Deletion of direct object U

Description

S =A ambitransitive
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
LOAD nǃao N
(194)
ǂoo
man
nǃao
load
kuni-si
cart-SG
ng
OBL
ǂau
tsamma.melon
‘The man loaded the cart with tsamma melons.’
(198)
ku
3H.SG
ǀai
take
mandjie-si
basket-SG
ku
3H.SG
nǃao
load
ng
OBL
baisikel-si
bicycle-SG
‘He takes the basket, he loads it onto the cart.’
WASH ǁkxʼam R
(1)
ǀaeki
woman
ke
FOC
ǁkxʼam
wash
ǀoba
child
‘The woman washes the child.’
(2)
a
CONN
bu
2PL
ǁkxʼam
wash
u
2PL
‘And then you wash yourself.’
SHOW kadyama N
(3)
kua
3H.SG
kadyama
show
na
1SG.DAT
ǁuru-ke
road-PL
‘He shows me the way.’
BE DRY ǁoo(-a) N
(4)
ha
3SG
ǁoo-a
dry-PFV/STAT
‘It is dry.’
(181)
ǃae
oryx
dyoo
skin
hng
3PL
ǁoo-a
become.dry-STAT
‘The dry oryx hide.’
(182)
kinn
3PL
ke
FOC
si
IRR
ǃxaadinn
just.now
ǁhoo
become.dry
‘They (the clothes) will become dry quickly (just now).’
(183)
ha
3SG
ku
look.like
ǂui-ke
egg-PL
hng
3PL
ǁoo
dry
‘It looks like dry eggs (lit. It looks like eggs which are dry.).’
(184)
ng
1SG
ǀʼii
inside
ǁhoo
put.down
ng
OBL
ǁʼuin
sun
nǀa
PURP
ha
3SG
ǁoo
become.dry
‘I put it in the sun so that it can dry / become dry.’
GIVE aa N
(20)
ku
3H.SG
aa
give
ǀʼhuunsi-a
Boer-DAT
ǂxani-si
letter-SG
‘He gives the letter to the Boer.’
BRING tsaa N
(21)
hng
3PL
tsaa
give
ha
3SG.DAT
nǁaen
blanket.PL
‘They give him blankets.’
(60)
ha
3SG
tsaa
give
ha
3SG.DAT
i
DAT
gao
thing
‘He gives him something.’
SHOW qann(-ya) N
(59)
ha
3SG
qann-a
show-BEN
sa
1PL.E.DAT
piri-ng
goat-PL
‘He shows us the goats.’
FEAR ǃauka N
(5)
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
ǃauke-a
become.frightened-PFV
ng
OBL
ǂoo
man
a
this
ko
other
‘The man is afraid of the other man.’
(6)
a
CONN
a
2SG
si
IRR
ǁʼae
go
ǃauke-a
become.frightened-PFV/STAT
ng
OBL
nǀng
1SG.OBL
‘And you should be afraid of me.’
SEND ǀae(-a) N
(22)
si
1PL.E
ǀae
send
ba
2PL.DAT
ǂxani-si
letter-SG
‘We send you a letter.’
(64)
kinn
3PL
ǀae-a
send-BEN
na
1SG.DAT
i
DAT
aanki
food
‘They send me food.’
(65)
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
si
IRR
ǀae
send
ǀoba-a
child-DAT
i
DAT
ǂxani-si
book-SG
‘The man sends the book for/to the child.’
(67)
na
1SG
si
IRR
ǀae
send
ba
2PL.DAT
ǂxani-si
book-SG
‘I will send you a letter.’
WANT ǂao(-a) N
(212)
ai
INTERJ
ou
old
nooi
missis
na
1SG
ǂao-a
want-STAT
ǃkhaa
water
ʘuni
DIM.PL
‘Ay, missis, I want a little bit of water!’
GET hoo (1) N
(8)
ǀoba
child
ke
FOC
hoo
get
ǂoo
man
si
GEN
boek-si
book-SG
‘The child gets the man's book.’
(9)
ma
Mummy
sa
1PL.E
hoo-a
get-PFV
mari!
money
‘Mummy, we got money!’
