Alternations of Nǀǀng

Alternations
Alternation name Description Examples Verbs
C
y 1
U
n 0
U
n OBL <-> COM/INST alternation (theme flagged with n|a instead of ng)
(199)
ǂoo ke nǃao kunisi nǀa ǀhee.
ǂoo
man
ke
FOC
nǃao
load
kuni-si
cart-SG
nǀa
INST
ǀhee
grass
‘The man loads the cart with grass.’
2
U
n COM/INST addition
(267)
A net see ng hui ng nǀa oom gǁain.
a
2SG
net
just
see
come
ng
and
hui
help
ng
1SG
nǀa
INST
oom
uncle
gǁain
brown.hyena
‘You must come and help me with Uncle Hyena.’
11
C
y If the action implies a goal, a source, or a recipient, a serial verb construction has to be used. The second verb of the SVC can be a verb like 'go.in/put in', 'go out', 'go.to/go.away', 'come' etc. Note that the goal/source/recipient argument does not have to be overtly expressed.
(49)
A ke si ǃxau ǁʼae ǁhaan a ng gǃari.
a
2SG
ke
FOC
si
IRR
ǃxau
carry
ǁʼae
go.to
ǁhaan
bag
a
this
ng
OBL
gǃari!
town
‘You must carry this bag to town.’
10
C
y A serial verb construction with a second verb like 'go.to', 'come.to' is used to introduce a locational (?goal only) argument (X) as a direct object.
(58)
Kua ǂhuun ǁʼaa ki a.
kua
3H.SG
ǂhuun
jump
ǁʼaa
go.to
ki
place
a
this
‘She jumps to this side.’
2
C
y A serial verb construction with a second verb like 'descend (from)', 'come from' is used to introduce a source argument which is encoded as oblique argument (with oblique preposition ng). 2
U
n
(210)
Ng ǂao ng kxʼuua nya ǂoa.
ng
1SG
ǂao
want
ng
1SG
kxʼuu-a
make-BEN
nya
1SG.DAT
ǂoa
sleeping.mat
‘I want to make a sleeping mat for myself.’
6
U
n
(30)
Ng nǁae ǂʼainka, ng nǁann si tsʼii.
ng
1SG
nǁae
then
ǂʼainke-a
think-STAT
ng
1SG
nǁann
liver
si
IRR
tsʼii
bite
‘I think my stomach will ache.’
1
U
n dative deletion
(259)
Ha tyuu ng ǀqxʼae kxʼam.
ha
3SG
tyuu
hear
ng
1SG
ǀqxʼae
tell
kxʼam
truth
‘He hears I tell the truth.’
1
U
n S = A ambitransitive
(11)
ǀoba ǂheeke ǃʼui.
ǀoba
child
ǂeeke
sing
ǃʼui
traditional.song
‘The child sings a song.’
4
U
n S = P ambitransitive, possibly with addition of instrument or oblique
(81)
Ha ǂanu ng dyoo.
ha
3SG
ǂanu
cover
ng
OBL
dyoo
skin
‘She is covered with/by the animal hide.’
5
U
n S = P ambitransitive
(221)
Ku ǀuun ʘoe.
ku
3H.SG
ǀuun
boil
ʘoe
meat
‘He boils the meat.’
1
U
n S =A ambitransitive
(262)
Gǀa ǁqxʼam? - ja, na ǁqxʼam, man.
gǀa
2SG.STR
ǁqxʼam
wash
ja
yes
na
1SG
ǁqxʼam
wash
man
man
‘Are you washing? - Yes, I am washing, man!’
14
U
n direct object-oblique alternation;
sometimes the use of the oblique gives rise to a partitive meaning, but there are also examples where this in not the case
(61)
... nou a hu gǀoe aa na ng gǀa aanki.
nou
now
a
2SG
hu
SUBORD
gǀoe
again
aa
give
na
1SG.DAT
ng
OBL
gǀa
2SG.STR
aan-ki
eat-NOM
‘... now you must also give me some of your food.’
6
U
n direct object-oblique alternation
(7)
ǀoba ǃauka ǂoo.
ǀoba
child
ǃauke-a
become.frightened-STAT
ǂoo
man
‘The child fears the man.’
1
U
n addition of oblique
(213)
... maar a ǁala moo gao ki ng nǀng.
maar
but
a
2SG
ǁala
IRR.NEG
moo
get
gao
thing
ki
this
ng
OBL
nǀng
1SG.STR
‘... but you won't get this thing from me.’
7
U
n deletion of oblique
(197)
Hau nǃao kunisi.
hau
3SG
nǃao
load
kuni-si
cart-SG
‘He loads his cart (with s.th.).’
7
U
n dative+direct <-> direct+oblique

(73)
A si ǂaqbekea na bolsi!
a
2SG
si
IRR
ǂaqbeke-a
throw-BEN
na
1SG.DAT
bol-si!
ball-SG
‘You must throw the ball to me!’
1
C
y
(63)
Na si ǀae u nǀa ǂxanisi u ǁʼae gǃari.
na
1SG
si
IRR
ǀae
send
u
2PL
nǀa
INST
ǂxani-si
letter-SG
u
2PL
ǁʼae
go.to
gǃari
town
‘I will send you to town with a letter. (lit. I will send you with a letter, you go to town).’
1
U
n
(195)
ǂoo nǃao ǂau ng kunisi.
ǂoo
man
nǃao
load
ǂau
tsamma.melon
ng
OBL
kuni-si
cart-SG
‘The man loads tsamma melons onto the cart.’
1
C
y 0