Causative C

Description

Involves substituting transitive prefixes (and case frame) for basic middle set, without any other verbal marking (i.e. no diathetic prefix). Decision on which is basic is hard to give watertight arguments for, but in the case of e.g. armbs / warmbs there is an enormous difference in frequency, in favour of the middle form. However, it would still be possible to argue for another anlaysis in which the transitive form is basic, and the middle form is derived by the middle alternation.
[But note if one adds
wazrs 'pour' as an example - the only 'middle' alternation - then causatives can be defined as those where no diathetic prefix is involved, whereas those with a diathetic prefix always go the other way i.e. reduce valency by prefix
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
CLIMB armbs R
(120)
är
man(ABS)
k-armb-te
M:β-ascend-ND:IPF:3sgA
läda-wama
ladder-COM
‘The man climbed the ladder (ascended by means of the ladder).’
SIT DOWN amzs R
(122)
är
man(ABS)
kae
±one.day
n-am<n>z-nda
M:α-sit<ND>-ND:PF:3sgA
äme-wan
mat-LOC
‘The man sat (down) on the mat yesterday.’
BURN uzers R
(144)
bnz
fire
n-uzär-nda
M:α-flare.up-ND:PF:3sgA
‘The fire flared up; it's caught fire.’
SINK olets R
(200)
gowa
canoe
är
person
kste-ba
heavy-COM
n-o-le-t-e
M:α-DI-sink-ND:IPF-3sgA
‘The canoe sank (with the heavy people).’
EAT nne
(109)
tog-am
child-ERG
nne
yam
aba
IMM
y-ne-t-e
3sgU:α-eat-ND:B.IPF-3sgA
‘The child ate the yam.’
COVER wapars
(1)
äme-ngama
mat-ABL
är-äm
man-ERG
toge
child(ABS)
y-apar-nd-a
3sgU:α-cover-PST.PF-3sgA:PST.PF
‘The man covered the child with the mat.’
FILL waps
(2)
ynd
1sgERG
nu-ngama
water-ABL
kap
cup(ABS)
y-ap-nd-n
3sgU:α-fill-PST.PF-1sgA
‘I filled the cup with water.’
TIE wmbaes
(8)
ynd
1sgERG
yande
3sgGEN
tnd
hand
sombes
two
e-mbae-w-n
2/3nsgU-tie-sgA\duU:IPF-1sgA
‘I'm tying up both his hands.’
POUR wazrs (1)
(10)
ymam
3sgERG
kap-ngama
cup-ABL
nu
water
y-azr-nd-a
3sgU:α-pour-PST.PF:ND-3sgA:PST.PF
‘He poured the water out of the cup.’
THROW wwis
(14)
ynd
1sgERG
ḡénzér_kp
stone
wenda
window
ben-ama
hole-PERL
t-uwi-ta-n
3sgU:β-throw-ND:IPF-1sgA
kunz-t
inside-ALL
‘I threw the stone inside, through the window.’
(15)
ynd
1sgERG
ḡénzér_kp
stone
t-uwi-ta-n
3sgU:β-throw-ND:IPF-1sgA
smasma
goanna
t-nam-ta-n
3sgU:β-hit.at.a.distance-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I threw a stone at the goanna and hit it.’
(16)
ynd
1sgERG
ḡénzér_kp
stone
t-uwi-ta-n
3sgU:β-throw-ND.IPF-1sgA
smasma
goanna
t-lt-a-n
3sgU:β-miss-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I threw a stone at the goanna and missed.’
BRING renzas
(17)
ynd
1sgERG
wawapser-epap
teacher-DAT2
buk
book
aba
IMM
y-n-renz-a-n
3sgU:α-TOW-carry-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I brought/carried the book to the teacher.’
(18)
ynd
1sgERG
begta
2sgDAT1
aba
IMM
y-n-renz-a-n
3sgU:α-TOW-carry-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I brought it for you.’
