Examples of Mandinka

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
Kambaanóo ye léeríjámboo fárási kitáaboo bála.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
léeríjámb-oo
page-DEF
fárási
tear
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
bála
in_contact
‘The boy tore the page from the book.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+bala
(2)
Léeríjámboo fárásíta kitáaboo bála.
léeríjámb-oo
page-DEF
fárásí-ta
tear-PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
bála
in_contact
‘The page was torn from the book.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Active/Passive Alternation
(3)
Kewó niŋ súnkútoo beńta.
kew-ó
man-DEF
niŋ
with
súnkút-oo
girl-DEF
beń-ta
meet-PF.POS
‘The man met the girl. \ Lit. The man with/and the girl met.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1 > V
(4)
Saateemóolu beńta.
saatee-móo-lu
village-person.DEF-PL
beń-ta
meet-PF.POS
‘The villagers gathered.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1 > V
(5)
Alikáaloo yé saateemóolu bendi.
alikáal-oo
chief-DEF
PF.POS
saatee-móo-lu
village-person.DEF-PL
be-ndi
meet-CAUS
‘The chief gathered the villagers.’
MEET an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(6)
Saateemóolu bendíta.
saatee-móo-lu
village-person.DEF-PL
be-ndí-ta
meet-CAUS-PF.POS
‘The villagers were gathered.’
MEET an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(7)
Kewó ye baŋkôo bée beŋ.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
baŋk-ôo
country-DEF
bée
all
beŋ
wander_round
‘The man wandered around the whole country.’
MEET the Verb form beŋ
(8)
Kewó ye musóo tara márséwo to.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
mus-óo
woman-DEF
tara
meet
márséw-o
market-DEF
to
LOC
‘The man met/found the woman at the market.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(9)
Musóo ka tara márséwo to.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ka
HAB.POS
tara
be_found
márséw-o
market-DEF
to
LOC
‘The woman can usually be found at the market.’
MEET an Alternation:
Noncausative Alternation
(10)
Díndíŋo ye mbúuroo dómo.
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
ye
PF.POS
mbúur-oo
bread-DEF
dómo
eat
‘The child ate the bread.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(11)
Mbúur-oo dómó-ta.
mbúur-oo
bread-DEF
dómó-ta
eat-PF.POS
‘The bread was eaten.’
EAT an Alternation:
Active/Passive Alternation
(12)
Díndíŋo ye dómóroo ke.
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
ye
PF.POS
dómó-r-oo
eat-ANTIP-DEF
ke
do
‘The child ate.’
EAT an Alternation:
Antipassive Middle
(13)
Díndíŋo dómóríta.
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
dómó-rí-ta
eat-ANTIP-PF.POS
‘The child ate.’
EAT an Alternation:
Antipassive Middle
(14)
Kewó ye díndíŋo dómóríndi mbúuroo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
dómó-ríndi
eat-CAUS
mbúur-oo
bread-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man made the child eat the bread.’
EAT an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 2
(15)
Kewó mínínta musóo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
mínín-ta
wind-PF.POS
mus-óo
woman-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man hugged the woman.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2+la
(16)
Kewó ye í míniŋ musóo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
í
REFL
míniŋ
wind
mus-óo
woman-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man hugged the woman.’
HUG an Alternation:
Intransitive/Middle Alternation
(17)
Nómboo mínínta yíroo la.
nómb-oo
creeper-DEF
mínín-ta
wind-PF.POS
yír-oo
tree-DEF
la
OBL
‘The creeper wound around the tree.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2+la
(18)
Kel-óo ye tat-ôo míniŋ.
kel-óo
army-DEF
ye
PF.POS
tat-ôo
fortress-DEF
míniŋ
surround
‘The army encircled the fortress.’
HUG the Verb form míniŋ
(19)
Kewó ye julôo míniŋ fáloo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
jul-ôo
rope-DEF
míniŋ
wind
fál-oo
stick-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man wound the rope around the stick.’
HUG an Alternation:
Causative Alternation
(20)
Kewó ye kambaanóo loŋ.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
loŋ
know
‘The man knows the boy.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(21)
Ñiŋ́ kewô lónta báake.
ñiŋ́
DEM
kew-ô
man-DEF
lón-ta
know-PF.POS
báake
very
‘This man is a very learned person.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Deobjective Alternation
(22)
Ñiŋ́ kewó ye mansaalijámaa loŋ.
ñiŋ́
DEM
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
mansaali-jámaa
riddle-many
loŋ
know
‘This man knows many riddles.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(23)
Kewó ye kambaanôo féle.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
féle
look_at
‘The man looked at the boy.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(24)
Kewó ye kambaanóo je.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
je
see
‘The man saw the boy.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(25)
Kambaanôo jéta bâa dáala.
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
jé-ta
see-PF.POS
bâa
river.DEF
dáala
near
‘The boy was seen near the river.’
SEE an Alternation:
Active/Passive Alternation
(26)
Finkintéw-o-lu búka í je.
finkintéw-o-lu
blind-DEF-PL
búka
HAB.NEG
í
REFL
je
see
‘The blind do not see.’
SEE an Alternation:
Antipassive Middle
(27)
Wulóo ye díndíŋo súmbu.
wul-óo
dog-DEF
ye
PF.POS
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
súmbu
smell
‘The dog smelled the child.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(28)
Kambaan-ôo sílán-ta kew-ó la.
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
sílán-ta
fear-PF.POS
kew-ó
man-DEF
la
OBL
‘The boy feared the man.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2+la
(29)
Kewó ye kambaanôo sílándi.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
sílá-ndi
fear-CAUS
‘The man frightened the boy.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(30)
Kewó lafíta kambaanóo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
lafí-ta
like-PF.POS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man liked the boy.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2+la
(31)
Kewó lafíta kódoo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
lafí-ta
want-PF.POS
kód-oo
money-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man wants money.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2+la
(32)
Muŋ́ ne yé kambaanoó lafindi kitáaboo la?
muŋ́
what
ne
FOC
PF.POS
kambaan-oó
boy-DEF
lafi-ndi
want-CAUS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
la
OBL
‘What made the boy like the book?’
LIKE an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(33)
Kambaanóo lafíta kitáaboo la.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
lafí-ta
like/want-PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
la
OBL
‘The boy wants/likes the book.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2+la
(34)
Súŋkútoo yé ñiŋ báyoo kanu.
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
PF.POS
ñiŋ
DEM
báy-oo
cloth-DEF
kanu
like
‘The girl likes this cloth.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(35)
Kambaanóo ye súŋkútoo kanu.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
kanu
love
‘The boy loves the girl.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(36)
Kewó ye a míira kó musóo ye a kanu.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
a
3SG
míira
think
QUOT
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
a
3SG
kanu
love
‘The man thinks that the woman loves him.’
THINK the Verb form í míira
(37)
Kewó ye í míira kambaanóo la kúwo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
í
REFL
míira
think
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
la
GEN
kúw-o
matter-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man thought about the boy.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2+la
(38)
Kewó ye kambaanôo ñíni.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
ñíni
search
‘The man searched for the boy.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(39)
Musóo ye dendikóo kuu.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
dendik-óo
shirt-DEF
kuu
wash
‘The woman washed the shirt.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(40)
Musóo ye díndíŋo kuu.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
kuu
wash
‘The woman washed the child.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(41)
Díndíŋo kuúta.
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
kuú-ta
wash-PF.POS
‘The child has been washed.’
WASH an Alternation:
Active/Passive Alternation
(42)
Musóo ye í kuu.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
í
REFL
kuu
wash
‘The woman washed (herself).’
WASH an Alternation:
Intransitive/Middle Alternation
(43)
Musóo ye kuuróo ke.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kuu-r-óo
wash-ANTIP-DEF
ke
do
‘The woman did the washing.’
