Examples of Nen

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
Ämengama äräm toge yaparnda.
äme-ngama
mat-ABL
är-äm
man-ERG
toge
child(ABS)
y-apar-nd-a
3sgU:α-cover-PST.PF-3sgA:PST.PF
‘The man covered the child with the mat.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs (3-abl) und[2].V.act[1]
(2)
Ynd nungama kap yapndn.
ynd
1sgERG
nu-ngama
water-ABL
kap
cup(ABS)
y-ap-nd-n
3sgU:α-fill-PST.PF-1sgA
‘I filled the cup with water.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs (3-abl) und[2].V.act[1]
(3)
Ynd nawapnan.
ynd
1sgABS
n-aw-ap-na-n
M:α-RR-cover-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I'm about to cover myself.’
COVER an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(4)
Kap nungama wapsmne ym.
kap
cup
nu-ngama
water-ABL
wap-s-mne
fill-NLZR-ORIG
y-m
3sgU-be
‘The cup has been filled with water.’
FILL the Verb form waps
(5)
Kmboke rkrk ws geym nu(ngama) apst korkorp ym.
kmboke
neck
rkrk
narrow
ws
bottle
geym
FOC
nu-ngama
water-ABL
ø-ap-s-t
M.INF-fill-INF-ALL
korkorp
difficult
y-m
3sgU-be
‘The small-necked bottle is difficult to fill.’
FILL an Alternation:
Middle
(6)
Kmboke marete ws nu(ngama) apst pitas ym.
kmboke
neck
marete
broad
ws
bottle
nu-ngama
water-ABL
ø-ap-s-t
M.INF-fill-NLZR-ALL
pitas
enough
y-m
3sgU-be
‘The broad-necked bottle is easy to fill.’
FILL an Alternation:
Middle
(7)
Kap nungama apsere ym.
kap
cup
nu-ngama
water-ABL
apsere
full
y-m
3sgU-be
‘The cup is full of water.’
FILL the Verb form waps
(8)
Ynd yande tnd sombes embaewn.
ynd
1sgERG
yande
3sgGEN
tnd
hand
sombes
two
e-mbae-w-n
2/3nsgU-tie-sgA\duU:IPF-1sgA
‘I'm tying up both his hands.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(9)
Wmbaes tsne!
w-mbae-s
TR.INF-tie-NLZR
t-sne-ø
3sgU:β-start-IPF:IMP:2sgA
‘Start tying it!’
TIE the Verb form wmbaes
(10)
Ymam kapngama nu yazrnda.
ymam
3sgERG
kap-ngama
cup-ABL
nu
water
y-azr-nd-a
3sgU:α-pour-PST.PF:ND-3sgA:PST.PF
‘He poured the water out of the cup.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs (3-abl) und[2].V.act[1]
(11)
Ymam yna nne wazrst yngapapnda.
ymam
3sgERG
yna
DEM
nne
yam
wazr-s-t
carry-NLZR-ALL
y-ng-apap-nd-a
3sgU:α-AW-try-ND:PST.PF-3sgA:PST.PF
‘He's trying to carry all those yams.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(12)
Nu kapngama nazrnda.
nu
water
kap-ngama
cup-ABL
n-azr-nd-a
M:α-pour-PF:ND-3sgA:PST.PF
‘The water has poured out of the cup.’
POUR an Alternation:
Middle
(13)
Nazne.
n-az-n-e
M:α-pour-ND:IPF-3sgA:B.IPF
‘It's pouring out of the cup.’
POUR an Alternation:
Middle
(14)
Ynd ḡénzér kp wenda benama tuwitan kunzt.
ynd
1sgERG
ḡénzér_kp
stone
wenda
window
ben-ama
hole-PERL
t-uwi-ta-n
3sgU:β-throw-ND:IPF-1sgA
kunz-t
inside-ALL
‘I threw the stone inside, through the window.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs (LOC3) und[2].V.act[1]
(15)
Ynd ḡénzér kp tuwitan smasma tnamtan.
ynd
1sgERG
ḡénzér_kp
stone
t-uwi-ta-n
3sgU:β-throw-ND:IPF-1sgA
smasma
goanna
t-nam-ta-n
3sgU:β-hit.at.a.distance-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I threw a stone at the goanna and hit it.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs (LOC3) und[2].V.act[1]
(16)
Ynd ḡénzér kp tuwitan smasma tltan.
ynd
1sgERG
ḡénzér_kp
stone
t-uwi-ta-n
3sgU:β-throw-ND.IPF-1sgA
smasma
goanna
t-lt-a-n
3sgU:β-miss-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I threw a stone at the goanna and missed.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs (LOC3) und[2].V.act[1]
(17)
Ynd wawapserepap buk aba ynrenzan.
ynd
1sgERG
wawapser-epap
teacher-DAT2
buk
book
aba
IMM
y-n-renz-a-n
3sgU:α-TOW-carry-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I brought/carried the book to the teacher.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-dat und[2].V.act[1]
(18)
Ynd begta aba ynrenzan.
ynd
1sgERG
begta
2sgDAT1
aba
IMM
y-n-renz-a-n
3sgU:α-TOW-carry-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I brought it for you.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-dat und[2].V.act[1]
(19)
Togetoge tapap tnrenza!
toge
child(ABS)
tapap
1sgDAT2
t-n-menz-a
3sgU:β-TOW-lead-IPF.IMP.sg
‘Bring the child to me!’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-dat und[2].V.act[1]
(20)
Ymam kiémbngama wngrenze moett.
ymam
3sgERG
kiémb-ngama
truck-ABL
w-ng-renz-e
1sgU:α-AW-carry-ND:IPF:3sgA
moet-t
Morehead-ALL
‘He took me to Morehead in a truck.’
BRING an Alternation:
Allative alternation
(21)
Ymam bepapt toge bä ynrenze.
ymam
3sgERG
bepapt
3sgALL
toge
child
FUT
y-n-renz-e
3sgU:α-TOW-carry-ND:BEN.IPF:3sgA
‘He will take the child to him/her.’
BRING an Alternation:
Allative alternation
(22)
Ynd ḡénzér kp tande anaipap yngatembandn.
ynd
1sgERG
ḡénzér_kp
money
tande
1sgGEN
an-aipap
older.brother-DAT2
y-ng-atemba-nd-n
3sgU:α-AW-send-ND:PST.PF-1sgA
‘I send the money to my brother.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-dat und[2].V.act[1]
(23)
Ynd totr yngatembetan.
ynd
1sgERG
totr
now
y-ng-atembe-ta-n
3sgU:α-AW-send-ND:B.IPF-1sgA
‘I'm sending it now.’
SEND the Verb form watembs
(24)
Bñe ynd te yngatembandn.
bñe
letter
ynd
1sgERG
te
CPL
y-ng-atemb-and-n
3sgU:α-AW-send-ND:PST.PF-1sgA
‘I've already sent the letter.’
SEND the Verb form watembs
(25)
Yngtrnandn.
y-ng-tr-na-nd-n
3sgU:α-AW-send-ND:B.IPF-ND:PST.PF-1sgA
‘I sent him (a letter).’
SEND a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(26)
Ynd bñe dumni noträrm.
ynd
1nsgABS
bñe
letter(ABS)
dumni
always
n-o-trär-m
M:α-RR-send-1nsgA
‘We used to send each other letters.’
SEND an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(27)
Yngäberetandn wäberes.
y-ng-äbere-ta-nd-n
3sgU:α-AW-send-ND:B.IPF-ND:PST.PF-1sgA
w-äbere-s
TR.INF-send-NLZR
‘I sent him away (for being bad).’
