Examples of Nǀǀng

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
|aeki ke ǁkxʼam ǀoba.
ǀaeki
woman
ke
FOC
ǁkxʼam
wash
ǀoba
child
‘The woman washes the child.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(2)
A bu ǁkxʼam u.
a
CONN
bu
2PL
ǁkxʼam
wash
u
2PL
‘And then you wash yourself.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(3)
Kua kadyama na ǁuruke.
kua
3H.SG
kadyama
show
na
1SG.DAT
ǁuru-ke
road-PL
‘He shows me the way.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1 V 2-dat 3
(4)
Ha ǁooa.
ha
3SG
ǁoo-a
dry-PFV/STAT
‘It is dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1 V
(5)
ǂoo ke ǃauka ng ǂoo a ko.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
ǃauke-a
become.frightened-PFV
ng
OBL
ǂoo
man
a
this
ko
other
‘The man is afraid of the other man.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1 V ng+2
(6)
A a si ǁʼae ǃauka ng nǀng.
a
CONN
a
2SG
si
IRR
ǁʼae
go
ǃauke-a
become.frightened-PFV/STAT
ng
OBL
nǀng
1SG.OBL
‘And you should be afraid of me.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1 V ng+2
(7)
ǀoba ǃauka ǂoo.
ǀoba
child
ǃauke-a
become.frightened-STAT
ǂoo
man
‘The child fears the man.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Promotion of direct object to oblique
(8)
ǀoba ke hoo ǂoo si boeksi.
ǀoba
child
ke
FOC
hoo
get
ǂoo
man
si
GEN
boek-si
book-SG
‘The child gets the man's book.’
GET a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(9)
Ma, sa hooa mari!
ma
Mummy
sa
1PL.E
hoo-a
get-PFV
mari!
money
‘Mummy, we got money!’
GET a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(10)
ǂxaike ǂheeke.
ǂxai-ke
young.man-PL
ǂeeke
sing
‘The young men sing.’
SING a Coding frame:
1 V
(11)
ǀoba ǂheeke ǃʼui.
ǀoba
child
ǂeeke
sing
ǃʼui
traditional.song
‘The child sings a song.’
SING an Alternation:
Addition of direct object
(12)
Ha si ǀʼaa.
ha
3SG
si
IRR
ǀʼaa
die
‘He will die.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1 V
(13)
Si ǃqora.
si
1PL.E
ǃqora
play
‘We play.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1 V
(14)
ǃxaeka na ka ǃkxʼora nǀa ha.
ǃxaeka
morning
na
1SG
ka
PL
ǃkxʼora
play
nǀa
INST
ha
3SG
‘In the morning, I play with him.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1 V
(15)
ǂoo ke ǁʼhoqo.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
ǁʼhoqo
cough
‘The man coughs.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1 V
(16)
Na kxʼainʼin.
na
1SG
kxʼainʼin
laugh
‘I laugh.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1 V
(17)
Na kxʼainʼin kike.
na
1SG
kxʼainʼin
laugh
ki-ke
3-PL
‘I laugh about them.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Addition of direct object
(18)
ǂhuu ke ǂqau.
ǂhuu
rain
ke
FOC
ǂqau
rain
‘It rains (lit. The rain rains.).’
RAIN a Coding frame:
1 V
(19)
ǃaqa ǂqau.
ǃaqa
rain
ǂqau
rain
‘It rains (lit. The rain rains.).’
RAIN a Coding frame:
1 V
(20)
Ku aa ǀʼhuunsia ǂxanisi.
ku
3H.SG
aa
give
ǀʼhuunsi-a
Boer-DAT
ǂxani-si
letter-SG
‘He gives the letter to the Boer.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1 V 2-dat 3
(21)
Hng tsaa ha nǁaen.
hng
3PL
tsaa
give
ha
3SG.DAT
nǁaen
blanket.PL
‘They give him blankets.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1 V 2-dat 3
(22)
Si ǀae ba ǂxanisi.
si
1PL.E
ǀae
send
ba
2PL.DAT
ǂxani-si
letter-SG
‘We send you a letter.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1 V 2-dat 3
(23)
A ke si ǃxau tya ǁhaan.
a
2SG
ke
FOC
si
IRR
ǃxau
carry
tya
that
ǁhaan
bag
‘You must carry that bag.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(24)
ǂoo ke kxʼuu qain ǀoba.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
kxʼuu
make
qain
frightened
ǀoba
child
‘The man frightens the child.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(25)
Ng tsʼaanʼa ʘoe.
ng
1SG
tsʼaanʼa
like
ʘoe
meat
‘I like meat.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(26)
ǀoba ke tsʼaanʼa ǂoo.
ǀoba
child
ke
FOC
tsʼaanʼa
like
ǂoo
man
‘The child likes the man.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(27)
Na mos ǁxaea ng.
na
1SG
mos
indeed
ǁxae-a
know-STAT
ng
1SG
‘I really know myself.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(28)
ǂoo ke ǁxaea ǀaeki.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
ǁxae-a
know-STAT
ǀaeki
woman
‘The man knows the woman.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(29)
Ku ǁxaea guuke.
ku
3H.SG
ǁxae-a
know-STAT
guu-ke
thing-PL
‘She knows the things.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(30)
Ng nǁae ǂʼainka, ng nǁann si tsʼii.
ng
1SG
nǁae
then
ǂʼainke-a
think-STAT
ng
1SG
nǁann
liver
si
IRR
tsʼii
bite
‘I think my stomach will ache.’
THINK an Alternation:
Clausal complement instead of oblique argument
(31)
Gǀa ǂʼainka, ng si ka ǃkxʼora nǀa a?
gǀa
2SG.STR
ǂʼainke-a
think-STAT
ng
1SG
si
IRR
ka
PL
ǃkxʼora
play
nǀa
INST
a
2SG
‘You think that I will play with you?’
THINK an Alternation:
Clausal complement instead of oblique argument
(32)
Ng ǂʼain u si xuu kike nǀa kinn maar nǁaa ǃʼaun.
ng
1SG
ǂʼain
think
u
2PL
si
IRR
xuu
leave
ki-ke
3-PL
nǀa
PURP
kinn
3PL
maar
but
nǁaa
stay
ǃʼaun
ground
‘I think you must let them stay on the land.’
THINK an Alternation:
Clausal complement instead of oblique argument
(33)
Si ǁaanʼa ǀaake.
si
1PL.E
ǁaanʼa
search
ǀaa-ke
berry-PL
‘We search berries.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(34)
Ku xainki ke si ǂaasinn ku.
ku
3H.SG
xainki
mother
ke
FOC
si
IRR
ǂaasinn
dress
ku
3H.SG
‘His (the child's) mother will dress him (the child).’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(35)
Ng ǂao ng nǁaa ng ǃxaike.
ng
1SG
ǂao
want
ng
1SG
nǁaa
get.dressed
ng
1SG
ǃxai-ke
clothes-PL
‘I want to put on my clothes.’
DRESS the Verb form nǁaa (1)
(36)
Ha ǀʼuike ng, ǂaasinn ng.
ha
3SG
ǀʼuike
wipe.off
ng
1SG
ǂaasinn
dress
ng
1SG
‘She wipes me off, (she) dresses me.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(37)
A kama noxoba ǂaasinn a ng broekesi.
a
2SG
kama
kama
noxoba
still
ǂaasinn
put.on
a
2SG
ng
OBL
broekesi
trousers
‘You are still wearing trousers.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Addition of oblique
(38)
ǀaeki nǁaa ǀoba.