CARRY wazrs (2)
(11)
ymam
3sgERG
yna
DEM
nne
yam
wazr-s-t
carry-NLZR-ALL
y-ng-apap-nd-a
3sgU:α-AW-try-ND:PST.PF-3sgA:PST.PF
‘He's trying to carry all those yams.’
CARRY menzas
(19)
toge
child(ABS)
tapap
1sgDAT2
t-n-menz-a
3sgU:β-TOW-lead-IPF.IMP.sg
‘Bring the child to me!’
SEND watembs
(22)
ynd
1sgERG
ḡénzér_kp
money
tande
1sgGEN
an-aipap
older.brother-DAT2
y-ng-atemba-nd-n
3sgU:α-AW-send-ND:PST.PF-1sgA
‘I send the money to my brother.’
SEND trärs
(25)
y-ng-tr-na-nd-n
3sgU:α-AW-send-ND:B.IPF-ND:PST.PF-1sgA
‘I sent him (a letter).’
SEND wäbäres
(27)
y-ng-äbere-ta-nd-n
3sgU:α-AW-send-ND:B.IPF-ND:PST.PF-1sgA
w-äbere-s
TR.INF-send-NLZR
‘I sent him away (for being bad).’
GIVE warams
(29)
ymam
3sgERG
wagib
fish
tagta
1sgDAT
w-a-rama-nd-a
1sgU-BEN-give-ND:PST.PF-3sgA:PST.PF
‘She gave me a fish.’
(31)
ymam
3sgERG
wagib
fish
y-arama-nd-a
3sgU-give-ND:PST.PF-3sgA:PST.PF
wawapser-eita
teacher-DAT1
‘She gave the teacher the fish (and it reached him).’
(35)
ynd
1sgERG
sombes
two
ärbet
man:DU.DAT1
ämbs
one
wagib
fish
yaw-aram-a-n
3nsgU:α-fish-DU:PF-1sgA
‘I gave the two men a fish.’
SHOW wayabs
(32)
ymam
3sgERG
{wawapser-eita/yagta}
{teacher-DAT1/3sgDAT1}
wagib
fish
y-ayab-nda
3sgU:α-show-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘She showed the fish to the teacher / to him.’
(37)
ymam
3sgERG
ybegta
3nsgDAT1
ag
coconut
yaw-ayab-ae
3nsgU:α-show-DU:PF:3sgA\duU
‘He showed the two of them one coconut.’
TAKE kaps renzas
(38)
yna
DEM
togam
child:ERG
yadma-epap-ngama
3sg:mother-DAT2-ABL
wagib
fish
y-kap-anda
3sgU:α-pick_up-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
a
and
y-ane-nda
3sgU:α-carry-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘The child got/took the fish from his mother.’
HEAR weres
(181)
ymam
3sgERG
boraro
flute
ke
sound
ø-ere-t-e
3sgU:α-hear-ND:IPF-3sgA
‘He can hear the sound of a flute.’
STEAL wr
(42)
är
person
togam
child(ERG)
y-rni-nda
3sgU:α-steal-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
ämb
one
ärä-nde
man-GEN
nne
food
‘The boy stole a man's food.’
(43)
yna
DEM
samba-n
village-LOC
är-m
man-PL:ERG
ybenzo_ybenzos
each.other's
nne
food
y-rni-ta-t
3sgU:α-steal-ND:IPF-3nsgA
‘In that village people steal each other's food.’
HIDE wérnis
(44)
yndbem
1nsgERG
ganzan_kp
sacred_stone
te-ng-erni-ta-m
3nsgU-AW-hide-ND:IPF-1nsgA
depi
foreigner
är-bende
person-PL:GEN
brbr-mne
fear-ORIG
‘We hid the sacred stones from the foreigners / for fear of the foreigners.’
(45)
ymam
3sgERG
yta
in.vain
nne
food
w-érni-s-t
TR.INF-hide-NLZR-ALL
y-apap-nda
3sgU:α-begin-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘He was about to steal/hide the food.’
TEAR drers
(47)
ymam
3sgERG
yéb
bag
tr
handle
y-drer-nda
3sgU:α-tear-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘He tore the handle from the bag.’