SEND a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(28)
Ymam wagib yaramanda (wawapapserei).
ymam
3sgERG
wagib
fish
y-a-rama-nd-a
3sgU-BEN-give-ND:PF-3sgA:PST.PF
wawapser-ei
teacher-OBL
‘She gave a fish to him (to the teacher).’
GIVE the Verb form warams
(29)
Ymam wagib tagta waramanda.
ymam
3sgERG
wagib
fish
tagta
1sgDAT
w-a-rama-nd-a
1sgU-BEN-give-ND:PST.PF-3sgA:PST.PF
‘She gave me a fish.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-dat und[3].V.act[1]
(30)
Ymam wagib ta waramanda.
ymam
3sgERG
wagib
fish
ta
1sgOBL
w-arama-nd-a
1sgU-give-ND:PST.PF-3sgA:PST.PF
‘She gave me a fish.’
GIVE the Verb form warams
(31)
Ymam wagib yaramanda wawapsereita.
ymam
3sgERG
wagib
fish
y-arama-nd-a
3sgU-give-ND:PST.PF-3sgA:PST.PF
wawapser-eita
teacher-DAT1
‘She gave the teacher the fish (and it reached him).’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-dat und[3].V.act[1]
(32)
Ymam {wawapsereita/yagta} wagib yayabnda.
ymam
3sgERG
{wawapser-eita/yagta}
{teacher-DAT1/3sgDAT1}
wagib
fish
y-ayab-nda
3sgU:α-show-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘She showed the fish to the teacher / to him.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-dat und[2].V.act[1]
(33)
Yna äräm ag sombes yawayabae.
yna
DEM
är-äm
man-ERG
ag
coconut
sombes
two
ya-wa-yab-ae
3nsgU:α-BEN-show-3A\duU:PF:PST.PF
‘That man showed (him) two coconuts.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Dative alternation
(34)
Ynd nambis ärt wagib yawaramandn.
ynd
1sgERG
nambis
three
är-t
man-PL:OBL
wagib
fish
yaw-arama-nd-n
3nsgU:α-give-ND:PF-1sgA
‘I gave the three men a fish.’
GIVE the Verb form warams
(35)
Ynd sombes ärbet ämbs wagib yawaraman.
ynd
1sgERG
sombes
two
ärbet
man:DU.DAT1
ämbs
one
wagib
fish
yaw-aram-a-n
3nsgU:α-fish-DU:PF-1sgA
‘I gave the two men a fish.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-dat und[3].V.act[1]
(36)
Ymam ybegta ag yawayabnda.
ymam
3sgERG
ybegta
3nsgDAT1
ag
coconut
ya-wayab-nda
3nsgU:α-show-ND:PF:3sgA
‘He showed them the coconut.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Dative alternation
(37)
Ymam ybegta ag yawayabae.
ymam
3sgERG
ybegta
3nsgDAT1
ag
coconut
yaw-ayab-ae
3nsgU:α-show-DU:PF:3sgA\duU
‘He showed the two of them one coconut.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-dat und[2].V.act[1]
(38)
Yna togam yadmaepapngama wagib ykapanda a yanenda.
yna
DEM
togam
child:ERG
yadma-epap-ngama
3sg:mother-DAT2-ABL
wagib
fish
y-kap-anda
3sgU:α-pick_up-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
a
and
y-ane-nda
3sgU:α-carry-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘The child got/took the fish from his mother.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs (3-dat-abl) und[2].V.act[1]
(39)
Yna togam tande naepa ynganenda.
yna
DEM
togam
child:ERG
tande
1sgPOSS
naepa
knife(ABS)
y-ng-ane-nda
3sgU-AW-carry-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘This child took my knife.’
BRING the Verb form renzas
(40)
Ämbs äräm kiémb yanenda.
ämbs
one
är-äm
man-ERG
kiémb
pig
y-ane-nda
3sgU:α-carry-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘A man is carrying a pig.’
BRING the Verb form renzas
(41)
Ynd boraro ke neretan.
ynd
1sgABS
boraro
bamboo.flute
ke
sound
n-ere-ta-n
M:α-hear-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I can hear the sound of a bamboo flute.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Middle object-downgrading alternation
(42)
Är togam yrninda ämb ärände nne.
är
person
togam
child(ERG)
y-rni-nda
3sgU:α-steal-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
ämb
one
ärä-nde
man-GEN
nne
food
‘The boy stole a man's food.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(43)
Yna samban ärm ybenzo-ybenzos nne yrnitat.
yna
DEM
samba-n
village-LOC
är-m
man-PL:ERG
ybenzo_ybenzos
each.other's
nne
food
y-rni-ta-t
3sgU:α-steal-ND:IPF-3nsgA
‘In that village people steal each other's food.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(44)
Yndbem ganzan kp tengernitam depi ärbende brbrmne.
yndbem
1nsgERG
ganzan_kp
sacred_stone
te-ng-erni-ta-m
3nsgU-AW-hide-ND:IPF-1nsgA
depi
foreigner
är-bende
person-PL:GEN
brbr-mne
fear-ORIG
‘We hid the sacred stones from the foreigners / for fear of the foreigners.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(45)
Ymam yta nne wérnist yapapnda.
ymam
3sgERG
yta
in.vain
nne
food
w-érni-s-t
TR.INF-hide-NLZR-ALL
y-apap-nda
3sgU:α-begin-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘He was about to steal/hide the food.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(46)
Yna togetoge nernendt.
yna
DEM
togetoge
children
n-e-rne-nd-t
M:α-RR-hide-ND:PST.PF-3nsgA
‘The children hid.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(47)
Ymam yéb tr ydrernda.
ymam
3sgERG
yéb
bag
tr
handle
y-drer-nda
3sgU:α-tear-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘He tore the handle from the bag.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(48)
Yna yéb nedrernda.
yna
DEM
yéb
bag
n-e-drer-nda
M:α-DA-tear-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘This bag tore.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Deagentive alternation
(49)
Yna yéb edrersmne ym.
yna
DEM
yéb
bag
e-drer-s-mne
DA-tear-NLZR-ORIG
y-m
3sg:α-be
‘This bag got torn.’
TEAR the Verb form drers
(50)
Yna kendngama mupi yländn.
yna
DEM
kend-ngama
paperbark-ABL
mupi
mud
y-län-d-n
3sgU:α-wipe-ND:PST.PF-1sgA
‘I wiped the mud with the bark.’
WIPE the Verb form läns
(51)
Ynd mupi ämewan yländn.
ynd
1sgERG
mupi
mud(ABS)
äme-wan
mat-LOC
y-län-d-n
3sgU:α-wipe-ND:PST.PF-1sgA
‘I wiped the mud off the mat.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-loc und[2].V.act[1]
(52)
Parwae pip yñptan.
parwae
animal
pip
meat(ABS)
y-ñp-ta-n
3sgU:α-cut-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I cut (up) the animal meat.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs (3-abl) und[2].V.act[1]
(53)
Bä nawañpt.
3ABS
n-aw-añp-ø-t
M:α-RR-cut-DU:IPF-3nsgA
‘The two of them are cutting themselves/each other.’
CUT an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(54)
Ynd kaepan neñpandn.
ynd
1sgABS
kaep-an
leg-LOC
n-e-ñpa-nd-n
M:α-DA-cut-ND:PST.PF-1sgA
‘I got/cut on the leg.’
CUT an Alternation:
Deagentive alternation
(55)
Bä neñpanda.
3ABS
n-e-ñpa-nda
M:α-DA-cut-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘He got cut. / He cut himself.’
CUT an Alternation:
Deagentive alternation
(56)
Ynd parwae pip bende nuñpandn.
ynd
1sgERG
parwae
animal
pip
meat
bende
2sgGEN
n-u-ñpa-nd-n
M:α-AB-cut-ND:PST.PF-1sgA
‘I cut a piece of your meat for myself.’