ǀaeki
woman
nǁaa
dress
ǀoba
child
‘The woman dresses the child.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(39)
Ku hui ng.
ku
3H.SG
hui
help
ng
1SG
‘He helps me.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(40)
ǂoo ke hui ǀaeki.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
hui
help
ǀaeki
woman
‘The man helps the woman.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(41)
Na si hui a, ng ǀʼhuunsi.
na
1SG
si
IRR
hui
help
a
2SG
ng
1SG
ǀʼhuun-si
white.person-SG
‘I will help you, my boss.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(42)
ǂoo ke ǀhunna ǃʼoakerasi.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
ǀhunn-a
follow-PFV
ǃʼoakerasi
young.girl
‘The man followed the girl.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(43)
ǂoo ke si hoo ǃʼoakerasi.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
si
IRR
hoo
meet
ǃʼoakerasi
young.girl
‘The man must meet the girl.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(44)
Nǃaun sii ng mhoo gǁain.
nǃaun
hare
sii
come
ng
and
mhoo
meet
gǁain
brown.hyena
‘The hare comes and meets the hyena.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(45)
ǂoo ke ǃʼhoeʼin mari ng ǂoo a ko.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
ǃʼhoeʼin
ask.for
mari
money
ng
OBL
ǂoo
man
a
this
ko
other
‘The man asks the other man for money.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1 V 2 ng+3
(46)
A ng nǀng ǀaeki, na ǃʼhoeʼa a.
a
2SG
ng
COP
nǀng
1SG.STR
ǀaeki
woman
na
1SG
ǃʼhoeʼa
ask.for
a
2SG
‘You are my wife, I asked for you.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Deletion of oblique
(47)
A ǁu si suin, a ǀkxʼaea dya gǀuuki.
a
2SG
ǁu
NEG
si
IRR
suin
sit.down.SG
a
2SG
ǀkxʼae-a
tell-BEN
dya
1PL.I.DAT
gǀuu-ki
tell.lie-NOM
‘You should not sit and be telling lies to us.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1 V 2-dat 3
(48)
ǂoo ke ǀkxʼaea dya kxʼam.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
ǀkxʼae-a
tell-BEN
dya
1PL.I.DAT
kxʼam
truth
‘The man says the truth to us.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1 V 2-dat 3
(49)
A ke si ǃxau ǁʼae ǁhaan a ng gǃari.
a
2SG
ke
FOC
si
IRR
ǃxau
carry
ǁʼae
go.to
ǁhaan
bag
a
this
ng
OBL
gǃari!
town
‘You must carry this bag to town.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Addition of oblique via SVC
(50)
A ǀkxʼui qain a haasi.
a
2SG
ǀkxʼui
CAUS
qain
be.frightened
a
2SG
haa-si
horse-SG
‘You frighten your horse.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(51)
Si ǃauka koro.
si
1PL.E
ǃauke-a
become.afraid-STAT
koro
jackal
‘We are afraid of the jackal.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Promotion of direct object to oblique
(52)
ǂoo ke ǁʼngke haansi ng ǂʼhai.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
ǁʼngke
tie
haan-si
horse-SG
ng
OBL
ǂʼhai
shepherd's.tree
‘The man ties the horse to the tree.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1 V 2 ng+3
(53)
Si ǁʼngke ǁhaan tyuu.
si
1PL.E
ǁʼngke
tie
ǁhaan
bag
tyuu
mouth
‘We tie up the bag's opening.’
TIE an Alternation:
Deletion of oblique
(54)
ǂoo ke ǂhaun ǀʼee ǃkhaa ng glassi.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
ǂhaun
pour
ǀʼee
enter
ǃkhaa
water
ng
OBL
glas-si
glass-SG
‘The man pours water into the glass.’
POUR an Alternation:
Addition of oblique via SVC
(55)
ǂhaunwa na koffie.
ǂhaun-wa
pour-IMP.SG/BEN
na
1SG.DAT
koffie
coffee
‘Pour coffee for me!’
POUR a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(56)
A ha ǂkhuun, a ha hala.
a
CONN
ha
3SG
ǂkhuun
jump
a
CONN
ha
3SG
hala
show.off
‘Then he jumps, then he shows off.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1 V
(57)
ǀoba ke ǂhuun ǁhoe ng ǂʼhai.
ǀoba
child
ke
FOC
ǂhuun
jump
ǁhoe
descend
ng
OBL
ǂʼhai
shepherd's.tree
‘The child jumps down from the tree.’
JUMP an Alternation:
Addition of oblique via SVC
(58)
Kua ǂhuun ǁʼaa ki a.
kua
3H.SG
ǂhuun
jump
ǁʼaa
go.to
ki
place
a
this
‘She jumps to this side.’
JUMP an Alternation:
Addition of direct object via SVC
(59)
Ha qannya sa piring.
ha
3SG
qann-a
show-BEN
sa
1PL.E.DAT
piri-ng
goat-PL
‘He shows us the goats.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1 V 2-dat 3
(60)
Ha tsaa ha i gao.
ha
3SG
tsaa
give
ha
3SG.DAT
i
DAT
gao
thing
‘He gives him something.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1 V 2-dat 3
(61)
... nou a hu gǀoe aa na ng gǀa aanki.
nou
now
a
2SG
hu
SUBORD
gǀoe
again
aa
give
na
1SG.DAT
ng
OBL
gǀa
2SG.STR
aan-ki
eat-NOM
‘... now you must also give me some of your food.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Demotion of direct object to oblique
(62)
Aaa sa ng gunn a xa ǀʼee ng ǃabu!
aa-a
give-IMP.SG
sa
1PL.E.DAT
ng
OBL
gunn
thing.PL
a
2SG
xa
PST
ǀʼee
put.in
ng
OBL
ǃabu
bowl
‘Give us some of these things (that) you put into the bowl!’
GIVE an Alternation:
Demotion of direct object to oblique
(63)
Na si ǀae u nǀa ǂxanisi u ǁʼae gǃari.
na
1SG
si
IRR
ǀae
send
u
2PL
nǀa
INST
ǂxani-si
letter-SG
u
2PL
ǁʼae
go.to
gǃari
town
‘I will send you to town with a letter. (lit. I will send you with a letter, you go to town).’
SEND an Alternation:
Demotion of indirect object to oblique (via SVC)
(64)
Kinn ǀae-a na i aanki.
kinn
3PL
ǀae-a
send-BEN
na
1SG.DAT
i
DAT
aanki
food
‘They send me food.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1 V 2-dat 3
(65)
ǂoo ke si ǀae ǀobaa i ǂxanisi.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
si
IRR
ǀae
send
ǀoba-a
child-DAT
i
DAT
ǂxani-si
book-SG
‘The man sends the book for/to the child.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1 V 2-dat 3
(66)
Na ǀae ǁʼaa u ng ǀkxʼain.
na
1SG
ǀae
send
ǁʼaa
go.to
u
2PL
ng
OBL
ǀkxʼain
town
‘I send you to town.’
SEND an Alternation:
Demotion of indirect object to oblique (via SVC)
(67)
Na si ǀae ba ǂxanisi.
na
1SG
si
IRR
ǀae
send
ba
2PL.DAT
ǂxani-si
book-SG
‘I will send you a letter.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1 V 2-dat 3
(68)
Na si ǀae ǁʼaa u nǀa ng ǂxanisi ng ǀkxʼain.
na
1SG
si
IRR
ǀae
send
ǁʼaa
go.to
u
2PL
nǀa
INST
ng
OBL
ǂxani-si
letter-SG
ng
OBL
ǀkxʼain
town
‘I will send you to town with a letter.’
SEND an Alternation:
Demotion of indirect object to oblique (via SVC)
(69)
Na ǂaqbeke ǂausi ng nǁng.
na
1SG
ǂaqbeke
throw
ǂau-si
tsamma.melon-SG
ng
OBL
nǁng
house
‘I throw the tsamma melon against the wall (lit. house).’
THROW a Coding frame:
1 V 2 ng+3
(70)
Na ǂaqbeke ǂausi ng ǃʼaun.
na
1SG
ǂaqbeke
throw
ǂau-si
tsamma.melon-SG
ng
OBL
ǃʼaun
ground
‘I throw the tsamma melon on the floor.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1 V 2 ng+3
(71)
Na ǂaqbeke bolsi.
na
1SG
ǂaqbeke
throw
bol-si
ball-SG
‘I throw the ball.’