WASH an Alternation:
Antipassive Middle
(44)
Kewó ye musóo kuurindi dendikóo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
mus-óo
woman-DEF
kuu-rindi
wash-CAUS
dendik-óo
shirt-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man made the woman wash the shirt.’
WASH an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 2
(45)
Kewó ye kambaanôo máakóyi kódoo to.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
máakóyi
help
kód-oo
money-DEF
to
LOC
‘The man helped the boy financially.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(46)
Kewó ye súŋkútoo báyíndi.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
báyíndi
follow
‘The man followed the girl.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(47)
Kewó ye ŋáníŋo bóndi díndíŋo siŋô kóno.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
ŋáníŋ-o
thorn-DEF
bó-ndi
go_out-CAUS
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
siŋ-ô
foot-DEF
kóno
in
‘The man removed the thorn from the child's foot.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > LOC3
(48)
Kewó ye subóo bula kufôo kóno.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
sub-óo
meat-DEF
bula
settle
kuf-ôo
bag-DEF
kóno
in
‘The man put the meat into the bag.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > LOC3
(49)
Kewó buláta kúlúŋo kóno.
kew-ó
man-DEF
bulá-ta
settle-PF.POS
kúlúŋ-o
boat-DEF
kóno
in
‘The man boarded the ship.’
PUT an Alternation:
Noncausative Alternation
(50)
Kewó ye lóo bulandi saréetoo kóno.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
lóo
wood
bula-ndi
settle-CAUS
saréet-oo
cart-DEF
kóno
in
‘The man loaded the wood into the cart.’
PUT an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(51)
Lóo bulandíta saréetoo kóno.
lóo
wood
bula-ndí-ta
settle-CAUS-PF.POS
saréet-oo
cart-DEF
kóno
in
‘The wood was loaded into the cart.’
PUT an Alternation:
Active/Passive Alternation
(52)
Kewó ye kambaanóo bulandirindi lóo la saréetoo kóno.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
bula-ndi-rindi
settle-CAUS-CAUS
lóo
wood
la
OBL
saréet-oo
cart-DEF
kóno
in
‘The man made the boy load the wood into the cart.’
PUT an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(53)
Kewó buláta súŋkútoo nóoma.
kew-ó
man-DEF
bulá-ta
settle-PF.POS
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
nóoma
on_the_track
‘The man followed the girl.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2+nooma
(54)
Kewô hákíloo buláta kambaanóo la.
kew-ô
man-DEF
hákíl-oo
mind-DEF
bulá-ta
settle-PF.POS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man remembered the boy.’
PUT the Verb form bula (1)
(55)
Musóo ye kewô hákíloo bulandi kambaanóo la.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kew-ô
man-DEF
hákíl-oo
mind-DEF
bula-ndi
settle-CAUS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
la
OBL
‘The woman reminded the man of the boy.’
PUT an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(56)
Kewó ye kambaanóo bula dookúwo to.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
bula
settle
dookúw-o
work-DEF
to
LOC
‘The man made the boy work.’
PUT the Verb form bula (1)
(57)
Kewó ye tooñáa fo kambaanóo ye.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
tooñáa
truth.DEF
fo
tell
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
BEN
‘The man told the truth to the boy.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+ye
(58)
Tooñâa fóta kambaanóo ye.
tooñâa
truth.DEF
fó-ta
tell-PF.POS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
BEN
‘The truth was told to the boy.’
TALK an Alternation:
Active/Passive Alternation
(59)
Musóo ye kewô fóoríndi tooñáa la kambaanóo ye.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kew-ô
man-DEF
fóo-ríndi
tell-CAUS
tooñáa
truth.DEF
la
OBL
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
BEN
‘The woman made the man tell the truth to the boy.’
TALK an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 2
(60)
Kewó ka Mandinkakáŋo fo.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ka
HAB.POS
Mandinka-káŋ-o
Mandinka-language-DEF
fo
speaks
‘The man speaks Mandinka.’
TALK the Verb form
(61)
Kewó ye kambaanóo (la kúmoo) fó musóo ye.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
la
GEN
kúm-oo
word-DEF
tell
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
BEN
‘The man talked to the woman about the boy.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+ye
(62)
Kewó ye a fó kambaanóo ye kó 'haní'.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
a
3SG
say
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
QUOT
'haní'
'no'
‘The man said 'no' to the boy.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+ye
(63)
Kambaanóo ye kewô dáani kódoo la.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kew-ô
man-DEF
dáani
ask
kód-oo
money-DEF
la
OBL
‘The boy asked the man for money.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(64)
Kambaanóo ye kódoo dáani kewô búlu.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kód-oo
money-DEF
dáani
ask
kew-ô
man-DEF
búlu
POSS
‘The boy asked the man for money.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Object/Oblique Permutation
(65)
Kewô sáríta.
kew-ô
man-DEF
sárí-ta
scream-PF.POS
‘The man screamed.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1 > V ( > LOC2)
(66)
Kewó ye a dímmúsoo too laa Ámi la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
a
3SG
dímmús-oo
daughter-DEF
too
name
laa
put
Ámi
Amy
la
OBL
‘The man called his daughter Amy.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(67)
Kewô sáríta súŋkútoo kaŋ.
kew-ô
man-DEF
sárí-ta
shout-PF.POS
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The man shouted to the girl.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1 > V ( > LOC2)
(68)
Kewô sáríta súŋkútoo tóo ti.
kew-ô
man-DEF
sárí-ta
shout-PF.POS
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
tóo
name.DEF
ti
ESS
‘The man shouted the girl's name.’
SCREAM an Alternation:
Oblique/Object Alternation
(69)
Kewó ye súŋkútoo tôo sári.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
tôo
name.DEF
sári
shout
‘The man shouted the girl's name.’
SCREAM an Alternation:
Oblique/Object Alternation
(70)
Musóo ye féŋolu duŋ díndíŋo la.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
féŋ-o-lu
thing-DEF-PL
duŋ
put_on
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
la
OBL
‘The woman dressed the child.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(71)
Musóo ye kurutóo duŋ díndíŋo la.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kurut-óo
trousers-DEF
duŋ
put_on
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
la
OBL
‘The woman put trousers on the child.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(72)
Díndíŋo ye kurutóo duŋ.
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kurut-óo
trousers-DEF
duŋ
put_on
‘The child put on trousers.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Antipassive Middle
(73)
Díndíŋo ye a la féŋolu duŋ.
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
ye
PF.POS
a
3SG
la
GEN
féŋ-o-lu
thing-DEF-PL
duŋ
put_on
‘The child dressed.’
DRESS the Verb form duŋ (1)
(74)
Díndíŋo ye í duŋ.
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
ye
PF.POS
í
REFL
duŋ
put_on
‘The child dressed.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Antipassive Middle
(75)
Musóo ye díndíŋo dundirindi kurtóo la.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
dun-dirindi
put_on-CAUS
kurt-óo
trousers-DEF
la
OBL
‘The woman made the child put on trousers.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 2
(76)
Kewó ye a booráa lii.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
a
3SG
booráa
beard.DEF
lii
shave
‘The man shaved (his beard).’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(77)
Jumáa le ye í lii?
jumáa
who
le
FOC
ye
PF.POS
í
REFL
lii
shave
‘Who shaved you?’
SHAVE (a body part/person) the Verb form líi
(78)
Kewó ye búŋo loo biríkoo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
búŋ-o
house-DEF
loo
erect
birík-oo
brick-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man built the house with bricks.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(79)
Kewó loóta.
kew-ó
man-DEF
loó-ta
stand-PF.POS
‘The man stood up / stopped.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Noncausative Alternation
(80)
Kewó ye í loo.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
í
REFL
loo
stand
‘The man stood up / stopped.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Intransitive/Middle Alternation
(81)
Musóo ye kulúŋo londi.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kulúŋ-o
mortar-DEF
lo-ndi
stand-CAUS
‘The woman put the mortar in standing position.’