WIPE läns
(51)
ynd
1sgERG
mupi
mud(ABS)
äme-wan
mat-LOC
y-län-d-n
3sgU:α-wipe-ND:PST.PF-1sgA
‘I wiped the mud off the mat.’
CUT nps
(52)
parwae
animal
pip
meat(ABS)
y-ñp-ta-n
3sgU:α-cut-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I cut (up) the animal meat.’
(209)
ynd
1sgERG
parwae
animal
pip
meat
y-ñp-ta-n
3sgU:α-cut-ND:IPF-1sgA
naepa-ngama
knife-ABL
‘I am cutting the meat with a knife.’
TOUCH wenzas
(58)
tog-am
child-ERG
wén-ngama
stick-ABL
kanam
snake(ABS)
ø-enza-nda
3sgU:α-touch-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘The boy touched the snake with a stick.’
(217)
3sgABS
ynd
1sgERG
ø-enz-a-n
3sgU:α-touch-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I'm touching him.’
BEAT gms
(61)
tog-am
child-ERG
kanam
snake(ABS)
wén-ngama
stick-ABL
y-gme-nda
3sgU:α-hit-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘The child hit/beat the snake with a stick.’
(63)
yna
DEM
är
man(ABS)
STAT
y-m
3sg:α-be
ymam
3sgERG
kanam
snake(ABS)
y-gme-nda
3sgU:α-kill-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘This is the man who killed the snake.’
(64)
tog-am
child-ERG
kanam
snake(ABS)
kr-ta-s
death-ALL-only
y-gme-nda
3sgU:α-hit/kill-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘The boy killed the snake.’
BREAK räbärs
(65)
ynd
1sgERG
ämbs
one
kanga
ladder
bleble
step
y-räbär-nd-n
3sgU:α-break-ND:PST.PF-1sgA
‘I broke a step of the ladder.’
BUILD räms
(68)
yna
DEM
är-äm
man-ERG
kend
paperbark
mnḡ
house(ABS)
t-ram-t-e
3sgU:α-build-ND:IPF-3sgA
‘The man built a paperbark house.’
(161)
togetoge-yäbem
children-PL:ERG
Kmgo-nde
Kmgo-GEN
fence
y-ram-ta-t
3sgU:α-make-ND:IPF-3nsgA
‘The boys are tying up Kamgo's fence.’
SAY owabs
(69)
yao
NEG
ämb
any
zi
word(ABS)
aba
RCN
n-owab-ta-n
M:α-say-ND:IPF-1sgA
mleg-eipap
girl-DAT2
‘I didn't say anything to the girl.’
SHOUT AT ke oters
(73)
bm
2sgABS
ke
noise(ABS)
k-ot-na-ø
M:β-make.noise-ND:IPF-IMP
Blag-epap
Blag-DAT2
wagib-ta
fish-DAT1
‘Shout out to Blag for fish!’
SHOUT AT weräns
(70)
bm
2sgERG
Blag
Blag(ABS)
wagib
fish
dbnan
because_of
t-er-na-ø
3sgU:β-shout.out.to-ND:IPF-IPF:IMP:2sgA
‘You shout out to Blag because of the fish!’
(71)
bm
2sgERG
Blag
Blag(ABS)
t-er-na-ø
3sgU:β-shout.out.to-ND:IPF-IPF:IMP:2sgA
‘Shout at Blag (e.g. not to do something)!’
TELL wawaets
(74)
ymam
3sgERG
zi
word
tagta
1sgDAT
q-awae-t-e
1sgU:β-tell-ND:IPF-3sgA
‘He told (me) a story.’
ASK FOR wémés
(206)
wagib-ta
fish-OBL
Blag
Blag(ABS)
t-ém-ta-ø
3sgU:β-ask-ND:IPF-IPF:IMP:2sgA
‘Ask Blag for a fish!’
TALK mts
(77)
ynd
1sgERG
y-mte-nd-n
3sgU:α-tell-ND:PST.PF-1sgA
FUT
yls-t
go(INF)-ALL
‘I told him to go.’