SING ǂeeke N
(10)
ǂxai-ke
young.man-PL
ǂeeke
sing
‘The young men sing.’
(122)
ng
1SG
ǁu
NEG
ǂeeke
sing
ǂhuu
straight
a
CONN
ng
1SG
ǂeeke
sing
‘I don't sing well but I sing (nevertheless).’
DIE ǀʼaa N
(12)
ha
3SG
si
IRR
ǀʼaa
die
‘He will die.’
(143)
gǀa
2SG.STR
ǁu
NEG
nǀai
see
oom
uncle
ǀʼArusi
ǀʼArusi
ǂao
want
ha
3SG
ǀʼaa
die
‘Don't you see that uncle ǀʼArusi wants to die?’
(144)
a
2SG
si
IRR
ǀʼaa
die
‘You will die.’
(145)
u
2PL
ke
FOC
si
IRR
ǀʼaa
die
ng
OBL
ǁqann
hunger
‘You will die of hunger!’
PLAY (ka) ǃqora N
(13)
si
1PL.E
ǃqora
play
‘We play.’
(14)
ǃxaeka
morning
na
1SG
ka
PL
ǃkxʼora
play
nǀa
INST
ha
3SG
‘In the morning, I play with him.’
TAKE ǀai (1) N
(246)
kinn
3PL
ǀai
take
ka
PL
ǃuuke
shoe
‘They take the shoes.’
(248)
ǀai
take
uu
take.up
ki
3NH.SG
nǀa
INST
tyuu
mouth
‘(He) takes it with his mouth.’
COUGH ǁʼhoqo N
(15)
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
ǁʼhoqo
cough
‘The man coughs.’
FEEL COLD khinn ǀʼhuu N
(146)
ng
1SG
khinn
feel
ǀʼhuu
cold
‘I feel cold.’
LAUGH kxʼainʼa N
(16)
na
1SG
kxʼainʼin
laugh
‘I laugh.’
RAIN ǂhau N
(18)
ǂhuu
rain
ke
FOC
ǂqau
rain
‘It rains (lit. The rain rains.).’
(19)
ǃaqa
rain
ǂqau
rain
‘It rains (lit. The rain rains.).’
CARRY ǃxau N
(23)
a
2SG
ke
FOC
si
IRR
ǃxau
carry
tya
that
ǁhaan
bag
‘You must carry that bag.’
(76)
a
2SG
ke
FOC
si
IRR
ǃxau-a
carry-BEN
na
1SG.DAT
i
DAT
ǁxaan
bag
‘You must carry that bag for me (e.g. because it is too heavy for me).’
(77)
kua
3H.SG
ǃxau-a
carry-PFV
ǁxaan
bag
ku
3H.SG
ǁʼaa
go.to
ku
3H.SG
aa
give
ǂoo-a
man-DAT
i
DAT
‘He carried the bag, he goes and gives it to the man.’
FRIGHTEN kxʼuu qain N
(24)
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
kxʼuu
make
qain
frightened
ǀoba
child
‘The man frightens the child.’
(50)
a
2SG
ǀkxʼui
CAUS
qain
be.frightened
a
2SG
haa-si
horse-SG
‘You frighten your horse.’
LIKE tsʼaanʼa N
(25)
ng
1SG
tsʼaanʼa
like
ʘoe
meat
‘I like meat.’
(26)
ǀoba
child
ke
FOC
tsʼaanʼa
like
ǂoo
man
‘The child likes the man.’
KNOW ǁxae(-a) M
(27)
na
1SG
mos
indeed
ǁxae-a
know-STAT
ng
1SG
‘I really know myself.’
(28)
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
ǁxae-a
know-STAT
ǀaeki
woman
‘The man knows the woman.’
(29)
ku
3H.SG
ǁxae-a
know-STAT
guu-ke
thing-PL
‘She knows the things.’
THINK ǂʼain(ke) M
SEARCH FOR ǁaanʼa M
(33)
si
1PL.E
ǁaanʼa
search
ǀaa-ke
berry-PL
‘We search berries.’
DRESS ǂaasinn N
(34)
ku
3H.SG
xainki
mother
ke
FOC
si
IRR
ǂaasinn
dress
ku
3H.SG
‘His (the child's) mother will dress him (the child).’
