Examples of Mapudungun

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
Ti wentru takulmafi ti makuñ ti pichiche.
ti
ART
wentru
man
taku-l-ma-fi
cover-CAUS1-APPL2-3O
ti
ART
makuñ
blanket
ti
ART
pichi-che
little-person
‘The man covered the child with the blanket.’
COVER an Alternation:
Applicative 1
(2)
Ti wentru takulfi ti pichiche ti makuñ mew.
ti
ART
wentru
man
taku-l-fi
cover-CAUS1-3O
ti
ART
pichi-che
little-person
ti
ART
makuñ
blanket
mew
PPOS
‘The man covered the child with the blanket.’
COVER an Alternation:
Applicative 1
(3)
Ti wentru apoli ñi shifüñ ko mew.
ti
ART
wentru
man
apo-l-i
fill-CAUS1-IND
ñi
3.PSR
shifüñ
bowl/glass
ko
water
mew
PPOS
‘The man filled the glass with water.’
FILL a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1 3+mew
(4)
Ti wentru chechümi ti kareta kachu mew.
ti
ART
wentru
man
chechüm-i
load-IND
ti
ART
kareta
cart
kachu
grass/hay
mew
PPOS
‘The man loaded the hay on the cart.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1 3+mew
(5)
Trapeli ñi kawell ti wentru.
trapel-i
tie-IND
ñi
3.PSR
kawell
horse
ti
ART
wentru
man
‘The man tied his horse.’
TIE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(6)
Ti wentru wütruntukuy ko shifüñ mew.
ti
ART
wentru
man
wütrun-tuku-i
flow-put-IND
ko
water
shifüñ
bowl/glass
mew
PPOS
‘The man poured water into the glass.’
POUR a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1 3+mew
(7)
Wenta mesa mew eli ñi lifru ti wentru.
wenta
above
mesa
table
mew
PPOS
el-i
put-IND
ñi
3.PSR
lifru
book
ti
ART
wentru
man
‘The man put his book on the table.’
PUT a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1 3+mew
(8)
Kiñe kura ütrüftufi ti ventana mew ti pichi wentru.
kiñe
one
kura
stone
ütrüf-tu-fi
throw-APPL3-3O
ti
ART
ventana
window
mew
PPOS
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
‘The boy threw a stone into the window.’
THROW an Alternation:
Applicative 3
(9)
Ti pichi malen küpalelfi kiñe rayen ñi kimeltuchefe.
ti
ART
pichi
little
malen
girl
küpa-l-el-fi
come-CAUS1-APPL1-3O
kiñe
one
rayen
flower
ñi
3.PSR
kimeltuchefe
teacher
‘The girl brought the flower to the teacher.’
BRING a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 3 1
(10)
Ti pichi malen yelfi kiñe rayen ñi kimeltuchefe.
ti
ART
pichi
little
malen
girl
ye-l-fi
carry-APPL1-3O
kiñe
one
rayen
flower
ñi
3.PSR
kimeltuchefe
teacher
‘The girl carried a flower to the teacher.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Applicative 1
(11)
Ti pichi malen yetuy kiñe rayen colegio mew.
ti
ART
pichi
little
malen
girl
ye-tu-i
carry-TEL-IND
kiñe
one
rayen
flower
colegio
school
mew
PPOS
‘The girl carried a flower to school.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1 3+mew
(12)
Ti pichi malen amulelfi ti lifru ñi kimeltuchefe.
ti
ART
pichi
little
malen
girl
amu-l-el-fi
go-CAUS1-APPL1-3O
ti
ART
lifru
book
ñi
3.PSR
kimeltuchefe
teacher
‘The girl sent the book to her teacher.’
SEND an Alternation:
Applicative 1
(13)
Ti pichi malen amuli ti lifru ñi colegio mew.
ti
ART
pichi
little
malen
girl
amu-l-i
go-CAUS1-IND
ti
ART
lifru
book
ñi
3.PSR
colegio
school
mew
PPOS
‘The girl sent the book to her school.’