(213)
ymam
3sgERG
ynd
1sgABS
w-mte-nda
1sgU:α-tell-ND:PF:3sgA
kunz-t
inside-ALL
elao-s-t
enter-NLZR-ALL
‘He told me to go inside.’
KNOW mete
(79)
yna
DEM
är
man
FUT
mete
know
y-m
3sgU:α-be:ND
yna
DEM
toge
child
‘The man knows that boy.’
SEE winḡs
(83)
ynd
1sgERG
kae
±one.day
y-inḡ-nd-n
3sgU:α-see-ND:PST.PF-1sgA
‘I saw him yesterday.’
LOOK AT wakaes
(84)
bm
2sgERG
ynd
1nsgABS
kae
±one.day
tn-aka-t-e
1nsgU:β-look.at-ND:IPF-B.IPF.3sgA
‘You saw us yesterday.’
FRIGHTEN brbr wets
(90)
yna
DEM
är-äm
man-ERG
gasa
crocodile
brbr-ba
fear-COM
wet-s-t
make-NLZR-ALL
y-apap-nda
3sgU:α-begin-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘That man is going to frighten the crocodile.’
HUNT (FOR) ärs
(91)
ynd
1sgABS
yta
in.vain
ele
hunting
sermba-n
night-LOC
bba
PREV
n-är-ta-n
M:α-hunt-ND:B.IPF-1sgA
ämb
one
yao
NEG
nen
what
y-ing-nd-n
3sgU:α-see-ND:PST.PF-1sgA
‘I went out hunting last night, but didn't find anything.’
THINK embärs
(92)
ynd
1sgABS
n-emb-nama-n
M:α-think-ND:PRIM-1sgA
ämbygn
±one.year
‘I was thinking of something last year (it took me a long time to figure it out).’
THINK wabaes
(192)
ynd
1sgERG
bm
2sgABS
kae
±one.day
FUT
n-aba-ta-n
2sgU-think.of-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I'll think of you tomorrow.’
LIKE mñteba wakaes
(94)
ärtog-am
boy-ERG
mleg
girl
mñte-ba
sweetness-COM
y-aka-t-e
3sgU:α-look.at-ND:B.IPF-3sgA
‘The boy likes/loves the girl.’
(95)
ärtog-am
boy-ERG
angan
song
ø-räm-s
TR.INF-make-NLZR(ABS)
mñte-ba
sweetness-COM
y-aka-t-e
3sgU:α-look.at-ND:B.IPF-3sgA
‘That boy likes singing.’
SEARCH FOR ronzas
(96)
ynd
1sgERG
ki
key
yta
in.vain
aba
RCN
y-rnz-a-n
3sgU:α-look.for-ND:B.IPF-1sgA
‘I looked for the key in vain.’
(97)
yna
DEM
är-äm
man-ERG
t-rnz-e
3sgU:α-look.for-ND:IPF:3sgA
yande
3sgGEN
äprnḡ-s-mne
be.lost-NLZR-ORIG
toge
child
‘The man looked in vain for his lost son.’
MEET bäts
(99)
ymam
3sgERG
mleg
girl
y-bät-nda
3sgU:α-meet-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
wrng
forest
end-n
path-LOC
adwae
secretly
‘The man secretly met the girl in the forest path.’
FOLLOW waets
(102)
yna
DEM
är-äm
man-ERG
mleg
girl
y-ng-aet-nda
3sgU:α-AW-follow-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
‘The man followed the girl.’
HELP wetrs
(108)
ynd
1sgERG
ärbolo-eta
old.man-DAT1
ø-ete-na-n
3sgU:α-help-ND:B.IPF-1sgA
kanga
ladder
armb-s-n
climb-NLZR-LOC
‘I helped the old man climb the ladder.’
TIE sns
(111)
ynd
1sgERG
zéḡ
rope
sombes
two(ABS)
ya-sn-a-n
3nsgU:α-tie-DU:PF-1sgA
‘I tied two ropes.’