THROW an Alternation:
Deletion of oblique
(72)
ǂoo ke xng ǂaqbekea venstersi nǀa ng ǃao.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
xng
PST
ǂaqbeke-a
throw-PFV
venster-si
window-SG
nǀa
INST
ng
OBL
ǃao
stone
‘The man threw a stone into/at the window.’
THROW an Alternation:
Locative shift: goal as direct object (instead of theme) with the theme coded as instrumental/comitative
(73)
A si ǂaqbekea na bolsi!
a
2SG
si
IRR
ǂaqbeke-a
throw-BEN
na
1SG.DAT
bol-si!
ball-SG
‘You must throw the ball to me!’
THROW an Alternation:
Promotion of oblique to indirect object
(74)
A ǂaqbe-a na bolsi.
a
2SG
ǂaqbe-a
throw-BEN
na
1SG.DAT
bol-si
ball-SG
‘You throw the ball to me.’
THROW an Alternation:
Promotion of oblique to indirect object
(75)
ǀoba ke ǃxau ǁʼaa ǂhunn ʘuun ng ǂoo.
ǀoba
child
ke
FOC
ǃxau
carry
ǁʼaa
go.to
ǂhunn
dog
ʘuun
DIM
ng
OBL
ǂoo
man
‘The child carries the little dog to the man.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Addition of oblique via SVC
(76)
A ke si ǃxaua na (i) ǁxaan.
a
2SG
ke
FOC
si
IRR
ǃxau-a
carry-BEN
na
1SG.DAT
i
DAT
ǁxaan
bag
‘You must carry that bag for me (e.g. because it is too heavy for me).’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(77)
Kua ǃxaua ǁxaan, ku ǁʼaa ku aa ǂooa i.
kua
3H.SG
ǃxau-a
carry-PFV
ǁxaan
bag
ku
3H.SG
ǁʼaa
go.to
ku
3H.SG
aa
give
ǂoo-a
man-DAT
i
DAT
‘He carried the bag, he goes and gives it to the man.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(78)
Si see si ǂhaun ki ng nǁng tyuu.
si
1PL.E
see
come
si
1PL.E
ǂhaun
pour
ki
3NH.SG
ng
OBL
nǁng
house
tyuu
mouth
‘We come and pour it (the soil) at (= in front of) the door.’
POUR an Alternation:
Addition of oblique
(79)
Ku ǂhaun ǀʼeea ǃkhaa ng ǂqoa, of ku ǂhaun ǁʼnga kike ng ǂqoa?
ku
3H.SG
ǂhaun
pour
ǀʼee-a
put.in-PFV
ǃkhaa
water
ng
OBL
ǂqoa
pot
of
or
ku
3H.SG
ǂhaun
pour
ǁʼng-a
go.out-PFV
ki-ke
3-PL
ng
OBL
ǂqoa
pot
‘Did he pour the water into the pot, or did he pour it out of the pot?’
POUR an Alternation:
Addition of oblique via SVC
(80)
Ng ǂanu ku nǀa nǁng.
ng
1SG
ǂanu
cover
ku
3H.SG
nǀa
INST
nǁng
blanket
‘I cover her with a blanket.’
COVER an Alternation:
Addition of instrument/comitative
(81)
Ha ǂanu ng dyoo.
ha
3SG
ǂanu
cover
ng
OBL
dyoo
skin
‘She is covered with/by the animal hide.’
COVER an Alternation:
Deagentive
(82)
Ha ǂanu nǀa dyoo.
ha
3SG
ǂanu
cover
nǀa
INST
dyoo
skin
‘She is covered with the animal hide.’
COVER an Alternation:
Deagentive
(83)
Ha ǂanu.
ha
3SG
ǂanu
cover
‘It is covered.’
COVER an Alternation:
Deagentive
(84)
Si ǂanu nǁng.
si
1PL.E
ǂanu
cover
nǁng
house
‘We cover the house.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(85)
Na si ǂʼaoke a xuu.
na
1SG
si
IRR
ǂʼaoke
cover
a
2SG
xuu
face
‘I will cover your face.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(86)
Ng ǂʼaoke ki nǀa ǃqui.
ng
1SG
ǂʼaoke
cover
ki
3NH.SG
nǀa
INST
ǃqui
ash
‘I cover it with ashes.’
COVER an Alternation:
Addition of instrument/comitative
(87)
ǂoo ke ǂʼunna glassi nǀa ng ǃkhaa.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
ǂʼunn-a
fill-PFV
glas-si
glass-SG
nǀa
INST
ng
OBL
ǃkhaa
water
‘The man has filled the glass with water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Addition of instrument/comitative
(88)
ǂqoa ke ǂʼunna.
ǂqoa
pot
ke
FOC
ǂʼunn-a
fill-PFV
‘The pot is full.’
FILL an Alternation:
Deagentive
(89)
Na kxʼuu ǂʼunn ki.
na
1SG
kxʼuu
make
ǂʼunn
fill
ki
3NH.SG
‘I fill it (e.g. the pot).’
FILL a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(90)
Ha ǂʼunn mandjiesi a ko.
ha
3SG
ǂʼunn
fill
mandjie-si
basket-SG
a
this
ko
other
‘He fills the other basket.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(91)
ǂoo ke kxʼuu ǂʼunn glassi ng ǃkhaa.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
kxʼuu
make
ǂʼunn
fill
glas-si
glass-SG
ng
OBL
ǃkhaa
water
‘The man fills the glass with water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Addition of oblique
(92)
Ha ǂʼunn emmersi.
ha
3SG
ǂʼunn
fill
emmer-si
bucket-SG
‘He fills the bucket.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(93)
Ha ǂʼunn emmersi ng ǀaake.
ha
3SG
ǂʼunn
fill
emmer-si
bucket-SG
ng
OBL
ǀaa-ke
berry-PL
‘He fills the bucket with berries.’
FILL an Alternation:
Addition of oblique
(94)
Kia ǂunna.
kia
3NH.SG
ǂunn-a
fill-STAT
‘It is full.’
FILL an Alternation:
Deagentive
(95)
ǂoo ke ǂʼunna xabasi ng ǃkhaa.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
ǂʼunn-a
fill-PFV
xaba-si
glass-SG
ng
OBL
ǃkhaa
water
‘The man filled the glass with water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Addition of oblique
(96)
Ku ka ǀkxʼaa ǂʼunna.
ku
3H.SG
ka
PL
ǀkxʼaa
hand
ǂʼunn-a
fill-STAT
‘His hands are full.’
FILL an Alternation:
Deagentive
(97)
ǁhaike ke ǂʼunna ng sunn.
ǁhai-ke
milk-PL
ke
FOC
ǂʼunn-a
fill-STAT
ng
OBL
sunn
fat
‘The milk is full of fat. / The milk is full of cream, creamy, rich.’
FILL the Verb form ǂunn
(98)
ʘoe ke ǂʼunna ng sunn.
ʘoe
meat
ke
FOC
ǂʼunn-a
fill-STAT
ng
OBL
sunn
fat
‘The meat is full of fat.’
FILL an Alternation:
Deagentive
(99)
Ki ǂʼunn.
ki
3NH.SG
ǂunn
fill
‘It is full.’
FILL an Alternation:
Deagentive
(100)
Xabasi ke xa ǂʼunn.
xaba-si
vessel-SG
ke
FOC
xa
PST
ǂʼunn
fill
‘The cup is full now.’
FILL an Alternation:
Deagentive
(101)
ǁhaan ha ǂʼunn.
ǁhaan
bag
ha
3SG
ǂʼunn
fill
‘The bag is full.’
FILL an Alternation:
Deagentive
(102)
Nǀaa, ng ǁhaan ke ǂʼunna!
nǀaa
look.IMP.SG
ng
1SG
ǁhaan
bag
ke
FOC
ǂʼunn-a
fill-STAT
‘Look, my bag is full!’