SEND a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1 3+mew
(14)
Elufi lifru ñi kimeltuchefe ti pichi wentru.
elu-fi
give-3O
lifru
book
ñi
3.PSR
kimeltuchefe
teacher
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
‘The boy gave a book to the teacher.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 3 1
(15)
Pengelfi lifru ñi kimeltuchefe ti pichi wentru.
penge-l-fi
show-APPL1-3O
lifru
book
ñi
3.PSR
kimeltuchefe
teacher
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
‘The boy showed a book to the teacher.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 3 1
(16)
Ti pichi wentru llowmafi ti lifru ñi kimeltuchefe.
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
llow-ma-fi
receive-APPL2-3O
ti
ART
lifru
book
ñi
3.PSR
kimeltuchefe
teacher
‘The boy got the book from the teacher.’
GET an Alternation:
Applicative 2
(17)
Ti pichi wentru weñeñmafi ti lifru ti kimeltuchefe.
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
weñe-ñma-fi
steal-APPL2-3O
ti
ART
lifru
book
ti
ART
kimeltuchefe
teacher
‘The boy stole the book from the teacher.’
STEAL the Verb form weñen
(18)
Ti pichi wentru llumümmafi ti lifru ñi kimeltuchefe.
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
llum-üm-ma-fi
hide-CAUS-APPL2-3O
ti
ART
lifru
book
ñi
3.PSR
kimeltuchefe
teacher
‘The boy hid the book from the teacher.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Applicative 2
(19)
Kacharnentumay ñi lifru kiñe hoja ti pichi wentru.
kacharnentu-ma-i
tear.out-APPL2-IND
ñi
3.PSR
lifru
book
kiñe
one
hoja
page
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
‘The boy tore a page from the book.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Applicative 2
(20)
Katrüy ti kofke ti pichi wentru kuchillu engu.
katrü-i
cut-IND
ti
ART
kofke
bread
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
kuchillu
knife
engu
3DU
‘The boy cut the bread with a knife.’
CUT a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1 3+mew
(21)
Kiñe mamüll mew kachillmafi ti filu ti pichi wentru.
kiñe
one
mamüll
wood
mew
PPOS
kachillma-fi
touch-3O
ti
ART
filu
snake
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
‘The boy touched the snake with a stick.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1 3+mew
(22)
Kiñe mamüll mew trawawi ti filu ti pichi wentru.
kiñe
one
mamüll
wood
mew
PPOS
trawaw-i
hit-IND
ti
ART
filu
snake
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
‘The boy hit the snake with a stick.’
HIT a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1 3+mew
(23)
Kiñe mamüll mew trawawtrawawtuy ti filu ti pichi wentru.
kiñe
one
mamüll
wood
mew
PPOS
trawaw~trawaw-tu-i
hit~REDUP-ITER-IND
ti
ART
filu
snake
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
‘The boy beat the snake with a stick.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1 3+mew
(24)
Kiñe mamüll mew langümfi ti filu ti pichi wentru.
kiñe
one
mamüll
wood
mew
PPOS
langüm-fi
kill-3O
ti
ART
filu
snake
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
‘The boy killed the snake with a stick.’
KILL a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1 3+mew
(25)
Ti pichi wentru watrofi ti malal kiñe fütra kura yengu.
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
watro-fi
break-3O
ti
ART
malal
pen
kiñe
one
fütra
big
kura
stone
yengu
3DU
‘The boy broke the pen with a big stone.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1 3+mew
(26)
Ti wentru dewmay kiñe ruka mamüll yengu.
ti
ART
wentru
man
dewma-i
make-IND
kiñe
one
ruka
house
mamüll
wood
yengu
3DU
‘The man built a house with wood.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(27)
Chemnorume pilafi ti wentru tati pichi domo.
chemnorume
nothing
pi-la-fi
say-NEG-3O
ti
ART
wentru
man
tati
ART
pichi
little
domo
woman
‘The man said nothing to the girl.’
SAY a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 3 1
(28)
Ti wentru wirarüfi ti pichi domo.
ti
ART
wentru
man
wirarü-fi
shout-3O
ti
ART
pichi
little
domo
woman
‘The man shouted (from afar) to the girl.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(29)
Ti wentru wirarütufi ti pichi domo.
ti
ART
wentru
man
wirarü-tu-fi
shout-TEL-3O
ti
ART
pichi
little
domo
woman
‘The man shouted (angrily) at the girl.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(30)
Ti wentru ngütramelfi ti pichi domo.
ti
ART
wentru
man
ngütram-el-fi
tell.story-APPL1-3O
ti
ART
pichi
little
domo
woman
‘The man told a story / stories to the girl.’