BUILD the Verb form loo
(82)
Moólu ye túlúŋo loo.
moó-lu
person.DEF-PL
ye
PF.POS
túlúŋ-o
dance-DEF
loo
organize
‘The people organized a dance.’
BUILD the Verb form loo
(83)
Búŋo loóta.
búŋ-o
house-DEF
loó-ta
erect-PF.POS
‘The house was built.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Active/Passive Alternation
(84)
Kewó boyíta yíroo sánto, a káŋo kátíta.
kew-ó
man-DEF
boyí-ta
fall-PF.POS
yír-oo
tree-DEF
sánto
on_top
a
3SG
káŋ-o
neck-DEF
kátí-ta
break-PF.POS
‘The man fell from the tree and broke his neck.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(85)
Kambaanóo ye dokôo káti.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
dok-ôo
stick-DEF
káti
break
‘The boy broke the stick.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(86)
Kewó ye a ñâa káti.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
a
3SG
ñâa
eye.DEF
káti
break
‘The man blinked.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
1 > V
(87)
Musóo ye díndíŋolu tu súwo kóno.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
díndíŋ-o-lu
child-DEF-PL
tu
leave
súw-o
house-DEF
kóno
in
‘The woman left the children in the house.’
REMAIN an Alternation:
Causative Alternation
(88)
Musukéebaa fula túta saatéwo to.
musu-kéebaa
woman-old
fula
two
tú-ta
remain-PF.POS
saatéw-o
village-DEF
to
LOC
‘Two old women remained in the village.’
REMAIN a Coding frame:
1 > V > LOC2
(89)
A túta jee musukéebaa fula (la).
a
3SG
tú-ta
remain-PF.POS
jee
there
musu-kéebaa
woman-old
fula
two
la
OBL
‘There remained two old women.’
REMAIN an Alternation:
Subject/Oblique Alternation
(90)
Kambaanóo ye palantéeroo teyi beróo la.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
palantéer-oo
window-DEF
teyi
break
ber-óo
stone-DEF
la
OBL
‘The boy broke the window with the stone.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(91)
Kíloo teyíta.
kíl-oo
egg-DEF
teyí-ta
break-PF.POS
‘The egg broke.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Noncausative Alternation
(92)
Kewô bóta saatéwo to.
kew-ô
man-DEF
bó-ta
leave-PF.POS
saatéw-o
village-DEF
to
LOC
‘The man left the village.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1 > V > LOC2
(93)
Kullíimaarôo bóta.
kullíimaar-ôo
rainbow-DEF
bó-ta
go_out-PF.POS
‘A rainbow appeared.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1 > V
(94)
Kewó ye a lá dendikóo bo.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
a
3SG
GEN
dendik-óo
shirt-DEF
bo
take_off
‘The man took off his shirt.’
APPEAR an Alternation:
Causative Alternation
(95)
Kewó ye ŋáníŋo bóndi a siŋô kóno.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
ŋáníŋ-o
thorn-DEF
bó-ndi
go_out-CAUS
a
3SG
siŋ-ô
foot-DEF
kóno
in
‘The man removed the thorn from his foot.’
LEAVE an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(96)
Kewó ye saatéwo bula.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
saatéw-o
village-DEF
bula
abandon
‘The man left the village (i.e. he does not live in the village anymore).’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(97)
Kewó ye dolóo bula.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
dol-óo
wine-DEF
bula
abandon
‘The man stopped drinking.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(98)
Kewó ye lóo laa saréetoo kaŋ.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
lóo
wood.DEF
laa
lay
saréet-oo
cart-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The man put/loaded the wood on the cart.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > LOC3
(99)
Kewó ye mbajóo laa díndíŋo kaŋ.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
mbaj-óo
blanket-DEF
laa
lay
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The man put a blanket on the child.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > LOC3
(100)
Kewó ye í laa laaráŋo kaŋ.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
í
REFL
laa
lay
laaráŋ-o
bed-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The man lay down on the bed.’
LOAD the Verb form láa (1)
(101)
Kewó ye baramatôo lándi laaráŋo kaŋ.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
baramatôo
wounded_person
lá-ndi
lie-CAUS
laaráŋ-o
bed-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The man laid the wounded person on the bed.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(102)
Kewó ye kambaanôo láaríndi lóo la saréetoo kaŋ.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
láa-ríndi
lay-CAUS
lóo
wood.DEF
la
OBL
saréet-oo
cart-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The man made the boy load the wood on the cart.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 2
(103)
Kewó ye musóolu lándíríndi baramatóo la laaráŋo kaŋ.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
mus-óo-lu
woman-DEF-PL
lá-ndí-ríndi
lie-CAUS-CAUS
baramatóo
wounded_person.DEF
la
OBL
laaráŋ-o
bed-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The man made the women lay the wounded person on the bed.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(104)
Kewó ye kitáaboo ke táabúloo kaŋ.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
ke
put
táabúl-oo
table-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The man put the book on the table.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > LOC3
(105)
Musóo ye dendikóolu ke kúnéwo kóno.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
dendik-óo-lu
clothes-DEF-PL
ke
put
kúnéw-o
chest-DEF
kóno
in
‘The woman put the clothes in the chest.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > LOC3
(106)
Kambaanóo ye saá faa faŋó la.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
saá
snake.DEF
faa
kill
faŋ-ó
cutlass-DEF
la
OBL
‘The boy killed the snake with a cutlass.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(107)
Saajíyo faáta.
saajíy-o
sheep-DEF
faá-ta
kill/die-PF.POS
‘The sheep died / was killed.’
DIE an Alternation:
Active/Passive Alternation
(108)
Kewó ye a díŋo faarindi saajíyo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
a
3SG
díŋ-o
son-DEF
faa-rindi
kill-CAUS
saajíy-o
sheep-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man made his son kill the sheep.’
KILL an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 2
(109)
Kewó saáta.
kew-ó
man-DEF
saá-ta
die-PF.POS
‘The man died.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1 > V
(110)
Kambaanóo ye saâ búsa fáloo la.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
saâ
snake.DEF
búsa
hit/beat
fál-oo
stick-DEF
la
OBL
‘The boy hit / beat the snake with a stick.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(111)
Kewó ye tiyôo búsa.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
tiy-ôo
peanuts-DEF
búsa
hit/beat
‘The man threshed the peanuts.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(112)
Tiyôo búsáta.
tiy-ôo
peanuts-DEF
búsá-ta
hit/beat-PF.POS
‘The peanuts were threshed.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Active/Passive Alternation
(113)
Kambaanóo ye saá maa fáloo la.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
saá
snake.DEF
maa
touch
fál-oo
stick-DEF
la
OBL
‘The boy touched the snake with a stick.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(114)
Musóo ye subóo kuntu muróo la.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
sub-óo
meat-DEF
kuntu
cut
mur-óo
knife-DEF
la
OBL
‘The woman cut the meat with a knife.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(115)
Subóo kuntúta.
sub-óo
meat-DEF
kuntú-ta
cut-PF.POS
‘The meat was cut.’
CUT an Alternation:
Active/Passive Alternation
(116)
Kewó ye ñantáŋo teyi faŋó la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
ñantáŋ-o
thatching_grass-DEF
teyi
cut
faŋ-ó
cutlass-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man cut thatching-grass with a cutlass.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(117)
Kewó ye kitáaboo taa kambaanôo búlu.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
taa
take
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
búlu
POSS
‘The man took the book from the boy.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+bulu
(118)
Musóo ye kódoo maabo kewó ma.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kód-oo
money-DEF
maabo
hide
kew-ó
man-DEF
ma
OBL
‘The woman hid the money from the man.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+ma
(119)
Musóo ye díndíŋo maabondi kewó ma.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
maabo-ndi
hide-CAUS
kew-ó
man-DEF
ma
OBL
‘The woman hid the child from the man.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(120)
Musóo ye díndíŋo maaborindi kódoo la kewó ma.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
maabo-rindi
hide-CAUS
kód-oo
money-DEF
la
OBL
kew-ó
man-DEF
ma
OBL
‘The woman made the child hide the money from the man.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 2
(121)
Kód-oo maabó-ta kew-ó ma.
kód-oo
money-DEF
maabó-ta
hide-PF.POS
kew-ó
man-DEF
ma
OBL
‘The money was hidden from the man.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Active/Passive Alternation
(122)
Díndíŋo maabóta kewó ma.