FILL an Alternation:
Deagentive
(103)
ǂoo ǀkxʼui ǂʼunn glassi nǀa ǃkhaa.
ǂoo
man
ǀkxʼui
CAUS
ǂʼunn
fill
glas-si
glass-SG
nǀa
INST
ǃkhaa
water
‘The man fills the glass with water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Addition of instrument/comitative
(104)
Ha nǁae ǁain nǃoon.
ha
3SG
nǁae
then
ǁain
climb.up
nǃoon
dune
‘Then he climbs up the dune.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(105)
Ha gǀoe ǁain.
ha
3SG
gǀoe
again
ǁain
climb.up
‘He climbs up again.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Deletion of direct object
(106)
ǁainya.
ǁain-ya
climb.up-IMP.SG
‘Climb up!’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Deletion of direct object
(107)
Kinn ǁain ǂʼhai.
kinn
3PL
ǁain
climb.up
ǂʼhai
shepherd's.tree
‘They climb (up) the tree.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(108)
Si ǁʼaa ǁain ng nǃoon.
si
1PL.E
ǁʼaa
go
ǁain
climb.up
ng
OBL
nǃoon
dune
‘We go and climb (up) the dune.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Demotion of direct object to oblique
(109)
Ha ǃae.
ha
3SG
ǃae
run
‘He runs.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1 V
(110)
ǃae ǁʼaa winkelsi.
ǃae
run
ǁʼaa
go.to.IMP
winkel-si
shop-SG
‘Run to the shop!’
RUN an Alternation:
Addition of direct object via SVC
(111)
ǁʼaa ǃae ǀʼee nǁng.
ǁʼaa
go
ǃae
run
ǀʼee
go.in
nǁng
house
‘He (goes and) runs into the house.’
RUN an Alternation:
Addition of direct object via SVC
(112)
Si ǁʼae ǃae ǁhoe nǃoon.
si
1PL.E
ǁʼae
go
ǃae
run
ǁhoe
descend
nǃoon
dune
‘We (go and) run down the dune.’
RUN an Alternation:
Addition of direct object via SVC
(113)
Si ǃaia reisies.
si
1PL.E
ǃai-a
run-PFV
reisies
race
‘We run a race.’
RUN an Alternation:
Addition of direct object
(114)
Si ǃae reisies.
si
1PL.E
ǃae
run
reisies
race
‘We run a race.’
RUN an Alternation:
Addition of direct object
(115)
Ng ǂao ng ǃae ǃare ng gǀa.
ng
1SG
ǂao
want
ng
1SG
ǃae
run
ǃare
go.past
ng
OBL
gǀa
2SG.STR
‘I want to pass you (running). / I want to overtake you (running).’
RUN an Alternation:
Addition of oblique via SVC
(116)
Oupa, dyisi xae a tcoo?
oupa
grandpa,
dyisi
what
xae
QF
a
2SG
tcoo
sit
‘Grandpa, why are you sitting (around here)?’
SIT an Alternation:
Deletion of direct object
(117)
ǃhuru a, ng soo nǁng.
ǃhuru
day
a
this
ng
1SG
soo
sit
nǁng
house
‘Today I stay at home (lit. Today I sit at home.).’
SIT a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(118)
Na soo ki a.
na
1SG
soo
sit
ki
place
a
this
‘I am sitting here.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(119)
Ha soo nǁng tyuu.
ha
3SG
soo
sit
nǁng
house
tyuu
mouth
‘He sits in front of the house (lit. by the house's mouth = by the door).’
SIT a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(120)
A ha ǂkhuun.
a
CONN
ha
3SG
ǂkhuun
jump
‘Then he (the springbok) jumps.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1 V
(121)
ǀoba ke ka ǂhuun.
ǀoba
child
ke
FOC
ka
PL
ǂhuun
jump
‘The child jumps (up and down, again and again).’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1 V
(122)
Ng ǁu ǂheeke ǂhuu, a ng ǂheeke.
ng
1SG
ǁu
NEG
ǂeeke
sing
ǂhuu
straight
a
CONN
ng
1SG
ǂeeke
sing
‘I don't sing well but I sing (nevertheless).’
SING a Coding frame:
1 V
(123)
Ng ǁu ǁʼaa nǁng?
ng
1SG
ǁu
NEG
ǁʼaa
go.to
nǁng
house
‘I don't go home?’
GO a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(124)
Ha ǁʼaa tya ǃuu.
ha
3SG
ǁʼaa
go.to
tya
that
ǃuu
world
‘He goes to that country.’
GO a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(125)
Si ǁʼaa gǃari.
si
1PL.E
ǁʼaa
go.to
gǃari
town
‘We go to town.’
GO a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(126)
Nǁngǂee ǁʼaa gǃae.
nǁngǂee
people
ǁʼaa
go.to
gǃae
springbok
‘The people go to the springboks.’
GO a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(127)
Ha ǁʼae.
ha
3SG
ǁʼae
go.away
‘He goes away.’
GO an Alternation:
Deletion of direct object
(128)
Kua xng xuua gǃari.
kua
3H.SG
xng
PST
xuu-a
leave-PFV
gǃari
town
‘He has left the town.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(129)
Na nǁaa Antjie nǁng.
na
1SG
nǁaa
stay
Antjie
Antjie
nǁng
house
‘I stay (live) at Antjie's house.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(130)
Gǃae meid-e ke nǁaa ki a.
gǃae
springbok
meid-e
girl-PL
ke
FOC
nǁaa
stay
ki
place
a
this
‘The springbok girls stay (live) here.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(131)
Kua xng nǁaa gǃari.
kua
3H.SG
xng
PST
nǁaa
stay
gǃari
town
‘I stayed (lived) in town.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(132)
Kinn ke nǁaa post.
kinn
3PL
ke
FOC
nǁaa
stay
post
outpost
‘They stay (live) at the cattle post.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(133)
ǀoba ke ka nǁaa ng nǁng.
ǀoba
child
ke
FOC
ka
PL
nǁaa
stay
ng
1SG
nǁng
house
‘The child stays (lives) at my house.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(134)
ǀoba ke ka nǁaa ng nǀng nǁng.
ǀoba
child
ke
FOC
ka
PL
nǁaa
stay
ng
OBL
nǀng
1SG.STR
nǁng
house
‘The child stays (lives) at my house.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Demotion of direct object to oblique
(135)
Hng tsee hng nǀaa, nǁngǂee ka nǁaa.
hng
3PL
tsee
come
hng
3PL
nǀaa
see
nǁngǂee
people
ka
PL
nǁaa
stay
‘They come and see: the people are (stay) there.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Deletion of direct object
(136)
Sa ǀʼhoa ǃkhaa.
sa
1PL.E
ǀʼhoa
settle
ǃkhaa
farm
‘We live on a farm.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(137)
Si saa si ǀʼhoa Klapin.
si
1PL.E
saa
come
si
1PL.E
ǀʼhoa
settle
Klapin
Klapin
‘We come and settle at Klapin.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(138)
Ki a ke si xng ng ǀʼhoa ng Klapin.
ki
3NH.SG
a
this
ke
FOC
si
1PL.E
xng
PST
ng
thus
ǀʼhoa
settle
ng
OBL
Klapin
Klapin
‘This is how we lived at Klapin.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Demotion of direct object to oblique
(139)
Ha kxʼainʼin gǁain.
ha
3SG
kxʼainʼin
laugh
gǁain
brown.hyena
‘He laughs at the hyena.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Addition of direct object
(140)
A ka nǀuinke hng ʘʼuiʼi.
a
2SG
ka
PL
nǀuin-ke
knee-PL
hng
3PL
ʘʼuiʼi
be.sore
‘Your knees are sore.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
1 V
(141)
Sa ʘʼui si ka nǀuinke.
sa
1PL.E
ʘʼui
be.sore
si
1PL.E
ka
PL
nǀuin-ke
knee-PL
‘Our knees are sore.’