BREAK dars
(113)
ag
coconut
y-dar-nd-n
3sgU:α-break-ND:PF-1sgA
‘I broke the coconut open.’
DRESS wamanes
(115)
mleg-äm
girl-ERG
toge
child(ABS)
selemi-ngama
clothes-ABL
t-amane-te
3sgU:α-dress-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘The girl dressed the child.’
WASH wémbärs
(117)
yna
DEM
mleg-äm
girl-ERG
toge
child
anu
bathing
kae
±one.day
t-émb-ni
3sgU:β-wash-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘The girl washed the child yesterday.’
COUGH momae ke otärs
(119)
är
man(ABS)
momae
mucus
ke
noise
k-ot-ne
M:β-make.noise-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘The man coughed.’
TELL wetls
(218)
bmbem
2nsgERG
ta-gta
1sg-DAT1
w-etl-ø-t
1sgU:α-tell-DU:IPF-2nsgA
yna
DEM
zi
story
‘You two are telling me this story.’
LIVE weret
(123)
3sgABS
äme-wan
mat-LOC
aba
RCN
ere-ngr
sit-ND:STAT
‘He was sitting on the mat (not long ago).’
(128)
är
person
toge
child
samba-n
village-LOC
d-ere-ngr-on
3sgU:γ-sit-ND:STAT-PST
‘The boy lived in the village.’
RUN alnzs
(125)
ynd
1sgABS
gtets
that.far
aba
RCN
n-lin-ta-n
M:α-run-ND:IPF-1sgA
Dimsisi
Dimsisi
samba-t
village-ALL
‘I ran all the way to Dimsisi village.’
JUMP ätäns
(126)
ynd
1sgABS
k-ätn-a-n
M:β-jump.up-ND:IPF-1sgA
tñ-at
fence-ALL
‘I jumped onto the fence.’
JUMP ábrms
(127)
togetoge
children(ABS)
izer-s-n
play-NLZR-LOC
n-brme-te
M:α-jump-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘The children were playing, jumping.’
SING angan räms
(129)
är
person
tog-am
child-ERG
angan
song(ABS)
kae
±one.day
t-ram-te
3sgU:β-make-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘The boy sang a song yesterday.’
APPEAR ipars
(131)
kae
±one.day
ämber
one
toge
child(ABS)
still
iparse
appearance
n-ipar-nda
M:α-appear-ND:PF:3sgA
end-n
road-LOC
‘Yesterday a boy appeared on the road.’
(132)
kae
±one.day
gte
there
end-n
road-LOC
awiya
cassowary
k-ipa-ne
M:β-appear-ND:IPF:3sgA
widma-tane
hand-side
k-ogamne-te
M:β-cross-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘Yesterday a cassowary suddenly appeared and passed to the other side of the road.’
DIE kr √m
(134)
ktktqébi-wäm
taipan-ERG
geä
COND
n-z-ne
2sgU-bite-ND:IPF:3sgA
bm
2sgABS
kr
death
FUT
n-m
2sgU:α-be:ND
‘If a taipan bites you, you will die.’
FALL uwis
(135)
Wena
Wena
2006-an
2006-LOC
mngr
two.leaf.tree
tq-ngama
high-ABL
n-uwi-wi
M:α-fall-ND:PRET:3sgA
band-at
ground-ALL
‘In 2006 Wena fell down to the ground from up in a two-leaf tree.’
RAIN nu apams
(136)
nu
water
rr-ke-ba-s
swish-noise-COM-ADV
n-apam-te
M:α-rain-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘Rain is falling, making a swishing noise.’
NAME yétqén ewets
(137)
Binzawa
Binzawa
yanzo
3sgRR
togaepapn
child:OBL:LOC
yétqën
name
n-ew-et-e
M:α-RR-end-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘Binzawa named his child / passed on his name to his child.’
BE HUNGRY gersäm räms
(138)
ynd
1sgABS
gers-äm
hunger-ERG
w-ram-te
1sgU:α-make-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘I am hungry.’