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
maabó-ta
hide-PF.POS
kew-ó
man-DEF
ma
OBL
‘The child hid from the man.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Noncausative Alternation
(123)
Díndíŋo ye í maabo kewó ma.
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
ye
PF.POS
í
REFL
maabo
hide
kew-ó
man-DEF
ma
OBL
‘The child hid from the man.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Intransitive/Middle Alternation
(124)
Kewó ye natáaloo yitandi musóo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
natáal-oo
picture-DEF
yitandi
show
mus-óo
woman-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man showed the picture to the woman.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(125)
Natáaloo yitandíta musóo la.
natáal-oo
picture-DEF
yitandí-ta
show-PF.POS
mus-óo
woman-DEF
la
OBL
‘The picture was shown to the woman.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Active/Passive Alternation
(126)
Kewó ye díndíŋo yitandirindi natáaloo la musóo ye.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
yitandi-rindi
show-CAUS
natáal-oo
picture-DEF
la
OBL
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
BEN
‘The man made the child show the picture to the woman.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 2
(127)
Karammóo ye kitáaboo díi kambaanóo la.
karammóo
teacher.DEF
ye
PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
díi
give
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
la
OBL
‘The teacher gave the book to the boy.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(128)
Kitáaboo díita kambaanóo la.
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
díi-ta
give-PF.POS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
la
OBL
‘The book was given to the boy.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Active/Passive Alternation
(129)
Karammóo ye kambaanóo so kitáaboo la.
karammóo
teacher
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
so
give
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
la
OBL
‘The teacher gave the book to the boy.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(130)
Kambaanóo ye batáayoo kíi a karammóo ye.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
batáay-oo
letter-DEF
kíi
send
a
3SG
karammóo
teacher.DEF
ye
BEN
‘The boy sent a letter to his teacher.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+ye
(131)
Súŋkútoo yé laríñcoo wóto.
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
PF.POS
laríñc-oo
orange-DEF
wóto
peel
‘The girl peeled the orange.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(132)
Kambaanóo ye kitáaboo samba karambúŋo to.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
samba
bring/carry
karambúŋ-o
school-DEF
to
LOC
‘The boy brought/carried the book to the school.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > LOC3
(133)
Kambaanóo ye kitáaboo samba a karammóo ye.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
samba
bring/carry
a
3SG
karammóo
teacher.DEF
ye
BEN
‘The boy brought/carried the book to his teacher.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > LOC3
(134)
Kambaanóo ye kitáaboo sambá naŋ a karammóo ye.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
sambá
bring/carry
naŋ
CTRP
a
3SG
karammóo
teacher.DEF
ye
BEN
‘The boy brought the book to his teacher.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > LOC3
(135)
Kewô táata.
kew-ô
man-DEF
táa-ta
go-PF.POS
‘The man went away.’
GO a Coding frame:
1 > V > LOC2
(136)
Kewô táata kúŋkoo to.
kew-ô
man-DEF
táa-ta
go-PF.POS
kúŋk-oo
field-DEF
to
LOC
‘The man went to the field.’
GO a Coding frame:
1 > V > LOC2
(137)
Kambaanôo táata kitáaboo ti karambúŋo to.
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
táa-ta
go-PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
ti
with
karambúŋ-o
school-DEF
to
LOC
‘The boy carried the book to school.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2+ti > LOC3
(138)
Kewó naáta saatéwo to.
kew-ó
man-DEF
naá-ta
come-PF.POS
saatéw-o
village-DEF
to
LOC
‘The man came to the village.’
COME (2) a Coding frame:
1 > V > LOC2
(139)
Kambaanóo naáta kitáaboo ti a karammóo ye.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
naá-ta
come-PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
ti
with
a
3SG
karammóo
teacher.DEF
ye
BEN
‘The boy brought the book to his teacher.’
BRING an Alternation:
Postposition Incorporation
(140)
Kambaanóo naáta kitáaboo ti karambúŋo to.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
naá-ta
come-PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
ti
with
karambúŋ-o
school-DEF
to
LOC
‘The boy brought the book to school.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2+ti > 3+ye
(141)
Kambaanóo ye kitáaboo naati a karammóo ye.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
naa-ti
come-with
a
3SG
karammóo
teacher.DEF
ye
BEN
‘The boy brought the book to his teacher.’
BRING an Alternation:
Postposition Incorporation
(142)
Kambaanóo ye kitáaboo naati karambúŋo to.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
naa-ti
come-with
karambúŋ-o
school-DEF
to
LOC
‘The boy brought the book to school.’
BRING an Alternation:
Postposition Incorporation
(143)
Kambaanóo ye berôo fáyi palantéeroo kaŋ.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
ber-ôo
stone-DEF
fáyi
throw
palantéer-oo
window-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The boy threw the stone into the window.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > LOC3
(144)
Kambaanóo ye palantéeroo búŋ beróo la.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
palantéer-oo
window-DEF
búŋ
aim
ber-óo
stone-DEF
la
OBL
‘The boy threw the stone into the window.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(145)
Kúmbúrúŋo ye díndíŋo buŋ.
kúmbúrúŋ-o
bee-DEF
ye
PF.POS
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
buŋ
sting
‘A bee stung the child.’
THROW the Verb form búŋ
(146)
Kewó ye suwó siti yíroo bála julóo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
suw-ó
horse-DEF
siti
tie
yír-oo
tree-DEF
bála
in_contact
jul-óo
rope-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man tied the horse to the tree with a rope.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+bala > 4+la
(147)
Suwó sitíta yíroo bála.
suw-ó
horse-DEF
sití-ta
tie-PF.POS
yír-oo
tree-DEF
bála
in_contact
‘The horse was tied to a tree.’
TIE an Alternation:
Active/Passive Alternation
(148)
Kewó ye kambaanóo sitirindi suwó la yíroo bála.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
siti-rindi
tie-CAUS
suw-ó
horse-DEF
la
OBL
yír-oo
tree-DEF
bála
in_contact
‘The man made the boy tie the horse to the tree.’
TIE an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 2
(149)
Kewó ye jíyo boŋ baŋkóo to.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
jíy-o
water-DEF
boŋ
pour
baŋk-óo
ground-DEF
to
LOC
‘The man poured the water on the ground.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > LOC3
(150)
Jíyo bońta baŋkóo to.
jíy-o
water-DEF
boń-ta
pour-PF.POS
baŋk-óo
ground-DEF
to
LOC
‘The water was poured on the ground.’
POUR an Alternation:
Active/Passive Alternation
(151)
Kewó ye jíyo soo wéeroo kóno.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
jíy-o
water-DEF
soo
pour
wéer-oo
glass-DEF
kóno
in
‘The man poured the water into the glass.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+kóno
(152)
Kewó ye musóo soorindi jíyo la wéeroo kóno.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
mus-óo
woman-DEF
soo-rindi
pour-CAUS
jíy-o
water-DEF
la
OBL
wéer-oo
glass-DEF
kóno
in
‘The man made the woman pour the water into the glass.’