CUT an Alternation:
Autobenefactive
(57)
Är togam mleg toge tndan enzanda.
ärtog-am
boy-ERG
mlegtoge
girl(ABS)
tnd-an
hand-LOC
ø-enza-nda
3sgU:α-touch-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘The boy touched the girl on the hand.’
TOUCH the Verb form wenzas
(58)
Togam wénngama kanam enzanda.
tog-am
child-ERG
wén-ngama
stick-ABL
kanam
snake(ABS)
ø-enza-nda
3sgU:α-touch-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘The boy touched the snake with a stick.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs (3-abl) und[2].V.act[1]
(59)
Sombes wlwl newenzt.
sombes
two
wlwl
pole
n-ew-enz-ø-t
M:α-RR-touch-DU:IPF-3nsgA
‘The two poles are touching each other.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(60)
Mémbenan ynd tanzos newenzan.
mémben-an
nose-LOC
ynd
1sgABS
tanzos
1sgRR
n-ew-enz-a-n
M:α-RR-touch-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I am touching myself on the nose.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(61)
Togam kanam wénngama ygmenda.
tog-am
child-ERG
kanam
snake(ABS)
wén-ngama
stick-ABL
y-gme-nda
3sgU:α-hit-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘The child hit/beat the snake with a stick.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs (3-abl) und[2].V.act[1]
(62)
Ynd padaran wgmenda.
ynd
1sgABS
padar-an
shoulder-LOC
w-gme-nda
1sgU:α-hit-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘I got hit on the shoulder.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Pseudo-passive
(63)
Yna är bä ym ymam kanam ygmenda.
yna
DEM
är
man(ABS)
STAT
y-m
3sg:α-be
ymam
3sgERG
kanam
snake(ABS)
y-gme-nda
3sgU:α-kill-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘This is the man who killed the snake.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs (3-abl) und[2].V.act[1]
(64)
Togam kanam krtas ygmenda.
tog-am
child-ERG
kanam
snake(ABS)
kr-ta-s
death-ALL-only
y-gme-nda
3sgU:α-hit/kill-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘The boy killed the snake.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs (3-abl) und[2].V.act[1]
(65)
Ynd ämbs kanga bleble yräbärndn.
ynd
1sgERG
ämbs
one
kanga
ladder
bleble
step
y-räbär-nd-n
3sgU:α-break-ND:PST.PF-1sgA
‘I broke a step of the ladder.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(66)
Yna wén mngär äräbärser ym.
yna
DEM
wén
stick
mngär
quickly
ä-räbär-s-er
DA-break-NLZR-AGN
y-m
3sgU:α-be
‘This wood breaks easily.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Deagentive alternation
(67)
Ämbs kanga ble näräbärnda.
ämbs
one
kanga
ladder
ble
step
n-ä-räbär-nda
M:α-DA-break-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘One step of the ladder broke.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Deagentive alternation
(68)
Yna äräm kend mnḡ tramte.
yna
DEM
är-äm
man-ERG
kend
paperbark
mnḡ
house(ABS)
t-ram-t-e
3sgU:α-build-ND:IPF-3sgA
‘The man built a paperbark house.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(69)
Yao ämb zi aba nowabtan mlegeipap.
yao
NEG
ämb
any
zi
word(ABS)
aba
RCN
n-owab-ta-n
M:α-say-ND:IPF-1sgA
mleg-eipap
girl-DAT2
‘I didn't say anything to the girl.’
SAY a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-abs 3-dat V.act[1]
(70)
Bm Blag wagib dbnan terna!
bm
2sgERG
Blag
Blag(ABS)
wagib
fish
dbnan
because_of
t-er-na-ø
3sgU:β-shout.out.to-ND:IPF-IPF:IMP:2sgA
‘You shout out to Blag because of the fish!’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(71)
Bm Blag terna!
bm
2sgERG
Blag
Blag(ABS)
t-er-na-ø
3sgU:β-shout.out.to-ND:IPF-IPF:IMP:2sgA
‘Shout at Blag (e.g. not to do something)!’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(72)
Blag ternang mnegta sesat osns yao bä guñpanga.
Blag
Blag
t-er-na-ng
3sgU:β-shout.out.to-ND:IPF-2pl.IPF:IMP
mnegta
in.order.to
ses-at
church-ALL
osn-s
visit-NMLZ
yao
NEG
3ABS
g-u-ñpa-nga
M:γ-AB-cut-FUT.PF.3sgA
‘Shout out/command to Blag not to miss/skip church.’
SHOUT AT the Verb form weräns
(73)
Bm ke kotna Blagepap wagibta!
bm
2sgABS
ke
noise(ABS)
k-ot-na-ø
M:β-make.noise-ND:IPF-IMP
Blag-epap
Blag-DAT2
wagib-ta
fish-DAT1
‘Shout out to Blag for fish!’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-dat V.act[1]
(74)
Ymam zi (tagta) qawaete.
ymam
3sgERG
zi
word
tagta
1sgDAT
q-awae-t-e
1sgU:β-tell-ND:IPF-3sgA
‘He told (me) a story.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-dat und[3].V.act[1]
(75)
Bä zi nowabte.
3sgABS
zi
word
n-owab-t-e
M:α-talk-ND:IPF-3sgA
‘He is talking.’
SAY the Verb form owabs
(76)
Är togaepap zi aba nowabte mlegändemne.
är
man(ABS)
tog-aepap
child-DAT2
zi
word(ABS)
aba
RCN
n-owab-t-e
M:α-talk-ND:IPF-3sgA
mleg-ände-mne
girl-GEN-ORIG
‘The man talked to the boy about the girl.’
SAY the Verb form owabs
(77)
Ynd ymtendn bä ylst.
ynd
1sgERG
y-mte-nd-n
3sgU:α-tell-ND:PST.PF-1sgA
FUT
yls-t
go(INF)-ALL
‘I told him to go.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-all und[2].V.act[1]
(78)
Ynd Idaba yémtandn, yande/yanzo dmab dgan ym, kkpan o wrngan ym.
ynd
1sgERG
Idaba
Idaba
y-ém-ta-nd-n
3sgU-ask-ND:IPF-ND:PST.PF-1sgA
yande/yanzo
3sgGEN/3sgRR
dmab
woman
dga-n
where-LOC
y-m
3sgU:α-be
kkp-an
garden-LOC
o
or
wrng-an
forest-LOC
y-m
3sgU:α-be
‘I asked Idaba where his wife was, in the garden or in the forest.’
ASK FOR the Verb form wémés
(79)
Yna är bä mete ym yna toge.
yna
DEM
är
man
FUT
mete
know
y-m
3sgU:α-be:ND
yna
DEM
toge
child
‘The man knows that boy.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-abs und[1].V
(80)
Yna är sombes bä ybenzos mete yären.
yna
DEM
är
man
sombes
two
3ABS
ybenzos
3nsgRR
mete
know
yä-ren
3nsg:α-be:DU
‘Those two men know each other.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Reciprocal (copular version)
(81)
Ynd bi {rts/ogyabs} mete wm.
ynd
1sgABS
bi
sago(ABS)
{rt-s/ogyab-s}
{beat-NLZR/work-NLZR}
mete
know
w-m
1sgU:α-be:ND
‘I know how to beat/work sago.’
KNOW the Verb form mete
(82)
Ynd mete te nämtendn, bä bä ynm.
ynd
1sgABS
mete
know
te
already
n-ämte-nd-n
M:α-become-ND:PST.PF-1sgA
3ABS
FUT
y-n-m
3sgU:α-TOW-be
‘I knew he would come.’