BE ILL an Alternation:
Addition of direct object
(142)
Na ʘʼuiʼi.
na
1SG
ʘʼuiʼi
be.in.pain
‘I have pain. / I am sick.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
1 V
(143)
Gǀa ǁu nǀai oom ǀʼArusi ǂao ha ǀʼaa?
gǀa
2SG.STR
ǁu
NEG
nǀai
see
oom
uncle
ǀʼArusi
ǀʼArusi
ǂao
want
ha
3SG
ǀʼaa
die
‘Don't you see that uncle ǀʼArusi wants to die?’
DIE a Coding frame:
1 V
(144)
A si ǀʼaa.
a
2SG
si
IRR
ǀʼaa
die
‘You will die.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1 V
(145)
U ke si ǀʼaa ng ǁqann!
u
2PL
ke
FOC
si
IRR
ǀʼaa
die
ng
OBL
ǁqann
hunger
‘You will die of hunger!’
DIE a Coding frame:
1 V
(146)
Ng khinn ǀʼhuu.
ng
1SG
khinn
feel
ǀʼhuu
cold
‘I feel cold.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1 V
(147)
Ng ǀʼhuu.
ng
1SG
ǀʼhuu
feel.cold
‘I feel cold.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1 V
(148)
ǀoba ǀʼhuu.
ǀoba
child
ǀʼhuu
feel.cold
‘The child feels cold.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1 V
(149)
ǀʼhuu ke si kxʼuu ʘʼuiʼi ng.
ǀʼhuu
cold
ke
FOC
si
IRR
kxʼuu
make
ʘʼuiʼi
be.sick
ng
1SG
‘The cold will make me sick.’
BE ILL
(150)
Sau ǃqora koro.
sa-hu
1PL.E-SUBORD
ǃqora
play
koro
jackal
‘Then we play 'jackal' (= the jackal's game).’
PLAY an Alternation:
Addition of direct object
(151)
Hng ka ǀqae-ke ʘʼuiʼi.
hng
3PL
ka
PL
ǀqae-ke
heart-PL
ʘʼuiʼi
be.sore
‘They are sad (lit. Their hearts are sore.).’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1 V
(152)
Ha ǀqae ǁu tyhaaʼi.
ha
3SG
ǀqae
heart
ǁu
NEG
tyhaaʼi
tasty
‘He is sad (lit. His heart is not tasty/well.).’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1 V
(153)
ǂoo ke khinn ǁqann.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
khinn
feel
ǁqann
hunger
‘The man is hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1 V
(154)
Dyoo ǂʼhubi.
dyoo
skin
ǂʼhubi
burn
‘The animal hide burns.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Deagentive
(155)
Na xng ǂʼhubia ng ǀkxʼaa ng ǀʼii.
na
1SG
xng
PST
ǂʼhubi-a
burn-PFV
ng
1SG
ǀkxʼaa
hand
ng
OBL
ǀʼii
fire
‘I have burnt my hand in the fire.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Addition of oblique
(156)
ǀʼii ke ǂʼhubi ng.
ǀʼii
fire
ke
FOC
ǂʼhubi
burn
ng
1SG
‘The fire burns me.’
BURN (tr) a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(157)
Kinn ǂʼhubi tya gǁoo.
kinn
3PL
ǂʼhubi
burn
tya
that
gǁoo
bull
‘They burn that bull.’
BURN (tr) a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(158)
Dya kxʼuu nǁng ng ki a.
dya
1PL.I
kxʼuu
make
nǁng
house
ng
OBL
ki
place
a
this
‘We build a house here.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(159)
A si ǁhaa ng ka khiin.
a
2SG
si
IRR
ǁhaa
break
ng
1SG
ka
PL
khiin
leg
‘You will break my legs.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(160)
Gǁain ke xa ǀhaa a gǂarusi.
gǁain
brown.hyena
ke
FOC
xa
PST
ǀhaa
kill
a
2SG
gǂarusi
sheep
‘The hyena has killed your sheep.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(161)
ǀoba ke ǀhaa ǀaqasi nǀa ǃʼoqoke.
ǀoba
child
ke
FOC
ǀhaa
kill
ǀaqa-si
snake-SG
nǀa
INST
ǃʼoqoke
stick
‘The child kills the snake with a stick.’
KILL an Alternation:
Addition of instrument/comitative
(162)
ǀoba ke ǁhaa venstersi nǀa ǃao.
ǀoba
child
ke
FOC
ǁhaa
break
venster-si
window-SG
nǀa
INST
ǃao
stone
‘The child breaks the window with the stone.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Addition of instrument/comitative
(163)
ǀʼhuunsi ǀkxʼaike gǁain.
ǀʼhuun-si
white.person-SG
ǀkxʼaike
beat
gǁain
brown.hyena
‘The Boer beats hyena.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(164)
Na si ǂamʼa a.
na
1SG
si
IRR
ǂamʼa
beat
a
2SG
‘I will beat you.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(165)
ǀoba ke ǂamʼin ǀaqasi nǀa ǃʼoqoke.
ǀoba
child
ke
FOC
ǂamʼin
beat
ǀaqa-si
snake-SG
nǀa
INST
ǃʼoqoke
stick
‘The child beats the snake with a stick.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Addition of instrument/comitative
(166)
ǂoo ke ain preesi.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
ain
eat
pree-si
bread-SG
‘The man eats the bread.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(167)
I xa ain ǂauǁaa.
i
1PL.I
xa
PST
ain
eat
ǂauǁaa
seeds
‘We ate seeds.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(168)
A ng ain.
a
CONN
ng
1SG
ain
eat
‘Then I eat.’
EAT an Alternation:
Deletion of direct object
(169)
ǂoo ke ǂaqe ǀoba.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
ǂaqe
look
ǀoba
child
‘The man looks at the child.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(170)
U saa, u ǂaqe nǁngǂee ngke he nǁaa ki a.
u
2PL
saa
come
u
2PL
ǂaqe
look
nǁngǂee
people
ng-ke
this-PL
he
REL.SG
nǁaa
stay
ki
place
a
this
‘You come, you look at the people who are here.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(171)
Gǀa ǁu nǀai ku xa aan a ǃkxʼabesi?
gǀa
2SG.STR
ǁu
NEG
nǀai
see
ku
3H.SG
xa
PST
aan
eat
a
2SG
ǃkxʼabe-si
cream-SG
‘Don't you see he has eaten your cream?’
SEE an Alternation:
Clausal complement instead of direct object
(172)
Ng ǁu ǃqhao gao.
ng
1SG
ǁu
NEG
ǃqhao
smell
gao
thing
‘I don't smell anything.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(173)
ǀoba ke ǀai preesi nǀa nǂona.
ǀoba
child
ke
FOC
ǀai
cut
pree-si
bread-SG
nǀa
INST
nǂona
knife
‘The child cuts the bread with the knife.’
CUT an Alternation:
Addition of instrument/comitative
(174)
Ng ǀaa ǁuu-ke.
ng
1SG
ǀaa
cut
ǁuu-ke
steekgras-PL
‘I cut steekgras.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(175)
ǀoba ǀkxʼaike ǀaqasi nǀa tsaqm.
ǀoba
child
ǀkxʼaike
beat
ǀaqa-si
snake-SG
nǀa
INST
tsaqm
stick
‘The child hits the snake with the stick.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Addition of instrument/comitative
(176)
ǂoo ke ǂqau kiin ng vloersi.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
ǂqau
fall
kiin
lie.down
ng
OBL
vloer-si
floor-SG
‘The man falls on the floor.’
FALL an Alternation:
Addition of oblique
(177)
ǁʼae nya ǁʼau, ǁʼae nya ǁʼau nǁoqoke.
ǁʼae
go
nya
1SG
ǁʼau
dig
ǁʼae
go
nya
1SG
ǁʼau
dig
nǁoqo-ke
wild.potatoe-PL
‘I go and dig, I go and dig out wild potatoes.’
