kms

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There is no single verb corresponding to English 'put'. Rather, there are a large number of derived causative expressions, each based on a semantically precise 'positional verb'.

Positional verbs are stative in meaning and have no infinitive; from them are derived pairs of dynamic verbs – a causative, meaning 'put in position X' and a middle, meaning 'get into position X'. We use
kms as an example here – positional e.g. ykmangr 's/he/it is lying, in a lying position' (no infinitive but various inflected forms' is the positional, and corresponding to it are äkms 'to lie down' and kms 'to put in a lying position'. There are about 35 sets of this type.

Transitives of this type optionally take a locative adjunct – not listed here as part of the coding frame, since it is semantically predictable.

Coding frame

Example

(166)
Ymam biskar katrowan ykmanda.
ymam
3sgERG
biskar
cassava
katro-wan
black.palm-LOC
y-kma-nda
3sgU:α-lie-ND:PF:3sgA
‘He put the cassava inside a black palm container.’

Verb meaning , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# PUT Coding set Argument type
1 putter NP-erg & V.act A
2 put thing NP-abs & und.V P

Alternations

Alternation name Occurs Examples
C
R y
(168)
‘He's about to go to sleep.’
C
R y
(167)
‘Here are 36 of Jimmy's eating yams inside the yam house.’
C
y
C
y
U
n
U
n
C
y
C
y
C
y
U
n
C
y
U
n
C
y
C
y
C
y
U
n
U
n