KNOW the Verb form mete
(83)
Ynd kae yinḡndn.
ynd
1sgERG
kae
±one.day
y-inḡ-nd-n
3sgU:α-see-ND:PST.PF-1sgA
‘I saw him yesterday.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(84)
Bm ynd kae tnakate.
bm
2sgERG
ynd
1nsgABS
kae
±one.day
tn-aka-t-e
1nsgU:β-look.at-ND:IPF-B.IPF.3sgA
‘You saw us yesterday.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(85)
Kae aqa bä nawakaewm.
kae
±one.day
aqa
again
FUT
n-aw-akae-w-m
M:α-RR-see-DU:B.IPF-1nsgA
‘We'll see each other again tomorrow.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(86)
Ynd tanzos kae kawakatan.
ynd
1sgABS
tanzos
1sgRR
kae
±one.day
k-aw-aka-ta-n
M:β-RR-look.at-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I saw myself yesterday (e.g. a picture of myself).’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(87)
Ynd ämbygn te niwinḡanzm.
ynd
1sgABS
ämbygn
±one.year
te
already
n-iw-inḡ-anz-m
M:α-RR-see-DU:PRET-1nsgA
‘We saw each other last year.’
SEE an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(88)
Ynd wén trmb bmbo yakatan.
ynd
1sgERG
wén
tree
trmb_bmbo
flower(ABS)
y-aka-ta-n
3sgU:α-look.at-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I looked at the flower.’
LOOK AT the Verb form wakaes
(89)
Tänm bm kawakatang!
tä-n-m
2/3nsg:β-TOW-be
bm
2ABS
k-aw-aka-ta-ng
M:β-RR-look.at-ND:IPF-2pl.IPF:IMP
‘Come(PL) and look at yourselves/each other!’
LOOK AT the Verb form wakaes
(90)
Yna äräm gasa brbrba wetst yapapnda.
yna
DEM
är-äm
man-ERG
gasa
crocodile
brbr-ba
fear-COM
wet-s-t
make-NLZR-ALL
y-apap-nda
3sgU:α-begin-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘That man is going to frighten the crocodile.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(91)
Ynd yta ele sermban bba närtan, ämb yao nen yingowndn.
ynd
1sgABS
yta
in.vain
ele
hunting
sermba-n
night-LOC
bba
PREV
n-är-ta-n
M:α-hunt-ND:B.IPF-1sgA
ämb
one
yao
NEG
nen
what
y-ing-nd-n
3sgU:α-see-ND:PST.PF-1sgA
‘I went out hunting last night, but didn't find anything.’
HUNT (FOR) a Coding frame:
1-abs V.act[1]
(92)
Ynd nembnaman ämb ygn.
ynd
1sgABS
n-emb-nama-n
M:α-think-ND:PRIM-1sgA
ämbygn
±one.year
‘I was thinking of something last year (it took me a long time to figure it out).’
THINK a Coding frame:
1-abs V.act[1]
(93)
Ynd bm kae bä nawabatan.
ynd
1sgABS
bm
2sgABS
kae
±one.day
FUT
n-aw-aba-ta-n
M:α-RR-think.of-ND:B.IPF-1sgA
‘I will think of you tomorrow.’
THINK the Verb form wabaes
(94)
Är togam mleg mñteba yakate.
ärtog-am
boy-ERG
mleg
girl
mñte-ba
sweetness-COM
y-aka-t-e
3sgU:α-look.at-ND:B.IPF-3sgA
‘The boy likes/loves the girl.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(95)
Är togam angan räms mñteba yakate.
ärtog-am
boy-ERG
angan
song
ø-räm-s
TR.INF-make-NLZR(ABS)
mñte-ba
sweetness-COM
y-aka-t-e
3sgU:α-look.at-ND:B.IPF-3sgA
‘That boy likes singing.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(96)
Ynd ki yta aba yrnzani.
ynd
1sgERG
ki
key
yta
in.vain
aba
RCN
y-rnz-a-n
3sgU:α-look.for-ND:B.IPF-1sgA
‘I looked for the key in vain.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(97)
Yna äräm trnze yande äprnḡsmne toge.
yna
DEM
är-äm
man-ERG
t-rnz-e
3sgU:α-look.for-ND:IPF:3sgA
yande
3sgGEN
äprnḡ-s-mne
be.lost-NLZR-ORIG
toge
child
‘The man looked in vain for his lost son.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(98)
Grmbo diya ele aba närte sermban.
Grmbo
Grmbo(ABS)
diya
deer(ABS)
ele
hunting
aba
RCN
n-är-te
M:α-hunt-ND:B.IPF.3sgA
sermb-an
night-LOC
‘Grmbo went hunting for a deer in the night.’
HUNT (FOR) an Alternation:
Middle object addition
(99)
Ymam mleg ybätnda wrng endn adwae.
ymam
3sgERG
mleg
girl
y-bät-nda
3sgU:α-meet-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
wrng
forest
end-n
path-LOC
adwae
secretly
‘The man secretly met the girl in the forest path.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(100)
Bä mlegäba näbätangand wrngendn adwae.
3ABS
mleg-äba
girl-COM
n-ä-bäta-ngand
M:α-RR-meet-FUT.PF.3duA
wrng
forest
end-n
path-LOC
adwae
secretly
‘He and the girl will meet in secret on a forest path.’
MEET an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(101)
Ynd tande ägmser äräba kiwinḡam déḡdéḡan wrng endn.
ynd
1sgABS
tande
1sgGEN
ägmser
enemy
är-äba
person-COM
k-iw-inḡ-a-m
M:β-RR-meet-DU:PF-1nsgA
déḡdéḡan
accidentally
wrng
forest
end-n
path-LOC
‘I accidentally met my enemy on a bush track.’
SEE an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(102)
Yna äräm mleg yngaetnda.
yna
DEM
är-äm
man-ERG
mleg
girl
y-ng-aet-nda
3sgU:α-AW-follow-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘The man followed the girl.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(103)
Nambis toge suris nawaetat.
nambis
three
toge
child
suris
straight
n-aw-aet-a-t
M:α-RR-follow-ND:IPF-3nsgA
‘The three children are following each other in a straight line.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(104)
Bä powangama nowaete.
3ABS
powa-ngama
behind-ABL
n-o-wae-t-e
M:α-DI-follow-ND:B.IPF-3sgA
‘He is following behind.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Object omission
(105)
Buder, ta qetena!
buder
friend
ta
1sgOBL
q-ete-na-ø
1sgU:β-help-ND:B.IPF-IPF:IMP:2sgA
‘Friend, help me!’
HELP the Verb form wetrs
(106)
Yesu, {tagta/ta} qetena!
Yesu
Jesus
{tagta/ta}
{1sgDAT1/1sgOBL}
q-ete-na-ø
1sgU:β-help-ND:B.IPF-IPF:IMP:2sgA
‘Jesus, help me!’
HELP the Verb form wetrs
(107)
Är yna samban wgd weterser yngm.
är
person
yna
DEM
samba-n
village-LOC
wgd
good
w-eter-s-er
TR.INF-help-NLZR-AGN
y-ng-m
3sgU:α-AW-be:ND
‘People in this village help each other.’
HELP the Verb form wetrs
(108)
Ynd ärboloeta etenan kanga armbsn.
ynd
1sgERG
ärbolo-eta
old.man-DAT1
ø-ete-na-n
3sgU:α-help-ND:B.IPF-1sgA
kanga
ladder
armb-s-n
climb-NLZR-LOC
‘I helped the old man climb the ladder.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-obl und[2].V.act[1]
(109)
Togam nne aba ynete.
tog-am
child-ERG
nne
yam
aba
IMM
y-ne-t-e
3sgU:α-eat-ND:B.IPF-3sgA
‘The child ate the yam.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(110)
Gers kmangrer zän täwänete ybenzos.
gers
hunger
kmangr-er
sleep-AGN
zän
dog
täw-ä-ne-te
3nsgU:α-RR-eat-ND:IPF:3sgA
ybenzos
3nsgRR
‘The starving dogs eat one another.’
