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constitutes the counterpart of several meanings, with however the same coding frame. Mandinka also uses to express 'speak a language', but uses another verb (kúma 'produce a sound, speak') to express 'A talks (to X)' without specifying about what, and still another verb (láa) to express 'tell a story'. In Mandinka, clauses cannot occupy the subject or object position. Clausal complements occur in postverbal position, and if the verb is transitive, the complement clause is represented in the canonical object position by a cataphoric pronoun.

Coding frame

Simplex Verb form

Examples

(57)
Kewó ye tooñáa fo kambaanóo ye.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
tooñáa
truth.DEF
fo
tell
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
BEN
‘The man told the truth to the boy.’
(61)
Kewó ye kambaanóo (la kúmoo) fó musóo ye.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
la
GEN
kúm-oo
word-DEF
tell
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
BEN
‘The man talked to the woman about the boy.’
(62)
Kewó ye a fó kambaanóo ye kó 'haní'.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
a
3SG
say
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
QUOT
'haní'
'no'
‘The man said 'no' to the boy.’
(60)
Kewó ka Mandinkakáŋo fo.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ka
HAB.POS
Mandinka-káŋ-o
Mandinka-language-DEF
fo
speaks
‘The man speaks Mandinka.’

Verb meanings , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# TALK TELL Coding set Argument type
1 talker teller Ø A
2 talked about content told content Ø P
3 talked to person tellee NP+ye X

Alternations

Alternation name Occurs Examples
U
R n
(58)
‘The truth was told to the boy.’
C
N y
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
C
R y
(59)
‘The woman made the man tell the truth to the boy.’
C
N y
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n