BE DRY ombtes √m
(207)
yna
DEM
pepa
paper
yép
bag
kunz-n
inside-LOC
ombtes
dry
y-m
3sgU:α-be:ND
‘The papers are dry inside the bag.’
BE ILL enzinewäm räms
(139)
tande
1sgGEN
ps
body
gbres
all
enzine-wäm
sickness-ERG
y-ram-te
3sgU:α-make-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘My whole body is feeling sick.’
BE SAD weiweiyäm räms
(140)
ynd
1sgABS
weiwei-yäm
sadness-ERG
w-ram-te
1sgU-make-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘I feel sad.’
BOIL rngs
(141)
nu
water
n-rn-de
M:α-boil-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘The water is boiling.’
BURN äkrärs
(143)
sombes
two
bnz_sn
firestick
n-äkrär-ø-t
M:α-burn-DU:IPF-3nsgA
‘Two pieces of charcoal are burning.’
COOK zeyas
(146)
bmbem
2nsgERG
nne
food(ABS)
t-z-we-ng
3sgU:α-cook-PF.ND-PF.IMP.2sgA
bnz-n
fire-LOC
‘You two cook food on the fire!’
COOK dus
(147)
ymam
3sgERG
w-mte-nda
1sgU-tell-ND:PST.PF:3sgA
nne
food
dus-t
cook_in_ground_oven-ALL
‘He told me to cook the food.’
CRY engs
(149)
toge
child
e
crying
n-en-de
M:α-cry-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘The baby is crying.’
(150)
ynd
1sgABS
n-en-da-n
M:α-cry-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I cry.’
DIG tars
(151)
yndbem
1nsgERG
band
ground(ABS)
bba
RCN
y-tar-ø-m
3sgU:α-dig-DU:IPF-1nsgA
‘The two of us dug the ground.’
FEAR brbräm räms
(152)
ynd
1sgABS
brbr-äm
fear-ERG
w-ram-te
1sgU-make-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘I'm feeling frightened.’
FEEL COLD kérbéräm räms
(153)
Megdelin-ende
Magdalen-GEN
mleg
girl
toge
child(ABS)
kérbér
cold
kitong-äm
big-ERG
y-ram-te
3sgU:α-make-ND:IPF:3sgA
kapyép
baby.carrybag
kunz-n
inside-LOC
‘Magdalen's little girl felt really cold inside the baby sling.’
FEEL PAIN tkretewäm räms
(154)
tande
1sgGEN
tnd
hand
kapkap
palm
tkrete-wäm
pain-ERG
w-ram-te
1sgU:α-make-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘The pains in my hand are hurting my whole body.’
GO yls
(155)
ynd
1sgABS
pan_qérqér
savannah
w-zer-s-t
TR.INF-burn.off-NLZR-ALL
w-ng-m
1sgU-AW-be(ND)
‘I'm going to the savannah to burn off.’
LAUGH urs
(156)
ynd
1sgABS
bén
laughter
n-ur-ø-m
M:α-laugh-DU:IPF-1nsgA
‘We two are laughing.’
LEAVE ors
(157)
ymam
3sgERG
n-or-te
M:α-leave-ND:IPF:3sgA
yande
3sgGEN
dmab
wife
‘He's left/divorced his wife.’
LEAVE branḡs
(159)
ynd
1sgABS
y-branḡ-ta-n
3sgU:α-leave-ND:PF-1sgA
tande
1sgGEN
dmab
wife
‘I've left my wife.’
MAKE waprs
(162)
God-m
God-ERG
band
ground
kitong
big(ABS)
y-apr-tamanga
3sgU:α-make-ND:PRIM:3sgA
‘God made the earth.’
PEEL wétrers
(163)
kananga
yam
ge
here
y-étrer-ø-t
3sgU:α-scrape-DU:IPF-3nsgA
‘She / the two of them are scraping the skin off the yam.’
PLAY izers
(164)
sombes
two
toge
child
n-izer-ø-t
M:α-play-DU:IPF-3nsgA
‘The two children are playing.’