POUR an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 2
(153)
Kewó ye díndíŋo múura mbajóo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
múura
cover
mbaj-óo
blanket-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man covered the child with the blanket.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(154)
Kewó ye bootôo fándi maanóo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
boot-ôo
bag-DEF
fá-ndi
be_full-CAUS
maan-óo
rice-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man filled the bag with rice.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(155)
Bootôo fándíta maanóo la.
boot-ôo
bag-DEF
fá-ndí-ta
be_full-CAUS-PF.POS
maan-óo
rice-DEF
la
OBL
‘The bag was filled with rice.’
FILL an Alternation:
Active/Passive Alternation
(156)
Kewó ye a díŋo fándíríndi bootóo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
a
3SG
díŋ-o
son-DEF
fá-ndí-ríndi
be_full-CAUS-CAUS
boot-óo
bag-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man made his son fill the bag.’
FILL an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 2
(157)
Kewó ye a díŋo fándíríndi maanóo la bootôo kóno.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
a
3SG
díŋ-o
son-DEF
fá-ndí-ríndi
be_full-CAUS-CAUS
maan-óo
rice-DEF
la
OBL
boot-ôo
bag-DEF
kóno
in
‘The man made his son fill the bag with rice.’
FILL an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 2
(158)
Diŋkôo fáata jíyo la.
diŋk-ôo
hole-DEF
fáa-ta
be_full-PF.POS
jíy-o
water-DEF
la
OBL
‘The hole is full of water.’
FILL the Verb form fándi
(159)
Jíyo ye diŋkóo faa.
jíy-o
water-DEF
ye
PF.POS
diŋk-óo
hole-DEF
faa
fill
‘The water filled up the hole.’
FILL the Verb form fándi
(160)
Kewó tootóota.
kew-ó
man-DEF
tootóo-ta
cough-PF.POS
‘The man coughed.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1 > V
(161)
Siisíyo yé kewó tootondi.
siisíy-o
smoke-DEF
PF.POS
kew-ó
man-DEF
tooto-ndi
cough-CAUS
‘The smoke makes the man cough.’
COUGH an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(162)
Kewó seléta koŋkôo sánto.
kew-ó
man-DEF
selé-ta
climb-PF.POS
koŋk-ôo
hill-DEF
sánto
on_top
‘The man climbed up the hill.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1 > V > LOC2
(163)
Kewó ye koŋkóo sele.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
koŋk-óo
hill-DEF
sele
climb
‘The man climbed up the hill.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Oblique/Object Alternation
(164)
Kewó ye kambaanóo selendi suwô sánto.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
sele-ndi
climb-CAUS
suw-ô
horse-DEF
sánto
on.top
‘The man helped the boy get on the horse.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(165)
Díndíŋo boríta.
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
borí-ta
run-PF.POS
‘The child ran (away).’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1 > V
(166)
Kátoo boríta baŋkóo kaŋ.
kát-oo
ball-DEF
borí-ta
run-PF.POS
baŋk-óo
ground-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The ball rolled on the ground.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1 > V
(167)
Díndíŋo ye í bori.
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
ye
PF.POS
í
REFL
bori
run
‘The child ran (away).’
ROLL an Alternation:
Intransitive/Middle Alternation
(168)
Kewó ye suwó bori.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
suw-ó
horse-DEF
bori
ride
‘The man rode the horse.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Causative Alternation
(169)
Kewó ye suwó borindi.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
suw-ó
horse-DEF
bori-ndi
run-CAUS
‘The man rode the horse / made the horse run.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(170)
Díndíŋo siíta siiráŋo kaŋ.
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
sií-ta
sit-PF.POS
siiráŋ-o
chair-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The child sat on the chair.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1 > V > LOC2
(171)
Kewó ye díndíŋo sindi siiráŋo kaŋ.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
si-ndi
sit-CAUS
siiráŋ-o
chair-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The man sat the child on the chair.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(172)
Díndíŋo bárímmaa bé siíriŋ Siicóori.
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
bárímmaa
uncle
LOC.COP
sií-riŋ
sit-RES
Siicóori
Ziguinchor
‘The child's uncle lives in Ziguinchor.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1 > V > LOC2
(173)
Díndíŋo sawúnta.
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
sawún-ta
jump-PF.POS
‘The child jumped.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1 > V > LOC2
(174)
Kewó sawúnta a lá koridaakútoo to.
kew-ó
man-DEF
sawún-ta
move-PF.POS
a
3SG
GEN
koridaa-kút-oo
house-new-DEF
to
LOC
‘The man moved to his new house.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1 > V > LOC2
(175)
Ñaŋkúm-oo sawún-ta siiráŋ-o kaŋ.
ñaŋkúm-oo
cat-DEF
sawún-ta
jump-PF.POS
siiráŋ-o
chair-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The cat jumped on the chair.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1 > V > LOC2
(176)
'File' sawundi 'folder' to!
file
file
sawu-ndi
move-CAUS
folder
folder
to
LOC
‘Transfer the file to a folder!’
JUMP an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(177)
Súŋkútoo yé doŋkilóo laa.
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
PF.POS
doŋkil-óo
song-DEF
la
sing
‘The girl sang (a song).’
TELL the Verb form no verbal counterpart
(178)
Musóo ye taalíŋo laa díndíŋo ye.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
taalíŋ-o
story-DEF
laa
tell
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
ye
BEN
‘The woman told a story to the child.’
TELL the Verb form no verbal counterpart
(179)
Kambaanôo jéléta.
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
jélé-ta
laugh-PF.POS
‘The boy laughed.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1 > V
(180)
Kambaanôo jéléta súŋkútoo la.
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
jélé-ta
laugh-PF.POS
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
la
OBL
‘The boy laughed at the girl.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Oblique/Object Alternation
(181)
Kambaanóo ye súŋkútoo jéle.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
jéle
laugh
‘The boy laughed at the girl.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Oblique/Object Alternation
(182)
Muŋ́ ne yé kambaanoô jéléndi?
muŋ́
what
ne
FOC
PF.POS
kambaan-oô
boy-DEF
jélé-ndi
laugh-CAUS
‘What made the boy laugh?’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(183)
Ŋ́ búloo ka ŋ́ dímiŋ.
ŋ́
1SG
búl-oo
arm-DEF
ka
HAB.POS
ŋ́
1SG
dímiŋ
hurt
‘My arm is hurting.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(184)
Ñiŋ kínoo si í kónoo dímiŋ.
ñiŋ
DEM
kín-oo
food-DEF
si
POT
í
2SG
kón-oo
stomach-DEF
dímiŋ
hurt
‘This food may hurt your stomach.’
FEEL PAIN the Verb form dímiŋ
(185)
Kewó ye ŋ́ búloo dete fó a ye ŋ́ dímíndi.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
ŋ́
1SG
búl-oo
arm-DEF
dete
squeeze
until
a
3SG
ye
PF.POS
ŋ́
1SG
dímí-ndi
hurt-CAUS
‘The man squeezed my arm to the extent that he hurt me.’
FEEL PAIN an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(186)
Díndíŋolu túlúnta.
díndíŋ-o-lu
child-DEF-PL
túlún-ta
play-PF.POS
‘The children played.’
PLAY the Verb form túluŋ
(187)
Kewó túlúnta a káŋo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
túlún-ta
play-PF.POS
a
3SG
káŋ-o
word-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man did not keep his word (lit. played with his word).’
PLAY an Alternation:
Oblique/Object Alternation
(188)
Kewó ye musôo túluŋ.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
mus-ôo
woman-DEF
túluŋ
play
‘The man behaved frivolously towards the woman.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Oblique/Object Alternation
(189)
Musóo ye díndíŋolu túlúndi.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
díndíŋ-o-lu
child-DEF-PL
túlú-ndi
play-CAUS
‘The woman made the children play / played with the children.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(190)
Kewó sunúta.
kew-ó
man-DEF
sunú-ta
be_sad-PF.POS
‘The man got sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1 > V
(191)
Ñiŋ kúmoo yé kewó sunu.
