ
gwiiwizens
boy.AN
o-maamaay-an
3POSS-mother-AN.OBV
zhooniyaa
money.IN
‘The boy asked his mother for money.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Antipassive -ige
(151)
Ngii-gziibiigiingwe.
ni-gii-giziibiigiingwe
1SBJ-PAST-wash.one's.face
‘I washed my face.’
WASH an Alternation:
Body Part Incorporation
(152)
Ngii-nmadbihaa mdimooyenh.
ni-gii-namadabih-aa
1ERG-PAST-seat.AN-3OBJ
mindimooyenh
old.lady
‘I seated the old lady.’
SIT an Alternation:
Causative Simple
(153)
Gii-bbaa-nda-nshiwewag.
gii-babaa-anda-nishiwe-w-ag
PAST-around-go-kill.people-3-AN.PL
‘They went around killing people.’
KILL an Alternation:
Antipassive -iwe
(154)
Gii-bkitehge binoojiins.
gii-bakitehige-w
PAST-hit.things-3SBJ
abinoojiins
child.AN
‘The child was hitting (things).’
BEAT an Alternation:
Antipassive -ige
(155)
Gii-bkitehgaazo nini.
gii-bakitehigaazo-w
PAST-be.hit-3SBJ
ininiw
man
‘The man was hit.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Lexical passive
(156)
Wenbi nini.
(wa)wenabi-w
VAI.sit.down-3SBJ
aniniw
man.AN
‘The man is sitting down.’
SIT DOWN a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(157)
Mii dash kina gii-wenbiwaad.
mii
and
dash
so
kina
all
gii-wawenabi-waa-d
PAST-VAI.sit.down-3P.SBJ-3.SBJ
‘They all sat down.’
SIT DOWN a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(158)
Nmishoom Ngii-gaashkbaanaa.
ni-mishoom
1POSS-grandfather
ni-gii-gaashkibaan-aa
1ERG-PAST-shave.AN-3OBJ
‘I shaved my grandfather.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(159)
Nzowag piniig.
onzo-w-ag
boil.AN-3SBJ-AN.PL
opiny-ag
potato.AN-AN.PL
‘The potatoes are boiling.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(160)
Nbiisboodoon waasgang.
ni-biisibood-oo-n
1ERG-grind.IN-IN.OBJ-N
waasagang
pepper.IN
‘I’m grinding the pepper.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(161)
Ngii-biisboonaag bgaanag.
ni-gii-biisiboon-aa-ag
1ERG-PAST-grind.AN-3OBJ-AN.PL
bagaan-ag
nuts.AN-AN.PL
‘I ground the nuts.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(162)
Ngii-bchi-bookbinaa ndoo-pen.
ni-gii-bichi-bookobiNaa
1ERG-PAST-accidentally-break.AN
ndoo-pen
1POSS-pen.AN
‘I accidentally broke my pen.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(163)
Ndoo-gnoodaan ndoo-bshkozhgan.
ndoo-ganood-am-n
1ERG-speak.to.IN-IN.OBJ-N
ndoo-bashkozhigan
1POSS-lawnmower
‘I’m talking to my lawn mower.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(164)
Gii-mdaagwenmaan shkinwe shkiniigikwen.
o-gii-midaagwenim-aa-an
3ERG-PAST-desire.AN-3OBJ-AN.OBV
oshkinawe
young.man.AN
oshkiniigikwe-an
young.woman-AN.OBV
‘The young man desired the young woman.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(165)
Ndoo-nendaan nenaabgaanh.
ndoo-onend-am-n
1ERG-forget.IN-IN.OBJ-N
nenaabagaanh
porridge.IN
‘I’m forgetting the porridge (as one might say, recalling it, while shopping).’
THINK a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(166)
Ndoo-nenmaag mshiimnag.
ndoo-onenim-aa-ag
1ERG-forget.AN-3OBJ-AN.PL
mishiimin-ag
apple.AN-AN.PL
‘I’m forgetting the apples (as one might say, recalling them, while shopping).’
THINK a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(167)
Nsweyaan gii-biibaagmaan nongo mekdewkon’ye.
nisweyaan
three.times
o-gii-biibaagimaa-an
3ERG-PAST-read.banns.regarding.AN-AN.OBV
nongo
today
mekadewikonaye
priest.AN
‘The priest announced wedding banns for three couples today.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(168)
Ngii-bmiwnaa bzagaak.
ni-gii-bimiwiN-aa
1ERG-PAST-carry.along.AN-3OBJ
bazagaakw
board.AN
‘I carried the board along.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2
(169)
Jiigshkwaand wii-gwaashkni ngashi.
jiigishkwaand
near.door
wii-gwaashkoni-w
FUT-jump(.off)-3SBJ
ni-gashiw
1POSS-mother.AN
‘My mother will get off near the door (e.g., exit a bus).’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1 V.subjS[1]
(170)
Ngii-zhinoohmaag dooshki-daabaan.
ni-gii-izhinoohamaw-igw
1OBJ-PAST-show.to.AN-3SBJ
o-oshki-odaabaan
3POSS-new-car.IN
‘He showed me his new car.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1 subjA[1].V.objI[2] 2