nǃao

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The basic coding frame 'A V P ng X' can be used for both 'A loads P on X' and 'A loads P with X'. When used in an 'A V P' construction, all speakers allow e.g. both 'He loads pears' and 'He loads the cart', but the 'cart' example can alternatively have an oblique object in an 'A V ng X' construction. When both 'pears' and 'cart' are expressed, speakers strongly prefer the 'pears' to be the direct object and the 'cart' to be the oblique object, but generally at least some speakers accept also the variant with the 'cart' as direct object and the 'pears' as oblique, or alternatively, the 'pears' as a comitative/instrumental argument with nǀa.

Coding frame

Examples

(194)
ǂoo nǃao kunisi ng ǂau.
ǂoo
man
nǃao
load
kuni-si
cart-SG
ng
OBL
ǂau
tsamma.melon
‘The man loaded the cart with tsamma melons.’
(198)
Ku ǀai mandjiesi, ku nǃao ng baisikelsi.
ku
3H.SG
ǀai
take
mandjie-si
basket-SG
ku
3H.SG
nǃao
load
ng
OBL
baisikel-si
bicycle-SG
‘He takes the basket, he loads it onto the cart.’

Verb meaning , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# LOAD Coding set Argument type
1 loader Ø A
2 loading place Ø P
3 loaded thing ng+NP X

Alternations

Alternation name Occurs Examples
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
R n
(197)
‘He loads his cart (with s.th.).’
U
N n
U
R n
(199)
‘The man loads the cart with grass.’
U
N n
U
R n
(195)
‘The man loads tsamma melons onto the cart.’
(196)
‘He loads the basket (here: onto his bicycle).’
C
N y
C
N y
U
N n
C
N y