TELL an Alternation:
Applicative 1
(31)
Ti wentru kiñe ngütram pifi ti pichi domo.
ti
ART
wentru
man
kiñe
one
ngütram
story
pi-fi
say-3O
ti
ART
pichi
little
domo
woman
‘The man told a story to the girl.’
SAY a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 3 1
(32)
Ti pichi wentru ngillatufi ti wentru pülata.
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
ngillatu-fi
ask.for-3O
ti
ART
wentru
man
pülata
money
‘The boy asked the man for money.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 3 1
(33)
Ti wentru ngütramkalelfi ti pichi wentru ti pichi domo mew.
ti
ART
wentru
man
ngütramka-lel-fi
talk-APPL1-3O
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
ti
ART
pichi
little
domo
woman
mew
PPOS
‘The man talked to the boy about the girl.’
TALK an Alternation:
Applicative 1
(34)
Ti wentru ngütramkayefi ti pichi domo ti pichi wentru mew.
ti
ART
wentru
man
ngütramka-ye-fi
talk-APPL4-3O
ti
ART
pichi
little
domo
woman
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
mew
PPOS
‘The man talked to the boy about the girl.’
TALK an Alternation:
Applicative 4
(35)
Ti wentru kimfuy ti pichi wentru.
ti
ART
wentru
man
kim-fu-i
know-RI-IND
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
‘The man knew the boy.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(36)
Ti wentru pefi ti pichi wentru.
ti
ART
wentru
man
pe-fi
see-3O
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
‘The man saw the boy.’
SEE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(37)
Ti wentru lelifi ti pichi wentru.
ti
ART
wentru
man
leli-fi
look.at-3O
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
‘The man looked at the boy.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(38)
Ti wentru adkintufi ti pichi wentru.
ti
ART
wentru
man
adkintu-fi
look.at-3O
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
‘The man looked at the boy (from afar).’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(39)
Ti wentru trupefülfi ti pichi wentru.
ti
ART
wentru
man
trupefü-l-fi
be.frightened-CAUS1-3O
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
‘The man frightened the boy.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(40)
Ti pichi wentru llükafi ti wentru.
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
llüka-fi
fear-3O
ti
ART
wentru
man
‘The boy feared the man.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(41)
Ti pichi wentru ayüfi ti wentru.
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
ayü-fi
like-3O
ti
ART
wentru
man
‘The boy liked the man.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(42)
Ti pichi wentru kümentuy ti muday.
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
küme-ntu-i
good-VR-IND
ti
ART
muday
chicha
‘The boy likes the chicha.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(43)
Ti wentru kintufi ti pichi wentru.
ti
ART
wentru
man
kintu-fi
search.for-3O
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
‘The man searched for the boy.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(44)
Tralkatufengey ti wentru.
tralkatufe-nge-i
hunter-be-IND
ti
ART
wentru
man
‘The man is a hunter.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(45)
Ti wentru ka ti malen trafüyengu rüpü mew.
ti
ART
wentru
man
ka
and
ti
ART
malen
girl
trafü-yengu
meet-3DU
rüpü
road
mew
PPOS
‘The man met the girl on the road.’
MEET a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(46)
Ti wentru inafi ti pichi domo.
ti
ART
wentru
man
ina-fi
follow-3O
ti
ART
pichi
little
domo
woman
‘The man followed the girl.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(47)
Ti wentru kellufi ti pichi domo.
ti
ART
wentru
man
kellu-fi
help-3O
ti
ART
pichi
little
domo
woman
‘The man helped the girl.’
HELP a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(48)
Ti pichi domo i ti kofke.
ti
ART
pichi
little
domo
woman
i
eat
ti
ART
kofke
bread
‘The girl ate the bread.’
EAT a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(49)
Ti pichi domo takufi ti pichi wentru.
ti
ART
pichi
little
domo
woman
taku-fi
dress-3O
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
‘The girl dressed the boy.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(50)
Ti pichi domo küchafi ti pichi wentru.
ti
ART
pichi
little
domo
woman
kücha-fi
wash-3O
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
‘The girl washed the boy.’