DIG an Alternation:
Deletion of direct object
(178)
Kinn xainki ke kxʼuu aan kike.
kinn
3PL
xainki
mother
ke
FOC
kxʼuu
make
aan
eat
ki-ke
3-PL
‘Their mother feeds them.’
EAT
(179)
Ku ng ǀhoqo ʘuun.
ku
3H.SG
ng
COP
ǀhoqo
ghost
ʘuun
DIM
‘She is a small ghost.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
1 V
(180)
Ng ǁu ng gǁain.
ng
1SG
ǁu
NEG
ng
COP
gǁain
brown.hyena
‘I am not the hyena.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
1 V
(181)
ǃae dyoo hng ǁooa.
ǃae
oryx
dyoo
skin
hng
3PL
ǁoo-a
become.dry-STAT
‘The dry oryx hide.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1 V
(182)
Kinn ke si ǃxaadinn ǁhoo.
kinn
3PL
ke
FOC
si
IRR
ǃxaadinn
just.now
ǁhoo
become.dry
‘They (the clothes) will become dry quickly (just now).’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1 V
(183)
Ha ku ǂuike hng ǁoo.
ha
3SG
ku
look.like
ǂui-ke
egg-PL
hng
3PL
ǁoo
dry
‘It looks like dry eggs (lit. It looks like eggs which are dry.).’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1 V
(184)
Ng ǀʼii ǁhoo ng ǁʼuin nǀa ha ǁoo.
ng
1SG
ǀʼii
inside
ǁhoo
put.down
ng
OBL
ǁʼuin
sun
nǀa
PURP
ha
3SG
ǁoo
become.dry
‘I put it in the sun so that it can dry / become dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1 V
(185)
Ng ǀqui ǁoo.
ng
1SG
ǀqui
CAUS
ǁoo
dry
‘I dry (them).’
BE DRY
(186)
Tya ǂʼhubia.
kia
3NH.SG
ǂʼhubi-a
burn-STAT
‘It has/is burnt.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Deagentive
(187)
Ku ke xng kxʼuu ǀʼaa ku.
ku
3H.SG
ke
FOC
xng
PST
kxʼuu
make
ǀʼaa
die
ku
3H.SG
‘He killed himself.’
DIE
(188)
Ha kxʼuu ʘʼuiʼi ng.
ha
3SG
kxʼuu
make
ʘʼuiʼi
be.in.pain
ng
1SG
‘It (the old age) makes me sick / be in pain.’
BE ILL
(189)
A si ǃʼhaunwa.
a
then
si
1PL.E
ǃʼhaun-wa
sit.down.PL-PFV
‘Then we sat down.’
SIT DOWN an Alternation:
Deletion of direct object
(190)
Tcuinya ki a.
tcuin-ya
sit.down-IMP.SG
ki
place
a
this
‘Sit down here!’
SIT DOWN a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(191)
ǁʼaa si ǃʼhaun Olifantshoek.
ǁʼaa
go.away
si
1PL.E
ǃʼhaun
sit.down.PL
Olifantshoek
Olifantshoek
‘We go (and) land in Olifantshoek.’
SIT DOWN a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(192)
ǂoo ke suin ng stoelsi.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
suin
sit.down.SG
ng
OBL
stoel-si
chair-SG
‘The man sits down on the chair.’
SIT DOWN an Alternation:
Demotion of direct object to oblique
(193)
Hng sii hng ǃʼhaun ǁuruke, hng sii ng ǃʼhaun ka nǂoqno.
hng
3PL
sii
come
hng
3PL
ǃʼhaun
sit.down.PL
ǁuru-ke
road-PL
hng
3PL
sii
come
hng
3PL
ǃʼhaun
sit.down.PL
ka
PL
nǂoqno
shade
‘They come (and) sit down on the road, they come (and) sit down in the shade.’
SIT DOWN a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(194)
ǂoo nǃao kunisi ng ǂau.
ǂoo
man
nǃao
load
kuni-si
cart-SG
ng
OBL
ǂau
tsamma.melon
‘The man loaded the cart with tsamma melons.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1 V 2 ng+3
(195)
ǂoo nǃao ǂau ng kunisi.
ǂoo
man
nǃao
load
ǂau
tsamma.melon
ng
OBL
kuni-si
cart-SG
‘The man loads tsamma melons onto the cart.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Locative shift: theme as direct object (instead of goal)
(196)
Ha nǃao ha mandjiesi.
ha
3SG
nǃao
load
ha
3SG
mandjie-si
basket-SG
‘He loads the basket (here: onto his bicycle).’
LOAD an Alternation:
Locative shift: theme as direct object (instead of goal)
(197)
Hau nǃao kunisi.
hau
3SG
nǃao
load
kuni-si
cart-SG
‘He loads his cart (with s.th.).’
LOAD an Alternation:
Deletion of oblique
(198)
Ku ǀai mandjiesi, ku nǃao ng baisikelsi.
ku
3H.SG
ǀai
take
mandjie-si
basket-SG
ku
3H.SG
nǃao
load
ng
OBL
baisikel-si
bicycle-SG
‘He takes the basket, he loads it onto the cart.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1 V 2 ng+3
(199)
ǂoo ke nǃao kunisi nǀa ǀhee.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
nǃao
load
kuni-si
cart-SG
nǀa
INST
ǀhee
grass
‘The man loads the cart with grass.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Theme as instrument instead of oblique
(200)
Ha ǀai ng piri dyoo, ha ǁhoo.
ha
3SG
ǀai
take
ng
OBL
piri
goat
dyoo
skin
ha
3SG
ǁhoo
put.down
‘He takes the goat's hide, he puts it down.’
PUT an Alternation:
Deletion of oblique
(201)
ǂoo ke xng ǁhooa boeksi ng tafelsi.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
xng
PST
ǁhoo-a
put.down-PFV
boek-si
book-SG
ng
OBL
tafel-si
table-SG
‘The man put the book on(to) the table.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1 V 2 ng+3
(202)
Kua ǁhoo ǃʼore.
kua
3H.SG
ǁhoo
put.down
ǃʼore
dish
‘He puts the dish down.’
PUT an Alternation:
Deletion of oblique
(203)
ǂoo ke gǃai ǁhooa ǂxanisi ng tafelsi.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
gǃai
(up)on
ǁhoo-a
put.down-PFV
ǂxani-si
book-SG
ng
OBL
tafel-si
table-SG
‘The man has put down the book onto the table.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1 V 2 ng+3
(204)
Kinna kxʼaa.
kinna
3PL
kxʼaa
cry
‘They cry.’
CRY a Coding frame:
1 V
(205)
Si ǂxaqake gǁolong tyxann.
si
1PL.E
ǂxaqake
search
gǁolo-ng
thornbush-PL
tyxann
shit
‘We look for thornbush gum.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(206)
... a si ǂxaqake ǃkhaa.
a
CONN
si
1PL.E
ǂxaqake
search
ǃkhaa
rain
‘... because we want to get rain.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(207)
... a ng ǂxaqake ng nǀaa.
a
CONN
ng
1SG
ǂxaqake
search
ng
1SG
nǀaa
see
‘... but I would like to see (it).’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Clausal complement instead of direct object
(208)
... want ǀʼhuunsi ǁu xa ǂxaqake si.
want
because
ǀʼhuun-si
white.person-SG
ǁu
NEG
xa
PST
ǂxaqake
search
si
1PL.E
‘... because the white man did not want us.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(209)
Hng tsee hng ǂxaqake si.
hng
3PL
tsee
come
hng
3PL
ǂxaqake
search
si
1PL.E
‘They came and searched us.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(210)
Ng ǂao ng kxʼuua nya ǂoa.
ng
1SG
ǂao
want
ng
1SG
kxʼuu-a
make-BEN
nya
1SG.DAT
ǂoa
sleeping.mat
‘I want to make a sleeping mat for myself.’
WANT an Alternation:
Clausal complement instead of direct object
(211)
Na ǂaoa ku see.
na
1SG
ǂao-a
want-STAT
ku
3H.SG
see
come
‘I want you to come.’