EAT an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(111)
Ynd zéḡ sombes yasnan.
ynd
1sgERG
zéḡ
rope
sombes
two(ABS)
ya-sn-a-n
3nsgU:α-tie-DU:PF-1sgA
‘I tied two ropes.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(112)
Nesnenda.
n-e-sne-nda
M:α-DA-tie-ND:PF:3sgA
‘It got hooked/tied.’
TIE an Alternation:
Deagentive alternation
(113)
Ag ydarndn.
ag
coconut
y-dar-nd-n
3sgU:α-break-ND:PF-1sgA
‘I broke the coconut open.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(114)
Ur kp yanzos nadarnda.
ur
bushfowl
kp
egg
yanzos
3sgRR
n-a-dar-nd-a
M:α-RR-break-ND:PF-3sgA:PST.PF
‘The bushfowl egg got broken.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(115)
Mlegäm toge selemingama tamanete.
mleg-äm
girl-ERG
toge
child(ABS)
selemi-ngama
clothes-ABL
t-amane-te
3sgU:α-dress-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘The girl dressed the child.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs (3-abl) und[2].V.act[1]
(116)
Yna mleg komanete selemingama.
yna
DEM
mleg
girl
k-o-mane-te
M:β-AB-dress-ND:IPF:3sgA
selemi-ngama
clothes-ABL
‘The girl got dressed.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Autobenefactive
(117)
Yna mlegäm toge anu kae témbni.
yna
DEM
mleg-äm
girl-ERG
toge
child
anu
bathing
kae
±one.day
t-émb-ni
3sgU:β-wash-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘The girl washed the child yesterday.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(118)
Är kae kumbni anu.
är
man
kae
±one.day
k-u-mb-ni
M:β-AB-wash-ND:IPF:3sgA
anu
bathe
‘The man washed/bathed yesterday.’
WASH an Alternation:
Autobenefactive
(119)
Är momae ke kotne.
är
man(ABS)
momae
mucus
ke
noise
k-ot-ne
M:β-make.noise-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘The man coughed.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1-abs V.act[1]
(120)
Är karmbte lädawama.
är
man(ABS)
k-armb-te
M:β-ascend-ND:IPF:3sgA
läda-wama
ladder-COM
‘The man climbed the ladder (ascended by means of the ladder).’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-com V.act[1]
(121)
Äräm toge tarmbte lädawama kitara tqt.
är-äm
man-ERG
toge
child(ABS)
t-armb-te
3sgU:β-ascend-ND:IPF:3sgA
läda-wama
ladder-COM
kitara
platform
tq-t
high-ALL
‘The man took the child up the ladder onto the balcony.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Causative
(122)
Är kae namnznda ämewan.
är
man(ABS)
kae
±one.day
n-am<n>z-nda
M:α-sit<ND>-ND:PF:3sgA
äme-wan
mat-LOC
‘The man sat (down) on the mat yesterday.’
SIT DOWN a Coding frame:
1-abs (2-loc) V.act[1]
(123)
Bä ämewan aba erengr.
3sgABS
äme-wan
mat-LOC
aba
RCN
ere-ngr
sit-ND:STAT
‘He was sitting on the mat (not long ago).’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-abs und[1].V
(124)
Kae toge sombes äräm emzae ämiwan.
kae
±one.day
toge
child(ABS)
sombes
two
är-äm
man-ERG
e-mz-a-e
3nsgU:α-sit-DU:PF-3A\3duU
ämi-wan
mat-LOC
‘The man sat the two children on the mat yesterday.’
SIT DOWN an Alternation:
Causative
(125)
Ynd gtets aba nlintan Dimsisi sambat.
ynd
1sgABS
gtets
that.far
aba
RCN
n-lin-ta-n
M:α-run-ND:IPF-1sgA
Dimsisi
Dimsisi
samba-t
village-ALL
‘I ran all the way to Dimsisi village.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1-abs V.act[1]
(126)
Ynd kätnan tñat.
ynd
1sgABS
k-ätn-a-n
M:β-jump.up-ND:IPF-1sgA
tñ-at
fence-ALL
‘I jumped onto the fence.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1-abs V.act[1]
(127)
Togetoge izersn nbrmete.
togetoge
children(ABS)
izer-s-n
play-NLZR-LOC
n-brme-te
M:α-jump-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘The children were playing, jumping.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1-abs V.act[1]
(128)
Är toge samban derengron.
är
person
toge
child
samba-n
village-LOC
d-ere-ngr-on
3sgU:γ-sit-ND:STAT-PST
‘The boy lived in the village.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-abs und[1].V
(129)
Är togam angan kae tramte.
är
person
tog-am
child-ERG
angan
song(ABS)
kae
±one.day
t-ram-te
3sgU:β-make-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘The boy sang a song yesterday.’
SING a Coding frame:
1-erg V.act[1]
(130)
Är togam mlegeita marirmarir angan aba yramte.
är
person
tog-am
child-ERG
mleg-eita
girl-DAT1
marirmarir
love.song
angan
song
aba
RCN
y-ram-te
3sgU:α-make-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘The boy sang a love song for the girl.’
SING an Alternation:
Dative addition
(131)
Kae ämber toge má iparse niparnda endn.
kae
±one.day
ämber
one
toge
child(ABS)
still
iparse
appearance
n-ipar-nda
M:α-appear-ND:PF:3sgA
end-n
road-LOC
‘Yesterday a boy appeared on the road.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1-abs V.act[1]
(132)
Kae gte endn awiya kipane widmatane kogamnete.
kae
±one.day
gte
there
end-n
road-LOC
awiya
cassowary
k-ipa-ne
M:β-appear-ND:IPF:3sgA
widma-tane
hand-side
k-ogamne-te
M:β-cross-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘Yesterday a cassowary suddenly appeared and passed to the other side of the road.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1-abs V.act[1]
(133)
Enzul Meripap má iparse niparwe.
enzul
angel(ABS)
Meri-pap
Mary-DAT2
still
iparse
appearance
n-ipar-we
M:α-appear-ND:PRET:3sgA
‘An angel appeared to Mary.’
APPEAR an Alternation:
Dative addition
(134)
Ktktqébiwäm geä nzne, bm kr bä nm.
ktktqébi-wäm
taipan-ERG
geä
COND
n-z-ne
2sgU-bite-ND:IPF:3sgA
bm
2sgABS
kr
death
FUT
n-m
2sgU:α-be:ND
‘If a taipan bites you, you will die.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1-abs und[1].V
(135)
Wena 2006an mngr tqngama nuwiwi bandat.
Wena
Wena
2006-an
2006-LOC
mngr
two.leaf.tree
tq-ngama
high-ABL
n-uwi-wi
M:α-fall-ND:PRET:3sgA
band-at
ground-ALL
‘In 2006 Wena fell down to the ground from up in a two-leaf tree.’
FALL a Coding frame:
1-abs V.act[1]
(136)
Nu rrkebas napamte.
nu
water
rr-ke-ba-s
swish-noise-COM-ADV
n-apam-te
M:α-rain-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘Rain is falling, making a swishing noise.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
V
(137)
Binzawa yanzo togaepapn yétqën newete.