WASH a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(51)
Ti wentru chafoy.
ti
ART
wentru
man
chafo-i
cough-IND
‘The man coughed.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(52)
Ti wentru wechuy wingkul mew.
ti
ART
wentru
man
wechu-i
climb-IND
wingkul
hill
mew
PPOS
‘The man climbed (up) the hill.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1 2+mew
(53)
Ti wentru pülli mew anüy.
ti
ART
wentru
man
pülli
ground
mew
PPOS
anü-i
sit.down-IND
‘The man sat down on the ground.’
SIT a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1 2+mew
(54)
Ti wentru pülli mew anülefuy.
ti
ART
wentru
man
pülli
ground
mew
PPOS
anü-le-fu-i
sit.down-RES-RI-IND
‘The man sat on the ground.’
SIT a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1 2+mew
(55)
Ti pichi wentru lefi lelfün mew.
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
lef-i
run-IND
lelfün
field
mew
PPOS
‘The boy ran on the field.’
RUN a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(56)
Ti pichi wentru rüngküy pülli mew.
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
rüngkü-i
jump-IND
pülli
ground
mew
PPOS
‘The boy jumped on the ground.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1 2+mew
(57)
Ti pichi wentru amuy waria mew.
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
amu-i
go-IND
waria
town
mew
PPOS
‘The boy went to the town.’
GO a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1 2+mew
(58)
Tüfa ruka mew müley che.
tüfa
this
ruka
house
mew
PPOS
müle-i
live-IND
che
people
‘This house is inhabited. / People live in this house.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1 2+mew
(59)
ülkantuy ti pichi wentru.
ülkantu-i
sing-IND
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
‘The boy sang.’
SING a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(60)
Wefpay ti pichi wentru rüpü mew.
wef-pa-i
appear-CIS-IND
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
rüpü
road
mew
PPOS
‘The boy appeared on the road.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(61)
Kutrani ñi lipang.
kutran-i
hurt-IND
ñi
1SG.PSR
lipang
arm
‘My arm hurts.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(62)
Kutranlipangün.
kutran-lipang-ün
hurt-arm-1SG.IND
‘My arm hurts.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(63)
Lay ti wentru.
la-i
die-IND
ti
ART
wentru
man
‘The man died.’
DIE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(64)
Trani ko mew ti wentru.
tran-i
fall-IND
ko
water
mew
PPOS
ti
ART
wentru
man
‘The man fell into the water.’
FALL a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1 2+mew
(65)
Ngüñülefuy ti pichi wentru.
ngüñü-le-fu-i
get.hungry-RES-RI-IND
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
‘The boy was hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(66)
Mawüni.
mawün-i
rain-IND
‘It rained.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
V.subj[0]
(67)
Ti wentru rofülfi ti domo.
ti
ART
wentru
man
rofül-fi
hug-3O
ti
ART
domo
woman
‘The man hugged the woman.’
HUG a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(68)
Ti wentru nümütuy ti ilo.
ti
ART
wentru
man
nümü-tu-i
smell-APPL3-IND
ti
ART
ilo
meat
‘The man smelled the meat.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(69)
Ti wentru rakiduamyey ti wetripantu.
ti
ART
wentru
man
rakiduam-ye-i
think-APPL4-IND
ti
ART
wetripantu
New.Year
‘The man thinks about (the celebration of) New Year.’
THINK an Alternation:
Applicative 4
(70)
Lüfküley ti ruka.
lüf-küle-i
burn-PROG-IND
ti
ART
ruka
house
‘The house is burning.’
BURN a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(71)
Angküley mamüll.
angkü-le-i
become.dry-RES-IND
mamüll
wood
‘The (fire)wood is / has become dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(72)
Epu kofke afümi.
epu
two
kofke
bread
afü-m-i
boil-CAUS-IND
‘S/he cooked (=baked) two pieces of bread.’
COOK a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(73)
Afüy tüfachi ilo.
afü-i
boil-IND
tüfa-chi
this-ATTR
ilo
meat
‘This meat boiled.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(74)
Pu wentru allküy tralkan.
pu
PL
wentru
man
allkü-i
hear-IND
tralkan
thunder
‘The men heard the thunder.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(75)
Awkantuy ti pichi wentru.
awkantu-i
play-IND
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
‘The boy played.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(76)
Ayey ti pichi domo.
aye-i
laugh-IND
ti
ART
pichi
little
domo
woman
‘The girl laughed.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(77)
Ti wentru ayüy we küdaw.
ti
ART
wentru
man
ayü-i
want-IND
we
new
küdaw
work
‘The man wants a new job.’
