gms

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Can mean 'hit', 'beat' and 'kill'. krtas can be added to make the 'kill' meaning clear. RR form ägms has undergone some semantic change: it means 'fight' in general (which may involve hitting, but not necessarily) and can also be used with a singular subject, so this is best seen as a lexicalised use of an original reciprocal rather than a fully compositional case.

Coding frame

Simplex Verb form

Examples

(61)
Togam kanam wénngama ygmenda.
tog-am
child-ERG
kanam
snake(ABS)
wén-ngama
stick-ABL
y-gme-nda
3sgU:α-hit-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘The child hit/beat the snake with a stick.’
(63)
Yna är bä ym ymam kanam ygmenda.
yna
DEM
är
man(ABS)
STAT
y-m
3sg:α-be
ymam
3sgERG
kanam
snake(ABS)
y-gme-nda
3sgU:α-kill-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘This is the man who killed the snake.’
(64)
Togam kanam krtas ygmenda.
tog-am
child-ERG
kanam
snake(ABS)
kr-ta-s
death-ALL-only
y-gme-nda
3sgU:α-hit/kill-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘The boy killed the snake.’

Verb meanings , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# BEAT HIT KILL Coding set Argument type
1 beater hitter killer NP-erg & V.act A
2 beatee hittee killee NP-abs & und.V P
3 beating instrument hitting instrument killing instrument NP-abl I

Alternations

Alternation name Occurs Examples
U
R n
(62)
‘I got hit on the shoulder.’
C
R y
(208)
‘Those two men are fighting. (Could be hitting each other, or also fighting by other means).’
C
y
U
n
U
n
C
y
C
y
C
y
C
y
U
n
C
y
C
y
C
y
C
y
C
y
U
n
U
n