Binzawa
Binzawa
yanzo
3sgRR
togaepapn
child:OBL:LOC
yétqën
name
n-ew-et-e
M:α-RR-end-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘Binzawa named his child / passed on his name to his child.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-abs (2-loc) V.act[1]
(138)
Ynd gersäm wramte.
ynd
1sgABS
gers-äm
hunger-ERG
w-ram-te
1sgU:α-make-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘I am hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1-abs und[1].V
(139)
Tande ps gbres enzinewäm yramte.
tande
1sgGEN
ps
body
gbres
all
enzine-wäm
sickness-ERG
y-ram-te
3sgU:α-make-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘My whole body is feeling sick.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
1-abs und[1].V
(140)
Ynd weiwei-yäm w-ram-te.
ynd
1sgABS
weiwei-yäm
sadness-ERG
w-ram-te
1sgU-make-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘I feel sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1-abs und[1].V
(141)
Nu nrnde.
nu
water
n-rn-de
M:α-boil-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘The water is boiling.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1-abs V.act[1]
(142)
Naepa tnane!
naepa
knife(ABS)
t-n-ane-ø
3sgU:β-TOW-carry-IPF:IMP:2sgA
‘Bring the knife!’
BRING the Verb form renzas
(143)
Sombes bnzsn näkrert.
sombes
two
bnz_sn
firestick
n-äkrär-ø-t
M:α-burn-DU:IPF-3nsgA
‘Two pieces of charcoal are burning.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1-abs V.act[1]
(144)
Bnz nuzärnda.
bnz
fire
n-uzär-nda
M:α-flare.up-ND:PF:3sgA
‘The fire flared up; it's caught fire.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1-abs V.act[1]
(145)
Ynd wngm sambaks bä dizerngn totr.
ynd
1sgERG
w-ng-m
1sgU:α-AW-be
sambaks
grassland
FUT
d-izer-ng-n
3sgU:γ-set.fire.to-ND:FUT-1sgA
totr
now
‘I'm going to burn the grassland today.’
BURN an Alternation:
Causative
(146)
Bmbem nne tzweng bnzn!
bmbem
2nsgERG
nne
food(ABS)
t-z-we-ng
3sgU:α-cook-PF.ND-PF.IMP.2sgA
bnz-n
fire-LOC
‘You two cook food on the fire!’
COOK a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(147)
Ymam wmtenda nne dust.
ymam
3sgERG
w-mte-nda
1sgU-tell-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
nne
food
dus-t
cook_in_ground_oven-ALL
‘He told me to cook the food.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(148)
Bmbem nne nozwt.
bmbem
2nsgERG
nne
food(ABS)
n-o-z-w-t
M:α-AB-cook-DU:IPF-3nsgA
‘You two are cooking for yourselves, cooking (for your own benefit).’
COOK an Alternation:
Autobenefactive
(149)
Toge e nende.
toge
child
e
crying
n-en-de
M:α-cry-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘The baby is crying.’
CRY a Coding frame:
1-abs V.act[1]
(150)
Ynd nendan.
ynd
1sgABS
n-en-da-n
M:α-cry-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I cry.’
CRY a Coding frame:
1-abs V.act[1]
(151)
Yndbem band bba ytarm.
yndbem
1nsgERG
band
ground(ABS)
bba
RCN
y-tar-ø-m
3sgU:α-dig-DU:IPF-1nsgA
‘The two of us dug the ground.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(152)
Ynd brbräm wramte.
ynd
1sgABS
brbr-äm
fear-ERG
w-ram-te
1sgU-make-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘I'm feeling frightened.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-abs und[1].V
(153)
Megdelinende mleg toge kérbér kitongäm yramte kapyép kunzn.
Megdelin-ende
Magdalen-GEN
mleg
girl
toge
child(ABS)
kérbér
cold
kitong-äm
big-ERG
y-ram-te
3sgU:α-make-ND:IPF:3sgA
kapyép
baby.carrybag
kunz-n
inside-LOC
‘Magdalen's little girl felt really cold inside the baby sling.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1-abs und[1].V
(154)
Tande tnd kapkap tkretewäm wramte.
tande
1sgGEN
tnd
hand
kapkap
palm
tkrete-wäm
pain-ERG
w-ram-te
1sgU:α-make-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘The pains in my hand are hurting my whole body.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1-abs und[1].V
(155)
Ynd pan qérqér wzerst wngm.
ynd
1sgABS
pan_qérqér
savannah
w-zer-s-t
TR.INF-burn.off-NLZR-ALL
w-ng-m
1sgU-AW-be(ND)
‘I'm going to the savannah to burn off.’
GO a Coding frame:
1-abs und[1].V
(156)
Ynd bén nurm.
ynd
1sgABS
bén
laughter
n-ur-ø-m
M:α-laugh-DU:IPF-1nsgA
‘We two are laughing.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1-abs V.act[1]
(157)
Ymam norte yande dmab.
ymam
3sgERG
n-or-te
M:α-leave-ND:IPF:3sgA
yande
3sgGEN
dmab
wife
‘He's left/divorced his wife.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.act[1]
(158)
Buder, ynd bende baskel yrgab tondn nnorndn.
buder
friend
ynd
1sgERG
bende
2sgGEN
baskel
bicycle
yrgab
river
tond-n
bank-LOC
n-n-or-nd-n
M:α-TOW-leave-ND:PF-1sgA
‘Friend, I left your bicycle by the river bank.’
LEAVE the Verb form ors
(159)
Ynd ybranḡtan tande dmab.
ynd
1sgABS
y-branḡ-ta-n
3sgU:α-leave-ND:PF-1sgA
tande
1sgGEN
dmab
wife
‘I've left my wife.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(160)
Ynd nabranḡam.
ynd
1sgABS
n-a-branḡ-a-m
M:α-RR-leave-DU:PF-1nsgA
‘We divorced (each other)/ left each other.’
LEAVE an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(161)
Togetogeyäbem Kmgonde tñ yramtat.
togetoge-yäbem
children-PL:ERG
Kmgo-nde
Kmgo-GEN
fence
y-ram-ta-t
3sgU:α-make-ND:IPF-3nsgA
‘The boys are tying up Kamgo's fence.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(162)
Godm band kitong yaprtamanga.
God-m
God-ERG
band
ground
kitong
big(ABS)
y-apr-tamanga
3sgU:α-make-ND:PRIM:3sgA
‘God made the earth.’
MAKE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(163)
Kananga ge yétrert.
kananga
yam
ge
here
y-étrer-ø-t
3sgU:α-scrape-DU:IPF-3nsgA
‘She / the two of them are scraping the skin off the yam.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(164)
Sombes toge nizert.
sombes
two
toge
child
n-izer-ø-t
M:α-play-DU:IPF-3nsgA
‘The two children are playing.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1-abs V.act[1]
(165)
Yndbem yédéḡm yna wn bu.
yndbem
1nsgERG
y-édéḡ-ø-m
3sgU:α-push.aside-DU:IPF-1nsgA
yna
DEM
wn_bu
log
‘We (two) pushed the log aside.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(166)
Ymam biskar katrowan ykmanda.
ymam
3sgERG
biskar
cassava
katro-wan
black.palm-LOC
y-kma-nda
3sgU:α-lie-ND:PF:3sgA
‘He put the cassava inside a black palm container.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(167)
Zimindi nnemne nne ämbs prta ykmangr yna sarnnḡ kunzn.
Zimi-ndi
Jimmy-GEN
nne-mne
eat-ORIG
nne
yam
ämbs
one
prta
36
y-kma-ngr
3sgU:α-lie-ND:STAT
yna
DEM
sarnḡ
yam_house
kunz-n
inside-LOC
‘Here are 36 of Jimmy's eating yams inside the yam house.’
PUT an Alternation:
Assume.position alternation
(168)
Bä kmangret äkmst nopapnda.