(36)
ha
3SG
ǀʼuike
wipe.off
ng
1SG
ǂaasinn
dress
ng
1SG
‘She wipes me off, (she) dresses me.’
DRESS nǁaa (1) R
(38)
ǀaeki
woman
nǁaa
dress
ǀoba
child
‘The woman dresses the child.’
HELP hui N
(39)
ku
3H.SG
hui
help
ng
1SG
‘He helps me.’
(40)
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
hui
help
ǀaeki
woman
‘The man helps the woman.’
(41)
na
1SG
si
IRR
hui
help
a
2SG
ng
1SG
ǀʼhuun-si
white.person-SG
‘I will help you, my boss.’
FOLLOW ǀhunn N
(42)
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
ǀhunn-a
follow-PFV
ǃʼoakerasi
young.girl
‘The man followed the girl.’
ASK FOR ǃʼhoeʼa N
(45)
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
ǃʼhoeʼin
ask.for
mari
money
ng
OBL
ǂoo
man
a
this
ko
other
‘The man asks the other man for money.’
TELL ǀkxʼae(a) N
(47)
a
2SG
ǁu
NEG
si
IRR
suin
sit.down.SG
a
2SG
ǀkxʼae-a
tell-BEN
dya
1PL.I.DAT
gǀuu-ki
tell.lie-NOM
‘You should not sit and be telling lies to us.’
(48)
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
ǀkxʼae-a
tell-BEN
dya
1PL.I.DAT
kxʼam
truth
‘The man says the truth to us.’
TIE ǁʼngke N
(52)
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
ǁʼngke
tie
haan-si
horse-SG
ng
OBL
ǂʼhai
shepherd's.tree
‘The man ties the horse to the tree.’
APPEAR no verbal counterpart N
TOUCH ǀai (2) N
(250)
gǀa
2SG.STR
dyee
do.how
ng
thus
ǀai
take
ng
OBL
nǀng
1SG.STR
‘How (=why) do you touch me?’
MEET hoo (2)
(43)
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
si
IRR
hoo
meet
ǃʼoakerasi
young.girl
‘The man must meet the girl.’
(44)
nǃaun
hare
sii
come
ng
and
mhoo
meet
gǁain
brown.hyena
‘The hare comes and meets the hyena.’
HIDE ǀʼhoo ǁhoo
(254)
ǀoba
child
ke
FOC
ǀʼhoo
hide
ǁhoo
put.aside
boek-si
book-SG
‘The child hides the book.’
(255)
ǀoba
child
ke
FOC
ǀʼhoo
hide
ǁhoo
put.down
boek-si
book-SG
nǀa
PURP
ǂoo
man
gǂii
PROH
nǀaa
see
ki
3NH.SG
‘The child hides the book so that the man doesn't see it.’
(256)
ǀoba
child
ǀʼhoo
hide
ǁhoo
put.aside
ǂxani-si
book-SG
‘The child hides the book.’
POUR ǂhaun
(55)
ǂhaun-wa
pour-IMP.SG/BEN
na
1SG.DAT
koffie
coffee
‘Pour coffee for me!’
JUMP ǂkhuun N
(56)
a
CONN
ha
3SG
ǂkhuun
jump
a
CONN
ha
3SG
hala
show.off
‘Then he jumps, then he shows off.’
(120)
a
CONN
ha
3SG
ǂkhuun
jump
‘Then he (the springbok) jumps.’
(121)
ǀoba
child
ke
FOC
ka
PL
ǂhuun
jump
‘The child jumps (up and down, again and again).’
THROW ǂaqbeke M
(69)
na
1SG
ǂaqbeke
throw
ǂau-si
tsamma.melon-SG
ng
OBL
nǁng
house
‘I throw the tsamma melon against the wall (lit. house).’
(70)
na
1SG
ǂaqbeke
throw
ǂau-si
tsamma.melon-SG
ng
OBL
ǃʼaun
ground
‘I throw the tsamma melon on the floor.’
