ǀae(-a)

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The most basic meaning of this verb is probably 'to send somebody to do something', but in elicitation it could also be used for 'to send s.th. for somebody' (the intended meaning here). There is a lot of variation as the examples show; the construction can, for example, depend on the animacy of the third argument (inanimate locations are expressed by a V + V(path) serial verb construction, with the location encoded as oblique object, whereas animates are more likely to be treated as beneficiaries (encoded as Dative objects, with a BEN suffix -a on the verb), etc.

Furthermore, the verb appears very often but not always, with a suffix
-a; in many cases this could be interpreted as the (productive) BEN suffix, but there are also cases where one would expect the BEN suffix (e.g. examples with a Dative recipient), but there is no such a suffix (ex. 22), and cases where one would not expect a BEN suffix, but where one finds a suffix -a; furthermore, the -a suffix is normally not found in IRR constructions, which would not be the case if it was a BEN suffix; the use of the suffix -a with ǀae might thus depend on speakers' choice/preference; it could also be a (not completely) lexicalized suffix; the data in the corpus (both naturally spoken and elicited), until now, do not allow to set up any specific rule for the use or non-use of this suffix.

Coding frame

Examples

(22)
Si ǀae ba ǂxanisi.
si
1PL.E
ǀae
send
ba
2PL.DAT
ǂxani-si
letter-SG
‘We send you a letter.’
(64)
Kinn ǀae-a na i aanki.
kinn
3PL
ǀae-a
send-BEN
na
1SG.DAT
i
DAT
aanki
food
‘They send me food.’
(65)
ǂoo ke si ǀae ǀobaa i ǂxanisi.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
si
IRR
ǀae
send
ǀoba-a
child-DAT
i
DAT
ǂxani-si
book-SG
‘The man sends the book for/to the child.’
(67)
Na si ǀae ba ǂxanisi.
na
1SG
si
IRR
ǀae
send
ba
2PL.DAT
ǂxani-si
book-SG
‘I will send you a letter.’

Verb meaning , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# SEND Coding set Argument type
1 sender Ø A
2 sending recipient NP-dat X
3 sent thing Ø P

Alternations

Alternation name Occurs Examples
C
y
C
y
C
y
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
C
R a construction like 'he sends go.to you OBL town' ('He sends you to town.') y
(63)
‘I will send you to town with a letter. (lit. I will send you with a letter, you go to town).’
(66)
‘I send you to town.’
(68)
‘I will send you to town with a letter.’
C
R examples like 'he sends go.away you' ('He sends you away.') y
U
N n
U
N n
C
N y
U
M very artificial example from elicitation n
(63)
‘I will send you to town with a letter. (lit. I will send you with a letter, you go to town).’
(68)
‘I will send you to town with a letter.’