3sgABS
kmangre-t
sleep-ALL
ä-km-s-t
RR-lie-NLZR-ALL
n-opap-nda
M:α-begin-ND:PF:3sgA
‘He's about to go to sleep.’
PUT an Alternation:
Placement alternation
(169)
Ynd yna yéb yanendn tande mitadmaepapn.
ynd
1sgERG
yna
DEM
yéb
bag(ABS)
y-ane-nd-n
3sgU:α-get-ND:PF-1sgA
tande
1sgGEN
mitadma-epapn
aunt-LOC
‘I got this bag from my aunty.’
GET a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-loc und[2].V.act[1]
(170)
Yndbem wn bu ypaewm.
yndbem
1nsgERG
wn_bu
log
y-pae-w-m
3sgU:α-roll-DU:IPF-1nsgA
‘We (two) rolled the log aside.’
ROLL (tr) a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(171)
Yna är get ymnzngr.
yna
DEM
är
man
get
overlong
y-m<n>z-ngr
3sgU:α-sit<ND>-STAT
‘That man is sitting.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1-abs und[1].V
(172)
Bm ämewan kamnz!
bm
2sgABS
äme-wan
mat-LOC
k-am<n>z-ø
M:β-sit<ND>-IPF:IMP:2sgA
‘Sit on the mat!’
SIT an Alternation:
Assume.position alternation
(173)
Ynd ämewan ymnzndn.
ynd
1sgERG
äme-wan
mat-LOC
y-m<n>z-nd-n
3sgU:α-sit<ND>-ND:PF-1sgA
‘I sat it on the mat.’
SIT an Alternation:
Causative
(174)
Ynd bm wimb nambatan.
ynd
1sgERG
bm
2sgABS
wimb
smell(ABS)
n-amba-ta-n
2sgU:α-smell-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I smell you.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(175)
Sombes zän nawambaewt.
sombes
two
zän
dog
n-aw-ambae-w-t
M:α-RR-smell-DU:IPF-3nsgA
‘Two dogs are sniffing each other.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(176)
Ämb äräm tbe dene dnawapapte sarnḡ dene bä yangmbatang zḡngama.
ämb
one
är-äm
man-ERG
tbe
1nsgOBL
dene
thus
dn-awapap-t-e
1nsgU:γ-teach-ND:IPF-3sgA
sarnḡ
yam_house
dene
thus
FUT
ya-ng-mba-tang
3nsgU:α-AW-tie-ND:IPF:2pl.IMP
zḡ-ngama
string-ABL
‘He was teaching us to tie the door post string of a yam house with string.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Dative alternation
(177)
Ynd yawapaptan ybegta tande zi.
ynd
1sgERG
y-awapap-ta-n
3sgU:α-teach-ND:IPF-1sgA
ybegta
3nsgDAT1
tande
1sgPOSS
zi
language
‘I'm teaching her my language.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-obl und[2].V.act[1]
(178)
Ynd naowapaptan Nen Zi.
ynd
1sgABS
n-a<o>wapap-ta-n
M:α-teach<AB>-ND:IPF-1sgA
Nen
Nen
zi
language
‘I am learning Nen.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Autobenefactive
(179)
Bä mñte ym ungist.
3sgABS
mñte
desirous
y-m
3sgU:α-be:ND
ungi-s-t
stand.up-NLZR-ALL
‘He wants to stand up.’
WANT a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-all und[1].V
(180)
Bä mñte ym geä gunginga.
3sgABS
mñte
desirous
y-m
3sgU:α-be:ND
geä
COND
g-ungi-ng-a
M:γ-stand-ND:FUT-3sgA:PST.PF
‘He wants to stand up.’
WANT a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-all und[1].V
(181)
Ymam boraro ke erete.
ymam
3sgERG
boraro
flute
ke
sound
ø-ere-t-e
3sgU:α-hear-ND:IPF-3sgA
‘He can hear the sound of a flute.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(182)
Mnegta nowerete Nen Ym mersraes zi aba ygärngdam o yao.
mnegta
for.that.reason
n-o-were-t-e
M:α-AB-hear-ND:IPF-3sgA
Nen_Ym
Nen_language
mersraes
carefully
zi
language
aba
RCN
y-gärng-da-m
3sgU:α-translate-ND:PF-1nsgA
o
or
yao
NEG
‘He is listening carefully to the recording to know whether we have translated the Nen correctly or not.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Autobenefactive
(183)
Ynd bä naweretam gtäts Dimsisi är bende nne arns zi, geä gerengm, ynd yna powa nne bä narntam.
ynd
1nsgABS
FUT
n-a-were-ta-m
M:α-DA-hear-ND:IPF-1nsgA
gtäts
until
Dimsisi
Dimsisi
är-bende
person-PL:GEN
nne
yam
arn-s
harvest-NLZR
zi
word
geä
COND
g-ere-ng-m
M:γ-hear-ND:FUT-1nsgA
ynd
1nsgABS
yna
DEM
powa
after
nne
yam
FUT
n-arn-ta-m
M:α-harvest-ND:IPF-1nsgA
‘We must wait to hear/get word that the Dimisisi people have begun their harvest, when we hear then we begin our own harvesting.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Deagentive alternation
(184)
Ynd begta newendn.
ynd
1sgERG
begta
2sgDAT1
n-ewe-nd-n
2sgU-load-ND:PF-1sgA
‘I loaded you up.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-obl und[2].V.act[1]
(185)
Bä ylst newendt.
3ABS
yl-s-t
go-NLZR-ALL
n-ewe-nd-t
M:α-load-ND:PF-3nsgA
‘They're loaded up to go.’
LOAD the Verb form wewes
(186)
Ynd nawagtan.
ynd
1sgABS
n-a-wag-ta-n
M:α-RR-load-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I load myself up.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(187)
Bä nne nawagtan.
3sgABS
nne
yam(ABS)
n-a-wag-ta-n
M:α-RR-load-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘He loads himself up with yams.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(188)
Ḡmam nne ywaleta yawagte.
ḡma-m
Ḡma-ERG
nne
yam(ABS)
ywal-eta
Ywal-DAT1
ya-wag-te
3nsgU:α-load-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘Ḡma is loading the yams for/onto Ywal (i.e. into her yam-basket).’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-dat und[2].V.act[1]
(189)
Bmbem pitasan nne baba yapltat gowawan.
bmbem
2nsgERG
pitas-an
enough-LOC
nne
food(ABS)
baba
RCN
y-apl-ta-t
3sgU:α-fill-ND:IPF-3nsgA
gowa-wan
canoe-LOC
‘You’ve loaded the canoe up completely (with enough).’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-loc und[2].V.act[1]
(190)
Ymabem gowa sikma pip yapndt kstemne gowa noletnda.
ymabem
3nsgERG
gowa
canoe(ABS)
sikma_pip
too.much
y-ap-nd-t
3sgU:α-fill-ND:PF-3nsgA
kste-mne
heavy-ORIG
gowa
canoe
n-olet-nda
M:α-sink-ND:PST.PF.3sgA
‘They filled the canoe completely to overflowing.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Locative alternation
(191)
Sombes ärm mnḡ koramt.
sombes
two
är-m
man-ERG
mnḡ
house
k-o-ram-ø-t
M:β-AB-build-DU:IPF-3nsgA
‘Two men are building a house for themselves.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Autobenefactive
(192)
Ynd bm kae bä nabatan.
ynd
1sgERG
bm
2sgABS
kae
±one.day
FUT
n-aba-ta-n
2sgU-think.of-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I'll think of you tomorrow.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(193)
Yna powa Aesek kr modowa noyabte.
yna
DEM
powa
after
Aesek
Isaac
kr
dead
modowa
bandicoot
n-o-yab-te
M:α-AB-show-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘After that, Isaac is showing off the dead bandicoot.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Autobenefactive
(194)
Ynd biskar yéstan.
ynd
1sgERG
biskar
cassava
y-és-ta-n
3sgU:α-scrape-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I am scraping the cassava.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(195)
Ynd bä yambnandn.
ynd
1sgERG
3U
y-ambn-and-n
3sgU:α-hug-ND:PF-1sgA
‘I hugged her.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(196)
Bä sombes nawambnandt.