PUT ǁhoo N
(201)
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
xng
PST
ǁhoo-a
put.down-PFV
boek-si
book-SG
ng
OBL
tafel-si
table-SG
‘The man put the book on(to) the table.’
(203)
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
gǃai
(up)on
ǁhoo-a
put.down-PFV
ǂxani-si
book-SG
ng
OBL
tafel-si
table-SG
‘The man has put down the book onto the table.’
COVER ǂanu N
(84)
si
1PL.E
ǂanu
cover
nǁng
house
‘We cover the house.’
COVER ǂʼaoke N
(85)
na
1SG
si
IRR
ǂʼaoke
cover
a
2SG
xuu
face
‘I will cover your face.’
FILL ǂunn N
(89)
na
1SG
kxʼuu
make
ǂʼunn
fill
ki
3NH.SG
‘I fill it (e.g. the pot).’
(90)
ha
3SG
ǂʼunn
fill
mandjie-si
basket-SG
a
this
ko
other
‘He fills the other basket.’
(92)
ha
3SG
ǂʼunn
fill
emmer-si
bucket-SG
‘He fills the bucket.’
CLIMB ǁain R
(104)
ha
3SG
nǁae
then
ǁain
climb.up
nǃoon
dune
‘Then he climbs up the dune.’
(107)
kinn
3PL
ǁain
climb.up
ǂʼhai
shepherd's.tree
‘They climb (up) the tree.’
RUN ǃae N
(109)
ha
3SG
ǃae
run
‘He runs.’
SIT soo R
(117)
ǃhuru
day
a
this
ng
1SG
soo
sit
nǁng
house
‘Today I stay at home (lit. Today I sit at home.).’
(118)
na
1SG
soo
sit
ki
place
a
this
‘I am sitting here.’
(119)
ha
3SG
soo
sit
nǁng
house
tyuu
mouth
‘He sits in front of the house (lit. by the house's mouth = by the door).’
SIT DOWN suin (SG), ǃʼhaun (PL) R
(190)
tcuin-ya
sit.down-IMP.SG
ki
place
a
this
‘Sit down here!’
(191)
ǁʼaa
go.away
si
1PL.E
ǃʼhaun
sit.down.PL
Olifantshoek
Olifantshoek
‘We go (and) land in Olifantshoek.’
(193)
hng
3PL
sii
come
hng
3PL
ǃʼhaun
sit.down.PL
ǁuru-ke
road-PL
hng
3PL
sii
come
hng
3PL
ǃʼhaun
sit.down.PL
ka
PL
nǂoqno
shade
‘They come (and) sit down on the road, they come (and) sit down in the shade.’
GO ǁʼaa R
(123)
ng
1SG
ǁu
NEG
ǁʼaa
go.to
nǁng
house
‘I don't go home?’
(124)
ha
3SG
ǁʼaa
go.to
tya
that
ǃuu
world
‘He goes to that country.’
(125)
si
1PL.E
ǁʼaa
go.to
gǃari
town
‘We go to town.’
(126)
nǁngǂee
people
ǁʼaa
go.to
gǃae
springbok
‘The people go to the springboks.’
LEAVE xuu M
(128)
kua
3H.SG
xng
PST
xuu-a
leave-PFV
gǃari
town
‘He has left the town.’
LIVE nǁaa (2) R
(129)
na
1SG
nǁaa
stay
Antjie
Antjie
nǁng
house
‘I stay (live) at Antjie's house.’
(130)
gǃae
springbok
meid-e
girl-PL
ke
FOC
nǁaa
stay
ki
place
a
this
‘The springbok girls stay (live) here.’
(131)
kua
3H.SG
xng
PST
nǁaa
stay
gǃari
town
‘I stayed (lived) in town.’
(132)
kinn
3PL
ke
FOC
nǁaa
stay
post
outpost
‘They stay (live) at the cattle post.’
(133)
ǀoba
child
ke
FOC
ka
PL
nǁaa
stay
ng
1SG
nǁng
house
‘The child stays (lives) at my house.’
LIVE ǀʼhoa N
(136)
sa
1PL.E
ǀʼhoa
settle
ǃkhaa
farm
‘We live on a farm.’