ñiŋ
DEM
kúm-oo
word-DEF
PF.POS
kew-ó
man-DEF
sunu
make_sad
‘These words made the man sad.’
BE SAD an Alternation:
Causative Alternation
(192)
Musóo la saayáa ye kewó sunundi.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
la
GEN
saayáa
death.DEF
ye
PF.POS
kew-ó
man-DEF
sunu-ndi
be_sad-CAUS
‘The woman's death made the man sad.’
BE SAD an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(193)
Díndíŋolu kóŋkóta.
díndíŋ-o-lu
child-DEF-PL
kóŋkó-ta
be_hungry-PF.POS
‘The children got hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1 > V
(194)
Musóo ye díndíŋolu kóŋkóndi.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
díndíŋ-o-lu
child-DEF-PL
kóŋkó-ndi
be_hungry-CAUS
‘The woman starved the children.’
BE HUNGRY an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(195)
Kúlúŋo túunénta bâa kóno.
kúlúŋ-o
boat-DEF
túunén-ta
sink-PF.POS
bâa
river.DEF
kóno
in
‘The boat sank into the river.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1 > V
(196)
Saatéwo janíta.
saatéw-o
village-DEF
janí-ta
burn-PF.POS
‘The village burned / was burnt.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1 > V
(197)
Jáwoolu yé saatéwo jani.
jáw-oo-lu
enemy-DEF-PL
PF.POS
saatéw-o
village-DEF
jani
burn
‘The enemies burned the village.’
BURN an Alternation:
Causative Alternation
(198)
Dendikóo jaáta tilóo la.
dendik-óo
shirt-DEF
jaá-ta
be_dry-PF.POS
til-óo
sun-DEF
la
OBL
‘The shirt dried up in the sun.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1 > V
(199)
Tilóo ye dendikóo jandi.
til-óo
sun-DEF
ye
PF.POS
dendik-óo
shirt-DEF
ja-ndi
be_dry-CAUS
‘The sun dried up the shirt.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(200)
Musóo ye tiyóo sii beróo la.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
tiy-óo
peanut-DEF
sii
grind
ber-óo
stone-DEF
la
OBL
‘The woman ground the peanuts with a stone.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(201)
Súŋkútoo ye kíníjólóndáŋo kóŋkoŋ táabúloo kaŋ.
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kíníjólóndáŋ-o
crumbs-DEF
kóŋkoŋ
wipe
táabúl-oo
table-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The girl wiped the crumbs from the table.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > LOC3
(202)
Súŋkútoo ye táabúloo fíta.
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
ye
PF.POS
táabúl-oo
table-DEF
fíta
wipe
‘The girl wiped the table.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(203)
Kewó ye diŋkóo siŋ.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
diŋk-óo
hole-DEF
siŋ
dig
‘The man dug a hole.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(204)
Kewó ye ñambóo siŋ.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
ñamb-óo
cassava-DEF
siŋ
dig
‘The man dug for cassava.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(205)
Kewólu yé wotóo ñori.
kew-ó-lu
man-DEF-PL
PF.POS
wot-óo
car-DEF
ñori
push
‘The men pushed the car.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(206)
Díndíŋo ñoríta.
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
ñorí-ta
move-PF.POS
‘The child moved (out of the way).’
PUSH an Alternation:
Noncausative Alternation
(207)
Ñáatóŋkoo yé beŋó ñorindi.
ñáatóŋk-oo
president-DEF
PF.POS
beŋ-ó
meeting-DEF
ñori-ndi
move-CAUS
‘The president postponed the meeting.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(208)
Kambaanóo ye kitáaboo suuñaa a karammôo búlu.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
suuñaa
steal
a
3SG
karammôo
teacher.DEF
búlu
POSS
‘The boy stole the book from his teacher.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+bulu
(209)
Kambaanóo ye a karammóo suuñaa kitáaboo la.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
a
3SG
karammóo
teacher.DEF
suuñaa
steal
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
la
OBL
‘The boy stole the book from his teacher.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Object/Oblique Permutation
(210)
Kewó ye kambáanoo nikindi wotóo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambáan-oo
boy-DEF
niki-ndi
learn-CAUS
wot-óo
car-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man taught driving to the boy.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(211)
Kambaanóo ye wotóo nikiŋ.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
wot-óo
car-DEF
nikiŋ
learn
‘The boy learned driving.’
TEACH the Verb form nikindi
(212)
Kewó ye kambaanóo karandi Mandinkakáŋo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
kara-ndi
learn-CAUS
Mandinka-káŋ-o
Mandinka-language-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man taught Mandinka to the boy.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(213)
Kewó ye Mandinkakáŋo karandi kambaanóo ye.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
Mandinka-káŋ-o
Mandinka-language-DEF
kara-ndi
learn-CAUS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
BEN
‘The man taught Mandinka to the boy.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Object/Oblique Permutation
(214)
Kambaanóo ye Mandinkakáŋo karaŋ.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
Mandinka-káŋ-o
Mandinka-language-DEF
karaŋ
learn
‘The boy learned Mandinka.’
TEACH the Verb form karandi
(215)
Ñiŋ́ kewó karánta báake.
ñiŋ́
DEM
kew-ó
man-DEF
karán-ta
learn-PF.POS
báake
very
‘This man is a very learned person.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Deobjective Alternation
(216)
Kambaanóo ye maakáŋo moyi.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
maakáŋ-o
noise-DEF
moyi
hear
‘The boy heard a noise.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(217)
Wo kúwo moyíta.
wo
DEM
kúw-o
matter-DEF
moyí-ta
hear-PF.POS
‘The people heard about that matter. / lit. This matter was heard.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Active/Passive Alternation
(218)
Musukéebaa búka moyiróo ke.
musu-kéebaa
woman-old
búka
HAB.NEG
moyi-r-óo
hear-ANTIP-DEF
ke
do
‘The old woman does not hear.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Antipassive Middle
(219)
Kewó ye musóo moyindi muŋ́ ne la?
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
mus-óo
woman-DEF
moyi-ndi
hear-CAUS
muŋ́
what
ne
FOC
la
OBL
‘What did the man promise the woman?’
HEAR an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(220)
Kewó ye musóo moyirindi muŋ́ ne la?
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
mus-óo
woman-DEF
moyi-rindi
hear-CAUS
muŋ́
what
ne
FOC
la
OBL
‘What did the man tell the woman?’
HEAR an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 2
(221)
Musóo ye subôo tábi.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
sub-ôo
meat-DEF
tábi
cook
‘The woman cooked the meat.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(222)
Subôo tábíta.
sub-ôo
meat-DEF
tábí-ta
cook-PF.POS
‘The meat was cooked.’
COOK an Alternation:
Active/Passive Alternation
(223)
Musóo ye tábíroo ke.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
tábí-r-oo
cook-ANTIP-DEF
ke
do
‘The woman did the cooking.’
COOK an Alternation:
Antipassive Middle
(224)
Kewó ye musôo tábíríndi subôo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
mus-ôo
woman-DEF
tábí-ríndi
cook-CAUS
sub-ôo
meat-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man made the woman cook the meat.’
COOK an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 2
(225)
Jíyo fájíta.
jíy-o
water-DEF
fájí-ta
boil-PF.POS
‘The water boiled.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1 > V
(226)
Musóo ye jíyo fájíndi.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
jíy-o
water-DEF
fájí-ndi
boil-CAUS
‘The woman boiled the water.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(227)
Musôo fúntíta súwo kóno.
mus-ôo
woman-DEF
fúntí-ta
go_out-PF.POS
súw-o
house-DEF
kóno
in
‘The woman went out from the house.’