WANT a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(78)
Chafimi tüfachi manshana.
chaf-i-m-i
peel-IND-2-SG
tüfa-chi
this-ATTR
manshana
apple
‘You (sg.) peeled this apple.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(79)
Püntun corte mew.
püntu-n
become.separate-1SG.IND
corte
court
mew
PPOS
‘I left the court.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1 2+mew
(80)
Kutranküley ti wentru.
kutran-küle-i
be.ill-PROG-IND
ti
ART
wentru
man
‘The man is ill.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(81)
Payuntuy ti wentru.
payuntu-i
shave-IND
ti
ART
wentru
man
‘The man shaved.’
SHAVE (self) a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(82)
Üyfi ñi peñi ñi chaw.
üy-fi
name-3O
ñi
1SG.PSR
peñi
brother.of.man
ñi
1SG.PSR
chaw
father
‘My father gave my brother his name / named my brother.’
NAME a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(83)
Trafoy kiñe fotella.
trafo-i
break-IND
kiñe
one
fotella
bottle
‘S/he broke a bottle.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1 3+mew
(84)
Nüy ti kawell.
nü-i
take-IND
ti
ART
kawell
horse
‘S/he took the horse.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(85)
Tuy ñi ofisa.
tu-i
take-IND
ñi
3.PSR
ofisa
sheep
‘She took his/her sheep.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(86)
Trarünimi ti maleta.
trarü-i-m-i
tie-IND-2-SG
ti
ART
maleta
luggage
‘You tied the luggage.’
TIE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(87)
Llüpifi ti domo.
llüpif-i
blink-IND
ti
ART
domo
woman
‘The woman blinked.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(88)
Wütrey ti pichi domo.
wütre-i
be.cold-IND
ti
ART
pichi
little
domo
woman
‘The girl is cold.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(89)
Lladküy ñi ñuke.
lladkü-i
be.sad-IND
ñi
3.PSR
ñuke
mother
‘His/her mother is sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(90)
Imüli kuram.
imül-i
roll-IND
kuram
egg
‘The egg rolled.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(91)
Lani ti wampu.
lan-i
sink-IND
ti
ART
wampu
boat
‘The boat sank.’
SINK a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(92)
Wirari ti kalku.
wirar-i
scream-IND
ti
ART
kalku
warlock
‘The warlock screamed.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(93)
Ti domo mülani afün kachilla.
ti
ART
domo
woman
mülan-i
grind-IND
afü-n
cook-NFIN
kachilla
wheat
‘The woman ground the cooked wheat.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(94)
Rüngay ti wentru.
rünga-i
dig-IND
ti
ART
wentru
man
‘The man dug.’
DIG a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(95)
Pelüy mesa ti wentru.
pelü-i
push-IND
mesa
table
ti
ART
wentru
man
‘The man pushed the table.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(96)
Kimelfi ti wentru ñi wedafemael.
kim-el-fi
know-CAUS1-3O
ti
ART
wentru
man
ñi
3.PSR
weda-fem-a-el
bad-do.so-FUT-NFIN
‘S/he taught the man to behave badly.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 3 1
(97)
Ngümay ñi püñeñ.
ngüma-i
cry-IND
ñi
3.PSR
püñeñ
child.of.woman
‘Her child cried.’
CRY a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(98)
Ñi ñuke dewmayay kiñe makuñ kal ofisa mew.
ñi
1SG.PSR
ñuke
mother
dewma-ya-i
make-FUT-IND
kiñe
one
makuñ
blanket
kal
wool
ofisa
sheep
mew
PPOS
‘My mother will make a blanket (of sheep's wool).’
MAKE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1 3+mew
(99)
Tuy ñi pülata ti wentru.
tu-i
receive-IND
ñi
3.PSR
pülata
money
ti
ART
wentru
man
‘The man received his money.’
GET a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(100)
Ñifi chi makuñ.
ñif-i
become.dry-IND
chi
ART
makuñ
blanket
‘The blanket dried.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1
(101)
Petu wepümlaymi külafo.
petu
still
wepüm-la-i-m-i
appear.CAUS-NEG-IND-2-SG
külafo
nail
‘You have not made the nail appear yet.’