WANT an Alternation:
Clausal complement instead of direct object
(212)
Ai, ou nooi, na ǂaoa ǃkhaa ʘuni.
ai
INTERJ
ou
old
nooi
missis
na
1SG
ǂao-a
want-STAT
ǃkhaa
water
ʘuni
DIM.PL
‘Ay, missis, I want a little bit of water!’
WANT a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(213)
... maar a ǁala moo gao ki ng nǀng.
maar
but
a
2SG
ǁala
IRR.NEG
moo
get
gao
thing
ki
this
ng
OBL
nǀng
1SG.STR
‘... but you won't get this thing from me.’
GET an Alternation:
Addition of oblique
(214)
Nǁngǂee huniki hoo ng ki.
nǁngǂee
people
huniki
all
hoo
get
ng
OBL
ki
3NH.SG
‘Everybody gets (a piece) of it (the bread).’
GET an Alternation:
Demotion of direct object to oblique
(215)
ǀoba xa mhoo ǂxanisi ng ǂoo.
ǀoba
child
xa
PST
mhoo
get
ǂxani-si
book-SG
ng
OBL
ǂoo
man
‘The child got the book from the man.’
GET an Alternation:
Addition of oblique
(216)
Ha kxʼuu nǁng ʘoa.
ha
3SG
kxʼuu
make
nǁng
house
ʘoa
DIM
‘She makes a small hut.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(217)
Ng kxʼuu blommesi ng gǀa.
ng
1SG
kxʼuu
make
blomm-e-si
flower-EPENTH-SG
ng
OBL
gǀa
2SG.STR
‘I make you (look like) a flower. / I turn you into a flower.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Addition of oblique
(218)
A ng sii ng kxʼuu koffie.
a
CONN
ng
1SG
sii
come
ng
1SG
kxʼuu
make
koffie
coffee
‘Then I come (and) make coffee.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(219)
ǂoo ke kxʼuu nǁng nǀa ǀhee.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
kxʼuu
make
nǁng
house
nǀa
INST
ǀhee
grass
‘The man builds a house with/from grass.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Addition of instrument/comitative
(220)
A hng nou gǀoe kxʼuu gǃaasi ng Janniejannie.
a
CONN
hng
3PL
nou
now
gǀoe
again
kxʼuu
make
gǃaasi
servant
ng
OBL
Janniejannie
Janniejannie
‘Then they also turn Janniejannie into a servant. / Then they also make Janniejannie become a servant.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Addition of oblique
(221)
Ku ǀuun ʘoe.
ku
3H.SG
ǀuun
boil
ʘoe
meat
‘He boils the meat.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Uncoded causative
(222)
Gunn ngke ǀuun ǁʼng ng ki ǁʼannʼa.
gunn
thing.PL
ng-ke
these-PL
ǀuun
boil
ǁʼng
go.out
ng
OBL
ki
place
ǁʼannʼa
there
‘These things boil out on this side there.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Addition of oblique via SVC
(223)
ǁxauke ke ǃʼhaunwa hng ǀuun.
ǁxau-ke
blood-PL
ke
FOC
ǃʼhaun-wa
sit.PL-STAT
hng
3PL
ǀuun
boil
‘It is the blood (that) is boiling.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1 V
(224)
ǂqoa ke ǀuun.
ǂqoa
pot
ke
FOC
ǀuun
boil
‘The pot boils.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1 V
(225)
ǃkhaa ke ǀuun.
ǃkhaa
water
ke
FOC
ǀuun
boil
‘The water boils.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1 V
(226)
Na ǃxama ʘoe.
na
1SG
ǃxama
cook
ʘoe
meat
‘I cook the meat.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(227)
Ha ǃxama.
ha
3SG
ǃxama
cook
‘She cooks.’
COOK an Alternation:
Deletion of direct object
(228)
ʘoe ke ǃxama ng ǂqoa ǁaʼen.
ʘoe
meat
ke
FOC
ǃxama
cook
ng
OBL
ǂqoa
pot
ǁaʼen
inside
‘The meat cooks in the pot.’
COOK an Alternation:
Deagentive
(229)
Petrus xa tyuua ǀkhuisi.
Petrus
Petrus
xa
PST
tyuu-a
hear-PFV
ǀkhui-si
bird-SG
‘Petrus heard the bird.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(230)
Na ǁam xa noxoba nǀaa kike, a ng neti tyuu ng kike.
na
1SG
ǁam
NEG
xa
PST
noxoba
still
nǀaa
see
ki-ke
3-PL
a
CONN
ng
1SG
neti
only
tyuu
hear
ng
OBL
ki-ke
3-PL
‘I haven't seen them yet, I only hear(d) about them.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Demotion of direct object to oblique
(231)
Na xng tyuua ku xng ǃqaan.
na
1SG
xng
PST
tyuu-a
hear-PFV
ku
3H.SG
xng
PST
ǃqaan
move
‘I have heard (that) she has moved.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Clausal complement instead of direct object
(232)
Ng ǁu tyuu kike.
ng
1SG
ǁu
NEG
tyuu
hear
ki-ke
3-PL
‘I don't understand them.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(233)
Na tyuu.
na
1SG
tyuu
hear
‘I listen.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Deletion of direct object
(234)
Saaa a saa tyuu ng Masehupu guuke.
saa-a
come-IMP.SG
a
2SG
saa
come
tyuu
hear
ng
OBL
Masehupu
Masehupu
guu-ke
thing-PL
‘Come and come (and) hear about this Masehupu-things!’
HEAR an Alternation:
Demotion of direct object to oblique
(235)
Gǀa tyuu?
gǀa
2SG.STR
tyuu
hear
‘Do you hear? / Are you listening to me?’
HEAR an Alternation:
Deletion of direct object
(236)
A si gǀoe gaake ǁhaike.
a
CONN
si
1PL.E
gǀoe
again
gaake
steal
ǁhai-ke
milk-PL
‘Then we also steal milk.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(237)
Nǀaa ng, ng tyoan ǂoa.
nǀaa
look.IMP.SG
ng
1SG
ng
1SG
tyoan
be.absent
ǂoa
sleeping.mat
‘Look at me, I don't have a sleeping mat.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(238)
Ha xa qain.
ha
3H.SG
xa
PST
qain
be.frightened
‘He got frightened.’
FRIGHTEN the Verb form kxʼuu qain
(239)
Ku tsʼaaʼa ng ǀkxʼoanki?
ku
3H.SG
tsʼaaʼa
like
ng
OBL
ǀkxʼoan-ki
hunt-NOM
‘Does he like hunting?’
LIKE an Alternation:
Demotion of direct object to oblique
(240)
Ng si ku ng ǀʼhuunsi a xa ǁʼae ǃkxʼabesi.
ng
1SG
si
IRR
ku
say
ng
OBL
ǀʼhuun-si
white.person-SG
a
2SG
xa
PST
ǁʼae
go.to
ǃkxʼabe-si
cream-SG
‘I will say to the Boer (that) you went to the cream.’
SAY a Coding frame:
1 V ng+2 UTT3
(241)
Ha ǁhaa ng gǁoloke.
ha
3H.SG
ǁhaa
break
ng
OBL
gǁolo-ke
thornbush-PL
‘He breaks off (?a piece of) the thornbush.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Demotion of direct object to oblique
(242)
ǀaeki ke ǂʼhaqa ǁʼaa Geelman.
ǀaeki
woman
ke
FOC
ǂʼhaqa
push
ǁʼa-a
go.away-PFV
Geelman
Geelman
‘The woman pushed Geelman away.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(243)
ǂʼhaqa siia na stoelsi.
ǂʼhaqa
push
sii-a
come-IMP.SG/BEN
na
1SG.DAT
stoel-si
chair-SG
‘Push the chair towards me.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(244)
ǂʼhaqa ǁʼaea kua stoelsi.