(137)
si
1PL.E
saa
come
si
1PL.E
ǀʼhoa
settle
Klapin
Klapin
‘We come and settle at Klapin.’
BE ILL ʘʼuiʼi N
(140)
a
2SG
ka
PL
nǀuin-ke
knee-PL
hng
3PL
ʘʼuiʼi
be.sore
‘Your knees are sore.’
(142)
na
1SG
ʘʼuiʼi
be.in.pain
‘I have pain. / I am sick.’
FEEL COLD ǀʼhuu N
(147)
ng
1SG
ǀʼhuu
feel.cold
‘I feel cold.’
(148)
ǀoba
child
ǀʼhuu
feel.cold
‘The child feels cold.’
BE A HUNTER ng X N
(179)
ku
3H.SG
ng
COP
ǀhoqo
ghost
ʘuun
DIM
‘She is a small ghost.’
(180)
ng
1SG
ǁu
NEG
ng
COP
gǁain
brown.hyena
‘I am not the hyena.’
BE SAD idiomatic expressions N
(151)
hng
3PL
ka
PL
ǀqae-ke
heart-PL
ʘʼuiʼi
be.sore
‘They are sad (lit. Their hearts are sore.).’
(152)
ha
3SG
ǀqae
heart
ǁu
NEG
tyhaaʼi
tasty
‘He is sad (lit. His heart is not tasty/well.).’
BE HUNGRY khinn ǁqann N
(153)
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
khinn
feel
ǁqann
hunger
‘The man is hungry.’
BURN (tr) ǂʼhubi N
(156)
ǀʼii
fire
ke
FOC
ǂʼhubi
burn
ng
1SG
‘The fire burns me.’
(157)
kinn
3PL
ǂʼhubi
burn
tya
that
gǁoo
bull
‘They burn that bull.’
BUILD kxʼuu N
(158)
dya
1PL.I
kxʼuu
make
nǁng
house
ng
OBL
ki
place
a
this
‘We build a house here.’
(216)
ha
3SG
kxʼuu
make
nǁng
house
ʘoa
DIM
‘She makes a small hut.’
(218)
a
CONN
ng
1SG
sii
come
ng
1SG
kxʼuu
make
koffie
coffee
‘Then I come (and) make coffee.’
BREAK ǁhaa N
(159)
a
2SG
si
IRR
ǁhaa
break
ng
1SG
ka
PL
khiin
leg
‘You will break my legs.’
KILL ǀhaa N
(160)
gǁain
brown.hyena
ke
FOC
xa
PST
ǀhaa
kill
a
2SG
gǂarusi
sheep
‘The hyena has killed your sheep.’
BEAT ǀkxʼaike N
(163)
ǀʼhuun-si
white.person-SG
ǀkxʼaike
beat
gǁain
brown.hyena
‘The Boer beats hyena.’
BEAT ǂamʼa M
(164)
na
1SG
si
IRR
ǂamʼa
beat
a
2SG
‘I will beat you.’
EAT ain R
(166)
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
ain
eat
pree-si
bread-SG
‘The man eats the bread.’
(167)
i
1PL.I
xa
PST
ain
eat
ǂauǁaa
seeds
‘We ate seeds.’
LOOK AT ǂaqe R
(169)
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
ǂaqe
look
ǀoba
child
‘The man looks at the child.’
(170)
u
2PL
saa
come
u
2PL
ǂaqe
look
nǁngǂee
people
ng-ke
this-PL
he
REL.SG
nǁaa
stay
ki
place
a
this
‘You come, you look at the people who are here.’
SEE nǀai N
(237)
nǀaa
look.IMP.SG
ng
1SG
ng
1SG
tyoan
be.absent
ǂoa
sleeping.mat
‘Look at me, I don't have a sleeping mat.’
SMELL ǃqhao R
(172)
ng
1SG
ǁu
NEG
ǃqhao
smell
gao
thing
‘I don't smell anything.’
TEAR tyxaa N
(252)
kinn
3PL
tyxaa
tear
ng
1SG
nuwe
new
seat-ke
seat-PL
‘They have torn my new seats.’
(253)
ǀoba
child
tyxaa
tear
ǂxani-si
book-SG
ǀxaa
side
‘The child tears the book's page.’