PUSH wédéḡés
(165)
yndbem
1nsgERG
y-édéḡ-ø-m
3sgU:α-push.aside-DU:IPF-1nsgA
yna
DEM
wn_bu
log
‘We (two) pushed the log aside.’
PUT kms
(166)
ymam
3sgERG
biskar
cassava
katro-wan
black.palm-LOC
y-kma-nda
3sgU:α-lie-ND:PF:3sgA
‘He put the cassava inside a black palm container.’
GET √ane
(169)
ynd
1sgERG
yna
DEM
yéb
bag(ABS)
y-ane-nd-n
3sgU:α-get-ND:PF-1sgA
tande
1sgGEN
mitadma-epapn
aunt-LOC
‘I got this bag from my aunty.’
ROLL (tr) paes
(170)
yndbem
1nsgERG
wn_bu
log
y-pae-w-m
3sgU:α-roll-DU:IPF-1nsgA
‘We (two) rolled the log aside.’
SIT √mzngr R
(171)
yna
DEM
är
man
get
overlong
y-m<n>z-ngr
3sgU:α-sit<ND>-STAT
‘That man is sitting.’
SMELL wambaes
(174)
ynd
1sgERG
bm
2sgABS
wimb
smell(ABS)
n-amba-ta-n
2sgU:α-smell-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I smell you.’
TEACH awapaps
(177)
ynd
1sgERG
y-awapap-ta-n
3sgU:α-teach-ND:IPF-1sgA
ybegta
3nsgDAT1
tande
1sgPOSS
zi
language
‘I'm teaching her my language.’
WANT mñte √m
(179)
3sgABS
mñte
desirous
y-m
3sgU:α-be:ND
ungi-s-t
stand.up-NLZR-ALL
‘He wants to stand up.’
(180)
3sgABS
mñte
desirous
y-m
3sgU:α-be:ND
geä
COND
g-ungi-ng-a
M:γ-stand-ND:FUT-3sgA:PST.PF
‘He wants to stand up.’
LOAD wewes
(184)
ynd
1sgERG
begta
2sgDAT1
n-ewe-nd-n
2sgU-load-ND:PF-1sgA
‘I loaded you up.’
LOAD wawags
(188)
ḡma-m
Ḡma-ERG
nne
yam(ABS)
ywal-eta
Ywal-DAT1
ya-wag-te
3nsgU:α-load-ND:IPF:3sgA
‘Ḡma is loading the yams for/onto Ywal (i.e. into her yam-basket).’
LOAD wapls R
(189)
bmbem
2nsgERG
pitas-an
enough-LOC
nne
food(ABS)
baba
RCN
y-apl-ta-t
3sgU:α-fill-ND:IPF-3nsgA
gowa-wan
canoe-LOC
‘You’ve loaded the canoe up completely (with enough).’
BLINK no direct counterpart
GRIND éss
(194)
ynd
1sgERG
biskar
cassava
y-és-ta-n
3sgU:α-scrape-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I am scraping the cassava.’
HUG wambns
(195)
ynd
1sgERG
3U
y-ambn-and-n
3sgU:α-hug-ND:PF-1sgA
‘I hugged her.’
SCREAM awambs
(197)
yna
DEM
toge
child
n-awambe-t-e
M:α-scream-ND:IPF-3sgA
‘The child is calling out.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) btkamgeb rens
(198)
bm
2sgERG
ynd
1sgABS
FUT
w-érn-e
1sgU:α-shave-2sgA
btkamgeb
beard
‘You will shave me.’
MEET kiwinḡs
(101)
ynd
1sgABS
tande
1sgGEN
ägmser
enemy
är-äba
person-COM
k-iw-inḡ-a-m
M:β-RR-meet-DU:PF-1nsgA
déḡdéḡan
accidentally
wrng
forest
end-n
path-LOC
‘I accidentally met my enemy on a bush track.’
COVER awapars
(3)
ynd
1sgABS
n-aw-ap-na-n
M:α-RR-cover-ND:IPF-1sgA
‘I'm about to cover myself.’