3ABS
n-a-wambn-and-t
M:α-RR-embrace-ND:PF-3plA
‘They embraced.’
HUG an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(197)
Yna toge nawambete.
yna
DEM
toge
child
n-awambe-t-e
M:α-scream-ND:IPF-3sgA
‘The child is calling out.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1-abs V.act[1]
(198)
Bm ynd bä wérne btkamgeb.
bm
2sgERG
ynd
1sgABS
FUT
w-érn-e
1sgU:α-shave-2sgA
btkamgeb
beard
‘You will shave me.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs und[2].V.act[1]
(199)
Bä nernat.
3ABS
n-e-rn-a-t
M:α-RR-shave-ND:IPF-3nsgA
‘They are shaving.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(200)
Gowa (är kste-ba) nolete.
gowa
canoe
är
person
kste-ba
heavy-COM
n-o-le-t-e
M:α-DI-sink-ND:IPF-3sgA
‘The canoe sank (with the heavy people).’
SINK a Coding frame:
1-abs V.act[1]
(201)
Ymam gowa yaletnda.
ymam
3sgERG
gowa
canoe(ABS)
ya-let-nd-a
3sgU:α-sink-ND:PF-3sgA:PST.PF
‘He sank the canoe.’
SINK an Alternation:
Causative
(202)
Ynd nawabatan Arupen ge ḡerengron.
ynd
1sgABS
n-a-waba-ta-n
M:α-RR-think-ND:IPF-1sgA
Arupe-n
Arufi-LOC
ge
there
ḡ-ere-ngr-on
M:γ-live-ND:STAT-RPst
‘I remembered living in Arufi.’
THINK an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(203)
Tende är gms brbr är yna bä dewernete, mnene är mrkp npser oynangéwelmän.
tende
before
är
person
gms
kill:NLZR
brbr
fear
är
person
yna
DEM
FUT
d-e-werne-t-e
3nsgU:α-RR-hide-ND:IPF-3sgA
mnene
because
är
person
mrkp
head
np-s-er
cut-NLZR-AGN
o-y-n-ng-ewelmän
APPR-3sgU-TOW-AW-go:PL
‘A long time ago people used to hide here from headhunters (N2:125).’
HIDE an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(204)
Tandemne brbräm yramte.
tande-mne
1sgPOSS-SOU
brbr-äm
fear-ERG
y/ram\te
3sgA\3sgU:IMPF:NPREHOD/\do
‘(S)he is afraid of me.’
FEAR the Verb form brbräm räms
(205)
Brmbrende aplsmne är.
brmbr-ende
spirit-GEN
apl-s-mne
overflow-NLZR-SOU
är
man
‘A man full of (overflowing with) spirit.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Causative
(206)
Wagibta Blag témta!
wagib-ta
fish-OBL
Blag
Blag(ABS)
t-ém-ta-ø
3sgU:β-ask-ND:IPF-IPF:IMP:2sgA
‘Ask Blag for a fish!’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs (3-obl) und[2].V.act[1]
(207)
Yna pepa yép kunzn ombtes ym.
yna
DEM
pepa
paper
yép
bag
kunz-n
inside-LOC
ombtes
dry
y-m
3sgU:α-be:ND
‘The papers are dry inside the bag.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1-abs und[1].V
(208)
Yna sombes är nägmt.
yna
DEM
sombes
two
är
man
n-ä-gm-ø-t
M:α-RR-hit-DU:IPF-3duA
‘Those two men are fighting. (Could be hitting each other, or also fighting by other means).’
BEAT an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(209)
Ynd parwae pip yñptan naepangama.
ynd
1sgERG
parwae
animal
pip
meat
y-ñp-ta-n
3sgU:α-cut-ND:IPF-1sgA
naepa-ngama
knife-ABL
‘I am cutting the meat with a knife.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs (3-abl) und[2].V.act[1]
(210)
Tnrama!
t-n-rama-ø
3sgU:α-TOW-give/do(PF)-PF.IMP.2sgA
‘Give it here!’
GIVE the Verb form warams
(211)
Tängramae!
tä-ng-ram-ae
3nsgU:β-AW-do/give-IPF:IMP.2sgA\DuU
‘Give those two things (away)!’
GIVE an Alternation:
Dative alternation
(212)
Bm mñteba nawakaewt.
bm
2ABS
mñte-ba
sweetness-COM
n-a-wakae-w-t
M:α-RR-look-DU:IPF-2nsgA
‘You two love each other.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(213)
Ymam ynd wmtenda kunzt elaost.
ymam
3sgERG
ynd
1sgABS
w-mte-nda
1sgU:α-tell-ND:PF:3sgA
kunz-t
inside-ALL
elao-s-t
enter-NLZR-ALL
‘He told me to go inside.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-all und[2].V.act[1]
(214)
Ynd bbegta weiwei bä dawawrngn.
ynd
1sgERG
bbe-gta
2nsg-DAT1
weiwei
sadness
FUT
da-wa-wr-ng-n
2nsg-BEN-leave-PF.FUT.ND-1sgA
‘I'll leave a sadness for you.’
LEAVE an Alternation:
Dative alternation
(215)
Ymam bñe tagta wnde tntrne.
ymam
3sgERG
bñe
letter
ta-gta
1sg-DAT1
wnde
in.return
t-n-tr-n-e
3sg:β-TOW-send.in.exchange-ND:IPF-3sgA
‘He send me a letter in return.’
SEND an Alternation:
Dative addition
(216)
Yndbem bm natembetam.
yndbem
1nsgERG
bm
2ABS
n-atembe-ta-m
2sgU:α-send.off-ND:IPF-1nsgA
‘We say farewell to you.’
SEND the Verb form watembs
(217)
Bä ynd enzan.
3sgABS
ynd
1sgERG
ø-enz-a-n
3sgU:α-touch-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I'm touching him.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs (3-abl) und[2].V.act[1]
(218)
Bmbem tagta wetlt yna zi.
bmbem
2nsgERG
ta-gta
1sg-DAT1
w-etl-ø-t
1sgU:α-tell-DU:IPF-2nsgA
yna
DEM
zi
story
‘You two are telling me this story.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-dat und[3].V.act[1]
(219)
Ymabem ybenzo zi nutlét.
ymabem
3nsgERG
ybe-nzo
3nsg-RR
zi
story
n-u-tlé-ø-t
M:α-RR-tell-DU:IPF-3nsgA
‘They two are telling each other a story.’
TELL an Alternation:
Reflexive/reciprocal
(220)
Ymam kiámb zéḡ wnan aba ymbate.
ymam
3sgERG
kiámb
pig
zéḡ
rope
wn-an
tree-LOC
aba
RCN
y-mba-t-e
3sgU:α-tie-ND:IPF-3sgA
‘He tied the pig to the tree with a rope.’
TIE an Alternation:
Adjunct addition
(221)
Ynd sombes bñe yagta tängwäbärn.
ynd
1sgABS
sombes
two
bñe
letter(ABS)
ya-gta
3sg-DAT1
tä-ng-wäbär-n
3nsgU:β-AW.send-DU:IPF-1sgA
‘I sent two letters.’
SEND the Verb form wäbäres