APPEAR the Verb form fúnti
(228)
Károo fúntíta.
kár-oo
moon-DEF
fúntí-ta
go_out-PF.POS
‘The moon appeared.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1 > V
(229)
Kewó ye murôo fúntíndi bootôo kóno.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
mur-ôo
knife-DEF
fúntí-ndi
go_out-CAUS
boot-ôo
bag-DEF
kóno
in
‘The man took the knife out of the bag.’
APPEAR an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(230)
Kewó jaŋkáríta.
kew-ó
man-DEF
jaŋkárí-ta
be_ill-PF.POS
‘The man fell ill.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
1 > V
(231)
Dómóríjáwoo yé kewó jankarindi.
dómórí-jáw-oo
food-bad-DEF
PF.POS
kew-ó
man-DEF
jankari-ndi
be_ill-CAUS
‘The bad food made the man ill.’
BE ILL an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(232)
Musóo kumbóota.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
kumbóo-ta
cry-PF.POS
‘The woman cried.’
CRY a Coding frame:
1 > V
(233)
Musóo ka a keemáa kumboo.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ka
HAB.POS
a
3SG
keemáa
husband.DEF
kumboo
cry
‘The woman laments the loss of her husband.’
CRY an Alternation:
Oblique/Object Alternation
(234)
Muŋ́ ne yé musóo kumbondi?
muŋ́
what
ne
FOC
PF.POS
mus-óo
woman-DEF
kumbo-ndi
cry-CAUS
‘What made the woman cry?’
CRY an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(235)
Yíroo boyíta baŋkóo kaŋ.
zír-oo
tree-DEF
boyí-ta
fall-PF.POS
baŋk-óo
ground-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The tree fell on the ground.’
FALL a Coding frame:
1 > V ( > LOC2)
(236)
Kewó ye yíroo boyi.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
yír-oo
tree-DEF
boyi
fall
‘The man cut down the tree.’
FALL an Alternation:
Causative Alternation
(237)
Kewó ye yíroo boyindi.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
yír-oo
tree-DEF
boyi-ndi
fall-CAUS
‘The man cut down the tree.’
FALL an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(238)
Bándíyolu boyíta julóolu kaŋ.
bándíy-o-lu
bandit-DEF-PL
boyí-ta
fall-PF.POS
jul-óo-lu
merchant-DEF-PL
kaŋ
on
‘The bandits attacked (lit. fell on) the merchants.’
FALL an Alternation:
Postposition Incorporation
(239)
Bándíyolu yé julóolu boyiŋkaŋ.
bándíy-o-lu
bandit-DEF-PL
PF.POS
jul-óo-lu
merchant-DEF-PL
boyiŋ-kaŋ
fall-on
‘The bandits attacked the merchants.’
FALL an Alternation:
Postposition Incorporation
(240)
Máŋkoo jolónta baŋkóo to.
máŋk-oo
mango-DEF
jolón-ta
fall-PF.POS
baŋk-óo
ground-DEF
to
LOC
‘The mango fell on the ground.’
FALL a Coding frame:
1 > V ( > LOC2)
(241)
Kewó ye muróo joloŋ.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
mur-óo
knife-DEF
joloŋ
let_fall
‘The man let the knife fall.’
FALL an Alternation:
Causative Alternation
(242)
Sulóo ye í joloŋ yíroo sánto.
sul-óo
monkey-DEF
ye
PF.POS
í
REFL
joloŋ
let_fall
yír-oo
tree-DEF
sánto
on_top
‘The monkey let itself fall from the tree.’
FALL the Verb form joloŋ
(243)
Samâa búsáta baŋkóo kaŋ.
samâa
rain.DEF
búsá-ta
fall_violently-PF.POS
baŋk-óo
ground-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The rain fell on the ground violently.’
FALL a Coding frame:
1 > V > LOC2
(244)
Samáa ye baŋkôo búsa.
samáa
rain.DEF
ye
PF.POS
baŋk-ôo
ground-DEF
búsa
fall_violently_on
‘The rain fell on the ground violently.’
FALL an Alternation:
Oblique/Object Alternation
(245)
Kewó ye laaráŋo dádaa.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
laaráŋ-o
bed-DEF
dádaa
make/repair
‘The man made a bed / repaired the bed.’
MAKE a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(246)
Laaráŋo dádáata.
laaráŋ-o
bed-DEF
dádáa-ta
make/repair-PF.POS
‘The bed was made / repaired.’
MAKE an Alternation:
Active/Passive Alternation
(247)
Batuutáa ye newó ke sánoo ti.
batuutáa
magician.DEF
ye
PF.POS
new-ó
iron-DEF
ke
transform
sán-oo
gold-DEF
ti
ESS
‘The magician made gold out of iron (lit. changed the iron into gold).’
MAKE a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+ti
(248)
Díndíŋo kéta kewó ti.
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
ké-ta
become-PF.POS
kew-ó
man-DEF
ti
ESS
‘The child became a man.’
MAKE an Alternation:
Noncausative Alternation
(249)
Báamaa yé a díŋo kéndi kewó ti.
báamaa
mother
PF.POS
a
3SG
díŋ-o
son-DEF
ké-ndi
become-CAUS
kew-ó
man-DEF
ti
ESS
‘The mother helped her son become a man.’
MAKE an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(250)
Newô kéta sánoo ti.
new-ô
iron-DEF
ké-ta
become-PF.POS
sán-oo
gold-DEF
ti
ESS
‘The iron changed into gold.’
MAKE an Alternation:
Noncausative Alternation
(251)
Kambaanóo ye kitáaboo soto a karammôo búlu.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
soto
get/have
a
3SG
karammôo
teacher.DEF
búlu
POSS
‘The boy got the book from his teacher.’
GET a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+bulu
(252)
Kambaanóo ye kitáaboo soto.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
soto
get/have
‘The boy got the book / has a book.’
GET a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+bulu
(253)
Ñéwo sotóta le márséwo to bii.
ñéw-o
fish-DEF
sotó-ta
be_available-PF.POS
le
FOC
márséw-o
market-DEF
to
LOC
bii
today
‘There is fish available at the market today.’
GET an Alternation:
Noncausative Alternation
(254)
Kewó ka dáañínoo sotondi dímbáayaa ye.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ka
HAB.POS
dáañín-oo
food-DEF
soto-ndi
be_available-CAUS
dímbáayaa
family
ye
BEN
‘The man provides the family with food. / lit. makes food available for the family.’
GET an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(255)
Musôo bálánta kewó ma dóntóroo la.
mus-ôo
woman-DEF
bálán-ta
refuse-PF.POS
kew-ó
man-DEF
ma
OBL
dóntór-oo
loan-DEF
la
OBL
‘The woman refused the man a loan.’
REFUSE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2+ma 3+la
(256)
Muŋ́ ne yé musôo bálándi dóntóroo la?
muŋ́
what
ne
FOC
PF.POS
mus-ôo
woman-DEF
bálá-ndi
refuse-CAUS
dóntór-oo
loan-DEF
la
OBL
‘What made the woman refuse the loan?’
REFUSE an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(257)
Kewô kúmáta.
kew-ô
man-DEF
kúmá-ta
speak-PF.POS
‘The man spoke.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1 > V ( > 2+ye)
(258)
Kewô kúmáta musóo ye.
kew-ô
man-DEF
kúmá-ta
speak-PF.POS
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
BEN
‘The man talked to the woman.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1 > V ( > 2+ye)
(259)
Tántáŋo kúmáta.
tántáŋ-o
drum-DEF
kúmá-ta
sound-PF.POS
‘The drum sounded.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1 > V ( > 2+ye)
(260)
Kambaanóo ye tántáŋo kúmándi.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
tántáŋ-o
drum-DEF
kúmá-ndi
sound-CAUS
‘The boy sounded the drum.’
TALK an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(261)
Jíyo súmáyáata le.
jíy-o
water-DEF
súmáyáa-ta
be_cold-PF.POS
le
FOC
‘The water is cold.’