GRIND ǂxaike R
(245)
he
3SG
ǂxaike
pound
hng-ke
3PL-PL
‘He pounds them.’
PUSH ǂʼhaqa N
(242)
ǀaeki
woman
ke
FOC
ǂʼhaqa
push
ǁʼa-a
go.away-PFV
Geelman
Geelman
‘The woman pushed Geelman away.’
(243)
ǂʼhaqa
push
sii-a
come-IMP.SG/BEN
na
1SG.DAT
stoel-si
chair-SG
‘Push the chair towards me.’
(244)
ǂʼhaqa
push
ǁʼae-a
go.to-IMP.SG/BEN
ku-a
3H.SG-DAT
stoel-si
chair-SG
‘Push the chair towards him.’
(269)
ǀeeki
woman
ke
FOC
xa
PST
ǂʼhaqa
push
ǁʼaa
go.away
Piet
Piet
‘The woman pushed Piet (away).’
(270)
ǀeeki
woman
xa
PST
ǂʼhaqa
push
Piet
Piet
‘The woman pushed Piet.’
SAY ku N
(240)
ng
1SG
si
IRR
ku
say
ng
OBL
ǀʼhuun-si
white.person-SG
a
2SG
xa
PST
ǁʼae
go.to
ǃkxʼabe-si
cream-SG
‘I will say to the Boer (that) you went to the cream.’
(272)
a
CONN
ha
3SG
ǁʼaa
go
ha
3SG
ku
say
ng
OBL
nǀng
1SG.STR
tyuin
what
xae
QF
a
this
‘He goes and says to me "What is this ..."’
STEAL gaake R
(236)
a
CONN
si
1PL.E
gǀoe
again
gaake
steal
ǁhai-ke
milk-PL
‘Then we also steal milk.’
(273)
ǀoba
child
ke
FOC
gaake
steal
ǂoo
man
si
GEN
boek-si
book-SG
‘The child steals the man's book.’
HEAR tyuu M
(229)
Petrus
Petrus
xa
PST
tyuu-a
hear-PFV
ǀkhui-si
bird-SG
‘Petrus heard the bird.’
(232)
ng
1SG
ǁu
NEG
tyuu
hear
ki-ke
3-PL
‘I don't understand them.’
CUT ǀaa N
(174)
ng
1SG
ǀaa
cut
ǁuu-ke
steekgras-PL
‘I cut steekgras.’
FALL ǂqau kiin N
(261)
ku
3H.SG
nǁae
then
ǂqau
fall
kiin
lie.down
‘Then he falls.’
DIG ǁʼau R
(177)
ǁʼae
go
nya
1SG
ǁʼau
dig
ǁʼae
go
nya
1SG
ǁʼau
dig
nǁoqo-ke
wild.potatoe-PL
‘I go and dig, I go and dig out wild potatoes.’
CRY kxʼaa N
(204)
kinna
3PL
kxʼaa
cry
‘They cry.’
SEARCH FOR ǂxaqake M
(205)
si
1PL.E
ǂxaqake
search
gǁolo-ng
thornbush-PL
tyxann
shit
‘We look for thornbush gum.’
(206)
a
CONN
si
1PL.E
ǂxaqake
search
ǃkhaa
rain
‘... because we want to get rain.’
(208)
want
because
ǀʼhuun-si
white.person-SG
ǁu
NEG
xa
PST
ǂxaqake
search
si
1PL.E
‘... because the white man did not want us.’
(209)
hng
3PL
tsee
come
hng
3PL
ǂxaqake
search
si
1PL.E
‘They came and searched us.’
BOIL ǀuun N
(223)
ǁxau-ke
blood-PL
ke
FOC
ǃʼhaun-wa
sit.PL-STAT
hng
3PL
ǀuun
boil
‘It is the blood (that) is boiling.’
(224)
ǂqoa
pot
ke
FOC
ǀuun
boil
‘The pot boils.’
(225)
ǃkhaa
water
ke
FOC
ǀuun
boil
‘The water boils.’
COOK ǃxama R
(226)
na
1SG
ǃxama
cook
ʘoe
meat
‘I cook the meat.’