APPEAR an Alternation:
Causative2
(102)
Ngillatuñmaenew ñi rosario.
ngillatu-ñma-e-n-ew
ask.for-APPL2-INV-1SG.IND-3A
ñi
1SG.PSR
rosario
rosary
‘S/he asked me for my rosary.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Applicative 2
(103)
Angkümi ti makuñ.
angkü-m-i
become.dry-CAUS-IND
ti
ART
makuñ
blanket
‘S/he dried the blanket.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Causative2
(104)
Ñipümi chi makuñ.
ñipüm-i
become.dry.CAUS-IND
chi
ART
makuñ
blanket
‘S/he dried the blanket.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Causative2
(105)
Fey ngüñülenew.
fey
DEM
ngüñü-l-e-n-mew
be.hungry-CAUS1-INV-1SG.IND-3A
‘That made me hungry.’
BE HUNGRY an Alternation:
Causative1
(106)
Kutranelenew manshana.
kutran-el-e-n-mew
become.ill-CAUS1-INV-1SG.IND-3A
manshana
apple
‘The apple has made me ill.’
BE ILL an Alternation:
Causative1
(107)
Lladkütuniegenew.
lladkü-tu-nie-e-n-mew
be.sad-APPL3-have-INV-1SG.IND-3A
‘S/he is angry at me.’
BE SAD an Alternation:
Applicative 3
(108)
Lüfman ñi wün.
lüf-ma-n
burn-APPL2-1SG.IND
ñi
1SG.PSR
wün
mouth
‘I burned my mouth.’
BURN an Alternation:
Applicative 2
(109)
Iñche yean pala.
iñche
1SG
ye-a-n
carry-FUT-1SG.IND
pala
shovel
‘I'll carry the shovel.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1 3+mew
(110)
Elmanieñmagenew ñi kawellu.
el-ma-nie-ñma-e-n-mew
put-APPL2-have-APPL2-INV-1SG.IND-3A
ñi
1SG.PSR
kawellu
horse
‘S/he has bad intentions concerning my horse (e.g. s/he wants to steal it).’
PUT an Alternation:
Applicative 2
(111)
Fey pilelen chi caballero.
fey
DEM
pi-lel-e-n
say-APPL1-INV-1SG.IND
chi
ART
caballero
gentleman
‘Tell that to the gentleman on my behalf.’
SAY an Alternation:
Applicative 1
(112)
Piñmangey ñi layagel.
pi-ñma-nge-i
say-APPL2-PASS-IND
ñi
3.PSR
la-a-el
die-FUT-NFIN
‘S/he was given a death sentence.’
SAY an Alternation:
Applicative 2
(113)
Pelelen ñi allfen.
pe-lel-e-n
see-APPL1-INV-1SG.IND
ñi
1SG.PSR
allfen
wound
‘Take a look at my wound.’
SEE an Alternation:
Applicative 1
(114)
Peñmalagenew ñi manshana.
pe-ñma-la-e-n-mew
see-APPL2-NEG-INV-1SG.IND-3A
ñi
1SG.PSR
manshana
apple
‘S/he did not see my apples (e.g. the ones I had stolen from him/her).’
SEE an Alternation:
Applicative 2
(115)
Iñche ñi chedkuy anüñmaley kutran mew.
iñche
1SG
ñi
1SG.PSR
chedkuy
father.in.law
anü-ñma-le-i
sit-APPL2-RES-IND
kutran
disease
mew
PPOS
‘My father-in-law['s house] is besieged by disease.’
SIT an Alternation:
Applicative 2
(116)
Anüñmakilnge chumpiru!
anü-ñma-ki-l-nge
sit.down-APPL2-NEG-SUBJ-2SG.IMPER
chumpiru
hat
‘Do not sit on the hat!’
SIT an Alternation:
Applicative 2
(117)
Weñeñmaenew ñi toki.
weñe-ñma-e-n-mew
steal-APPL2-INV-1SG.IND-3A
ñi
1SG.PSR
toki
axe
‘S/he stole my axe.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Applicative 2
(118)
Weñelfiñ chi pülata.
weñe-l-fi-n
steal-APPL1-3O-1SG.IND
chi
ART
pülata
money
‘I stole the money for him/her.’
