Alternations of Mapudungun

Alternations
Alternation name Description Examples Verbs
C
y The suffix -lel ~ -el ~ -l (and possibly also -ül) is added to the verb stem; the semantic/pragmatic yield is usually benefactive.
(10)
Ti pichi malen yelfi kiñe rayen ñi kimeltuchefe.
ti
ART
pichi
little
malen
girl
ye-l-fi
carry-APPL1-3O
kiñe
one
rayen
flower
ñi
3.PSR
kimeltuchefe
teacher
‘The girl carried a flower to the teacher.’
41
C
y The suffix -ñma ~ -ma is added to the verb stem. The semantic/pragmatic yield, especially with bivalent predicates, is usually malefactive.
(102)
Ngillatuñmaenew ñi rosario.
ngillatu-ñma-e-n-ew
ask.for-APPL2-INV-1SG.IND-3A
ñi
1SG.PSR
rosario
rosary
‘S/he asked me for my rosary.’
44
C
y Root serialization with tu- 'get, take' forms a new verb stem. The range of possible semantic roles of the applied object is wide (as are the syntactic effects: sometimes no discernible yield is found, and sometimes the operation detransitivizes the predicate); high-frequency motion verbs incorporate a goal to the case frame with this process.
(107)
Lladkütuniegenew.
lladkü-tu-nie-e-n-mew
be.sad-APPL3-have-INV-1SG.IND-3A
‘S/he is angry at me.’
12
C
y Root serialization with ye- 'carry, bring' forms a new verb stem. The range of possible semantic roles of the applied object is wide (as are the syntactic effects: sometimes no discernible yield is found); high-frequency verba dicendi incorporate a topic/content to the case frame with this process.
(34)
Ti wentru ngütramkayefi ti pichi domo ti pichi wentru mew.
ti
ART
wentru
man
ngütramka-ye-fi
talk-APPL4-3O
ti
ART
pichi
little
domo
woman
ti
ART
pichi
little
wentru
man
mew
PPOS
‘The man talked to the boy about the girl.’
8
C
y high-control causative; suffixation of -lel ~ -el ~ -l
(105)
Fey ngüñülenew.
fey
DEM
ngüñü-l-e-n-mew
be.hungry-CAUS1-INV-1SG.IND-3A
‘That made me hungry.’
23
C
y low-control causative; suffixation of -(ü)m (stem-final f and g regularly change to p and k before the suffix)
(103)
Angkümi ti makuñ.
angkü-m-i
become.dry-CAUS-IND
ti
ART
makuñ
blanket
‘S/he dried the blanket.’
6
C
y The suffix -(u)w is added to the verb stem. Reciprocal meaning is prominent with some roots (e.g. elu- 'give'), but it usually requires the addition of epuñpüle / wetrukon 'each other'.
(128)
Chew mapu tuwimi?
chew
where
mapu
land
tu-w-i-m-i
take-REFL-IND-2-SG
‘Where do you (sg.) come from?’
14
U
n 15