ǂʼhaqa
push
ǁʼae-a
go.to-IMP.SG/BEN
ku-a
3H.SG-DAT
stoel-si
chair-SG
‘Push the chair towards him.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(245)
He ǂxaike hngke.
he
3SG
ǂxaike
pound
hng-ke
3PL-PL
‘He pounds them.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(246)
Kinn ǀai ka ǃuuke.
kinn
3PL
ǀai
take
ka
PL
ǃuuke
shoe
‘They take the shoes.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(247)
Kua ǀai ǁhau gao ng nǁngǃui nǀaa.
kua
3H.SG
ǀai
take
ǁhau
remove
gao
thing
ng
OBL
nǁngǃui
person
nǀaa
head
‘He takes the thing off the person's head.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Addition of oblique via SVC
(248)
ǀai uu ki nǀa tyuu.
ǀai
take
uu
take.up
ki
3NH.SG
nǀa
INST
tyuu
mouth
‘(He) takes it with his mouth.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(249)
Nǁngǃui ǀai ǁhau hoedsi ng nǁaa nǀaa.
nǁngǃui
person
ǀai
take
ǁhau
remove
hoed-si
hat-SG
ng
OBL
nǁaa
3SG.STR
nǀaa
head
‘The person takes the hat off his head.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Addition of oblique via SVC
(250)
Gǀa dyee ng ǀai ng nǀng?
gǀa
2SG.STR
dyee
do.how
ng
thus
ǀai
take
ng
OBL
nǀng
1SG.STR
‘How (=why) do you touch me?’
TAKE an Alternation:
Addition of oblique
(251)
A hau ǀai ng tya ǀaake he ha xng ǂqaua.
a
CONN
hau
3SG
ǀai
take
ng
OBL
tya
these
ǀaa-ke
berry-PL
he
REL
ha
3SG
xng
PST
ǂqau-a
crush-PFV
‘Then she takes (some of) the crushed berries.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Demotion of direct object to oblique
(252)
Kinn tyxaa ng nuwe seatke.
kinn
3PL
tyxaa
tear
ng
1SG
nuwe
new
seat-ke
seat-PL
‘They have torn my new seats.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(253)
ǀoba tyxaa ǂxanisi ǀxaa.
ǀoba
child
tyxaa
tear
ǂxani-si
book-SG
ǀxaa
side
‘The child tears the book's page.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(254)
ǀoba ke ǀʼhoo ǁhoo boeksi.
ǀoba
child
ke
FOC
ǀʼhoo
hide
ǁhoo
put.aside
boek-si
book-SG
‘The child hides the book.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(255)
ǀoba ke ǀʼhoo ǁhoo boeksi nǀa ǂoo gǂii nǀaa ki.
ǀoba
child
ke
FOC
ǀʼhoo
hide
ǁhoo
put.down
boek-si
book-SG
nǀa
PURP
ǂoo
man
gǂii
PROH
nǀaa
see
ki
3NH.SG
‘The child hides the book so that the man doesn't see it.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(256)
ǀoba ǀhoo ǁhoo ǂxanisi.
ǀoba
child
ǀʼhoo
hide
ǁhoo
put.aside
ǂxani-si
book-SG
‘The child hides the book.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(257)
Ha ǃauka.
ha
3SG
ǃauka
be.afraid
‘He is afraid.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Deletion of oblique
(258)
Ng ka ǃaruke hng si ǁhaa.
ng
1SG
ka
PL
ǃaru-ke
legs-PL
hng
3PL
si
IRR
ǁhaa
break
‘My legs, they will break.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Deagentive
(259)
Ha tyuu ng ǀqxʼae kxʼam.
ha
3SG
tyuu
hear
ng
1SG
ǀqxʼae
tell
kxʼam
truth
‘He hears I tell the truth.’
TELL an Alternation:
Deletion of dative object
(260)
Kua xng ǂqau kiin ǃʼaun.
kua
3H.SG
xng
PST
ǂqau
fall
kiin
lie.down
ǃʼaun
ground
‘He falls on the ground.’
FALL an Alternation:
Addition of direct object
(261)
Ku nǁae ǂqau kiin.
ku
3H.SG
nǁae
then
ǂqau
fall
kiin
lie.down
‘Then he falls.’
FALL a Coding frame:
1 V
(262)
Gǀa ǁqxʼam? - ja, na ǁqxʼam, man.
gǀa
2SG.STR
ǁqxʼam
wash
ja
yes
na
1SG
ǁqxʼam
wash
man
man
‘Are you washing? - Yes, I am washing, man!’
WASH an Alternation:
Deletion of direct object
(263)
Na ǁu xa ǁxaea ku xa nǁaa ki a.
na
1SG
ǁu
NEG
xa
PST
ǁxae-a
know-STAT
ku
3H.SG
xa
PST
nǁaa
stay
ki
place
a
thin
‘I don't know (that) he stays here.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Clausal complement instead of direct object
(264)
Na ǂaasinn ng ǃobake.
na
1SG
ǂaasinn
put.on
ng
1SG
ǃoba-ke
skirt-PL
‘I put my clothes on.’
DRESS the Verb form ǂaasinn
(265)
Ng nǁaa.
ng
1SG
nǁaa
get.dressed
‘I get dressed.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Deletion of direct object
(266)
Siia ki a, jong, a saa hui ng ng kunisi a.
sii-a
come-IMP.SG
ki
place
a
this
jong
boy
a
2SG
saa
come
hui
help
ng
1SG
ng
OBL
kuni-si
cart-SG
a
this
‘Come here, boy, come and help me with this car!’
HELP an Alternation:
Addition of oblique
(267)
A net see ng hui ng nǀa oom gǁain.
a
2SG
net
just
see
come
ng
and
hui
help
ng
1SG
nǀa
INST
oom
uncle
gǁain
brown.hyena
‘You must come and help me with Uncle Hyena.’
HELP an Alternation:
Addition of instrument/comitative
(268)
ǁʼuin ǁʼannʼa ke, ǂoo soo ng stoelsi.
ǁʼuin
day
ǁʼann-a
go.away-PFV
ke
FOC
ǂoo
man
soo
sit
ng
OBL
stoel-si
chair-SG
‘Yesterday the man sat on the chair.’
SIT an Alternation:
Demotion of direct object to oblique
(269)
ǀeeki ke xa ǂʼhaqa ǁʼaa Piet.
ǀeeki
woman
ke
FOC
xa
PST
ǂʼhaqa
push
ǁʼaa
go.away
Piet
Piet
‘The woman pushed Piet (away).’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(270)
ǀeeki xa ǂʼhaqa Piet.
ǀeeki
woman
xa
PST
ǂʼhaqa
push
Piet
Piet
‘The woman pushed Piet.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(271)
Ha ku "ǀqxʼaikea, ǀqxʼaikea"
ha
3SG
ku
say
ǀqxʼaike-a
beat-2SG.IMP
ǀqxʼaike-a
beat-2SG.IMP
‘He says: "Beat (him), beat (him)!"’
SAY an Alternation:
Deletion of oblique
(272)
A ha ǁʼaa ha ku ng nǀng: "tyuin xae a ..."
a
CONN
ha
3SG
ǁʼaa
go
ha
3SG
ku
say
ng
OBL
nǀng
1SG.STR
tyuin
what
xae
QF
a
this
‘He goes and says to me "What is this ..."’
SAY a Coding frame:
1 V ng+2 UTT3
(273)
ǀoba ke gaake ǂoo si boeksi.
ǀoba
child
ke
FOC
gaake
steal
ǂoo
man
si
GEN
boek-si
book-SG
‘The child steals the man's book.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1 V 2
(274)
U gaake ng.
u
2PL
gaake
steal
ng
1SG
‘You steal from us.’
STEAL the Verb form gaake
(275)
Petrus ke ǃqhao gao ng aanki.
Petrus
Petrus
ke
FOC
ǃqhao
smell
gao
thing
ng
OBL
aan-ki
eat-NOM
‘Petrus smells something in the food.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Addition of oblique