STEAL the Verb form weñen
(119)
Weñey chi pülata.
weñe-i
steal-IND
chi
ART
pülata
money
‘S/he stole the money.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(120)
Nüñmaenew ñi trompo.
nü-ñma-e-n-mew
take-APPL2-INV-1SG.IND-3A
ñi
1SG.PSR
trompo
spinning.top
‘S/he took my spinning top from me.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Applicative 2
(121)
Kangelu tulkeeyew kutran.
ka-nge-lu
other-be-PTCP
tu-l-ke-e-i-mew
take-APPL1-HAB-INV-IND-3A
kutran
disease
‘Some other transmitted the disease to him/her.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Applicative 1
(122)
Fey kimelmaenew ñi fotüm ñi wedafemagel.
fey
DEM
kim-el-ma-e-n-mew
know-CAUS1-APPL2-INV-1SG.IND-3A
ñi
1SG.PSR
fotüm
son
ñi
3.PSR
weda-fem-a-el
bad-do.so-FUT-NFIN
‘S/he taught my son to act badly.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Applicative 2
(123)
Ngütramyey chi weychan.
ngütram-ye-i
tell-APPL4-IND
chi
ART
weychan
war
‘S/he talked about the war.’
TELL an Alternation:
Applicative 4
(124)
Rakiduami ñi ñuke mew.
rakiduam-i
think-IND
ñi
3.PSR
ñuke
mother
mew
PPOS
‘S/he thought about his/her mother.’
THINK a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1 2+mew
(125)
Ütrüftuenew kura mew.
ütrüf-tu-e-n-mew
throw-APPL3-INV-1SG.IND-3A
kura
stone
mew
PPOS
‘S/he threw a stone at me.’
THROW an Alternation:
Applicative 3
(126)
Liftuy mesa ti pichi wentru.
liftu-i
wipe.clean-IND
mesa
table
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
‘The boy wiped (the dirt off) the table.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(127)
Ti wentru takufi ti pichiche.
ti
ART
wentru
man
taku-fi
cover-3O
ti
ART
pichi-che
little-person
‘The man covered the child.’
COVER a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(128)
Chew mapu tuwimi?
chew
where
mapu
land
tu-w-i-m-i
take-REFL-IND-2-SG
‘Where do you (sg.) come from?’
TAKE an Alternation:
Reflexive
(129)
Tuwülay ñi küdaw.
tu-w-ü-la-i
take-REFL-(epenthesis)-NEG-IND
ñi
3.PSR
küdaw
work
‘His/her work did not prosper.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Reflexive
(130)
Kutrantuwün ngey ñi longko.
kutrantu-w-ün
hurt-REFL-INF
nge-i
be-IND
ñi
1SG.PSR
longko
head
‘I have a sore head.’
FEEL PAIN an Alternation:
Reflexive
(131)
Wefmawküley furi engu piwkekutran.
wef-ma-w-küle-i
appear-APPL2-REFL-PROG-IND
furi
back
engu
3DU
piwke-kutran
heart-pain
‘Heartburn occurs together with back pain.’
APPEAR an Alternation:
Applicative 2
(132)
Ti pichi wentru llowi ti lifru.
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
llow-i
receive-IND
ti
ART
lifru
book
‘The boy received the book.’
GET a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(133)
Wiya ngütramkafiñ.
wiya
yesterday
ngütramka-fi-n
talk-3O-1SG.IND
‘I talked to/with him yesterday.’
TALK a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(134)
Kacharnentuy kiñe hoja.
kacharnentu-i
tear-IND
kiñe
one
hoja
page
‘S/he tore a page (from something).’
TEAR a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(135)
Ngütramenew.
ngütram-e-n-mew
tell-INV-1SG.IND-3A
‘S/he told me.’
TELL a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(136)
Ütrüfi kura.
ütrüf-i
throw-IND
kura
stone
‘S/he threw a stone / stones.’
THROW a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1
(137)
Wiya trafüfiñ ti pichi wentru.
wiya
yesterday
trafü-fi-n
meet-3O-1SG.IND
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
‘I met the boy yesterday.’
MEET the Verb form trafün
(138)
Ti pichi wentru llumümi ti lifru.
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
llum-üm-i
hide-CAUS-IND
ti
ART
lifru
book
‘The boy hid the book.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1].obj[2] 2 1