BE COLD a Coding frame:
1 > V
(262)
Kewó ye têe súmáyándi janníŋ a bé a mińna.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
têe
tea.DEF
súmáyá-ndi
be_cold-CAUS
janníŋ
before
a
3SG
LOC.COP
a
3SG
miń-na
drink-INF
‘The man let the tea get cold before drinking it.’
BE COLD an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(263)
Loolóo ka ñílísa.
loolóo
star.DEF
ka
HAB.POS
ñílísa
twinkle
‘Stars twinkle.’
TWINKLE a Coding frame:
1 > V
(264)
Ñiŋ báyoo díyáata musóo ye.
ñiŋ
DEM
báy-oo
cloth-DEF
díyáa-ta
be_pleasant-PF.POS
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
BEN
‘The woman likes this cloth.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2+ye
(265)
Kewó ye wulôo báyi súwo kóno.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
wul-ôo
dog-DEF
báyi
chase
súw-o
house-DEF
kóno
in
‘The man chased the dog from the house.’
CHASE a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > LOC3
(266)
Kewó ye mináŋo deema.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
mináŋ-o
deer-DEF
deema
hunt
‘The man hunted deer.’
HUNT (FOR) a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(267)
Kewó ka deemóo ke.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ka
HAB.POS
deem-óo
hunting-DEF
ke
do
‘The man hunts (habitually).’
HUNT (FOR) the Verb form deema
(268)
Kewó ye súŋkútoo fútuu.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
fútuu
marry
‘The man married the girl.’
MARRY a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(269)
Súŋkútoo fútúuta kewó ye.
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
fútúu-ta
marry-PF.POS
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
BEN
‘The girl married the man (lit. was married to the man).’
MARRY an Alternation:
Active/Passive Alternation
(270)
Kambaanóo ye batáayoo karaŋ.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
batáay-oo
letter-DEF
karaŋ
read
‘The boy read the letter.’
READ a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(271)
Kewó ye kambaanóo karandirindi batáayoo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
karan-dirindi
read-CAUS
batáay-oo
letter-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man made the boy read the letter.’
READ an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 2
(272)
Kewó ye kambaanôo kúmándi.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
kúmándi
call
‘The man called the boy.’
CALL a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(273)
Kewó ye kambaanôo kúmándi moo hákílíntáŋo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
kúmándi
call
moo
person
hákílíntáŋ-o
stupid-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man called the boy a fool.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(274)
Faá ye súŋkútoo nii kewó la.
faá
father.DEF
ye
PF.POS
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
nii
offer
kew-ó
man-DEF
la
BEN
‘The father married (lit. offered) the girl to the man.’
OFFER a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(275)
Mus-óo ye kew-ó ñiniŋkaa a kontóŋ-o la.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kew-ó
man-DEF
ñiniŋkaa
ask
a
3SG
kontóŋ-o
surname-DEF
la
OBL
‘The woman asked the man his surname.’
ASK (about) a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > 3+la
(276)
Kewó ye tiyôo sóoli bootôo kóno.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
tiy-ôo
peanuts-DEF
sóoli
cram
boot-ôo
bag-DEF
kóno
in
‘The man crammed the peanuts into the bag.’
CRAM a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V > LOC3
(277)
Kewó ye bootôo sóoli tiyôo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
boot-ôo
bag-DEF
sóoli
stuff
tiy-óo
peanuts-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man stuffed the bag with peanuts.’
CRAM an Alternation:
Object/Oblique Permutation
(278)
Sáñjíyo kéta bii.
sáñjíy-o
rain-DEF
ké-ta
happen-PF.POS
bii
today
‘It rained today.’
DO an Alternation:
Noncausative Alternation
(279)
Kewó ye dookúwo ke.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
dookúw-o
work-DEF
ke
do
‘The man worked (lit. did work).’
DO a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(280)
Dookúwo kéta.
dookúw-o
work-DEF
ké-ta
do-PF.POS
‘The work was done.’
DO an Alternation:
Active/Passive Alternation
(281)
Musóolu teyíta báa la.
mus-óo-lu
woman-DEF-PL
teyí-ta
cross-PF.POS
báa
river
la
OBL
‘The women crossed the river.’
CROSS a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2+la
(282)
Musóolu ye báa teyi.
mus-óo-lu
woman-DEF-PL
ye
PF.POS
báa
river
teyi
cross
‘The women crossed the river.’
CROSS an Alternation:
Oblique/Object Alternation
(283)
Kewó ye musóolu teyindi báa la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
mus-óo-lu
woman-DEF-PL
teyi-ndi
cross-CAUS
báa
river
la
OBL
‘The man conveyed the women across the river.’
CROSS an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(284)
Musôo wúlúuta kambaanóo la.
mus-ôo
woman-DEF
wúlúu-ta
give_birth-PF.POS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
la
OBL
‘The woman gave birth to a boy.’
GIVE BIRTH a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2+la
(285)
Musóo ye kambaanôo wúluu.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
wúluu
give_birth
‘The woman gave birth to a boy.’
GIVE BIRTH an Alternation:
Oblique/Object Alternation
(286)
Kewô wúlúuta Seejó le.
kew-ô
man-DEF
wúlúu-ta
give_birth-PF.POS
Seejó
Sédhiou
le
FOC
‘The man was born in Sédhiou.’
GIVE BIRTH an Alternation:
Active/Passive Alternation
(287)
Wulóo duńta búŋo kóno.
wul-óo
dog-DEF
duń-ta
enter-PF.POS
búŋ-o
house-DEF
kóno
in
‘The dog came into the room.’
ENTER a Coding frame:
1 > V > LOC2
(288)
Kewó ye batáayoo duŋ kíilaa búlu.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
batáay-oo
letter-DEF
duŋ
enter
kíilaa
messenger
búlu
POSS
‘The man handed the letter to the messenger.’
ENTER the Verb form duŋ (2)
(289)
Kewó ye wulóo dundi búŋo kóno.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
wul-óo
dog-DEF
du-ndi
enter-CAUS
búŋ-o
house-DEF
kóno
in
‘The man let the dog come into the room.’
ENTER an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(290)
Nénoo duńta.
nén-oo
cold-DEF
duń-ta
enter-PF.POS
‘It is cold (the weather got cold).’
ENTER the Verb form duŋ (2)
(291)
Kewó ye í fóño.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
í
REFL
fóño
rest
‘The man had a rest.’
REST a Coding frame:
1 > V
(292)
Baramatóo te bálúula.
baramatóo
wounded_person.DEF
te
COP.NEG
bálúu-la
live-INF
‘The injured person will not survive.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1 > V
(293)
Moojámaa ka í báluu senóo le la jaŋ.
moo-jámaa
person-many
ka
HAB.POS
í
REFL
báluu
live
sen-óo
farming-DEF
le
FOC
la
OBL
jaŋ
here
‘Many people live on farming here.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Intransitive/Middle Alternation
(294)
Musóo ka denaanôo bálúndi ninsinónoo la.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ka
HAB.POS
denaan-ôo
baby-DEF
bálú-ndi
live-CAUS
ninsi-nón-oo
cow-milk-DEF
la
OBL
‘The woman feeds the baby on cow milk.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1
(295)
Kewó ye jíyo miŋ.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
jíy-o
water-DEF
miŋ
drink
‘The man drank water.’
DRINK a Coding frame:
1 > 2 > V
(296)
Kewó ye í miŋ jíyo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
í
REFL
miŋ
drink
jíy-o
water-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man drank water.’
DRINK an Alternation:
Antipassive Middle
(297)
Musóo ye kewó mindi bóoroo la.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kew-ó
man-DEF
mi-ndi
drink-CAUS
bóor-oo
medicine-DEF
la
OBL
‘The woman made the man drink the medicine.’
DRINK an Alternation:
Causative Derivation 1