Noncausative Alternation U

Description

The verb has a transitive and an intransitive (noncausative) use; the referent of the subject of the intransitive construction is assigned a semantic role similar to that assigned to the object of the transitive construction, but the intransitive construction does not imply the involvement of a participant with the role assigned to the subject of the transitive construction.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
TEAR farasi N
(1)
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
léeríjámb-oo
page-DEF
fárási
tear
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
bála
in_contact
‘The boy tore the page from the book.’
MEET beŋ N
(3)
kew-ó
man-DEF
niŋ
with
súnkút-oo
girl-DEF
beń-ta
meet-PF.POS
‘The man met the girl. \ Lit. The man with/and the girl met.’
(4)
saatee-móo-lu
village-person.DEF-PL
beń-ta
meet-PF.POS
‘The villagers gathered.’
MEET tara R
(8)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
mus-óo
woman-DEF
tara
meet
márséw-o
market-DEF
to
LOC
‘The man met/found the woman at the market.’
EAT dómo N
(10)
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
ye
PF.POS
mbúur-oo
bread-DEF
dómo
eat
‘The child ate the bread.’
HUG míniŋ
(15)
kew-ó
man-DEF
mínín-ta
wind-PF.POS
mus-óo
woman-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man hugged the woman.’
(17)
nómb-oo
creeper-DEF
mínín-ta
wind-PF.POS
yír-oo
tree-DEF
la
OBL
‘The creeper wound around the tree.’
KNOW lóŋ N
(20)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
loŋ
know
‘The man knows the boy.’
(22)
ñiŋ́
DEM
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
mansaali-jámaa
riddle-many
loŋ
know
‘This man knows many riddles.’
LOOK AT féle N
(23)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
féle
look_at
‘The man looked at the boy.’
SEE N
(24)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
je
see
‘The man saw the boy.’
SMELL súmbu N
(27)
wul-óo
dog-DEF
ye
PF.POS
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
súmbu
smell
‘The dog smelled the child.’
FEAR sílaŋ N
(28)
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
sílán-ta
fear-PF.POS
kew-ó
man-DEF
la
OBL
‘The boy feared the man.’
FRIGHTEN sílándi N
(29)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
sílá-ndi
fear-CAUS
‘The man frightened the boy.’
LIKE lafi N
(30)
kew-ó
man-DEF
lafí-ta
like-PF.POS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man liked the boy.’
(31)
kew-ó
man-DEF
lafí-ta
want-PF.POS
kód-oo
money-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man wants money.’
(33)
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
lafí-ta
like/want-PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
la
OBL
‘The boy wants/likes the book.’
LIKE kanu N
(34)
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
PF.POS
ñiŋ
DEM
báy-oo
cloth-DEF
kanu
like
‘The girl likes this cloth.’
(35)
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
kanu
love
‘The boy loves the girl.’
THINK í míira N
(37)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
í
REFL
míira
think
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
la
GEN
kúw-o
matter-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man thought about the boy.’
SEARCH FOR ñíni N
(38)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
ñíni
search
‘The man searched for the boy.’
WASH kuu N
(39)
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
dendik-óo
shirt-DEF
kuu
wash
‘The woman washed the shirt.’
(40)
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
kuu
wash
‘The woman washed the child.’
HELP máakóyi N
(45)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
máakóyi
help
kód-oo
money-DEF
to
LOC
‘The man helped the boy financially.’
FOLLOW báyíndi N
(46)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
báyíndi
follow
‘The man followed the girl.’
PUT bula (1) M
(48)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
sub-óo
meat-DEF
bula
settle
kuf-ôo
bag-DEF
kóno
in
‘The man put the meat into the bag.’
TALK N
(57)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
tooñáa
truth.DEF
fo
tell
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
BEN
‘The man told the truth to the boy.’
(61)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
la
GEN
kúm-oo
word-DEF
tell
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
BEN
‘The man talked to the woman about the boy.’
(62)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
a
3SG
say
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
QUOT
'haní'
'no'
‘The man said 'no' to the boy.’
ASK FOR dáani N
(63)
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kew-ô
man-DEF
dáani
ask
kód-oo
money-DEF
la
OBL
‘The boy asked the man for money.’
SCREAM sári N
(65)
kew-ô
man-DEF
sárí-ta
scream-PF.POS
‘The man screamed.’
(67)
kew-ô
man-DEF
sárí-ta
shout-PF.POS
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The man shouted to the girl.’
NAME tóo láa N
(66)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
a
3SG
dímmús-oo
daughter-DEF
too
name
laa
put
Ámi
Amy
la
OBL
‘The man called his daughter Amy.’
DRESS duŋ (1) N
(70)
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
féŋ-o-lu
thing-DEF-PL
duŋ
put_on
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
la
OBL
‘The woman dressed the child.’
(71)
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kurut-óo
trousers-DEF
duŋ
put_on
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
la
OBL
‘The woman put trousers on the child.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) líi N
(76)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
a
3SG
booráa
beard.DEF
lii
shave
‘The man shaved (his beard).’
BUILD loo R
(78)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
búŋ-o
house-DEF
loo
erect
birík-oo
brick-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man built the house with bricks.’
BREAK káti
(84)
kew-ó
man-DEF
boyí-ta
fall-PF.POS
yír-oo
tree-DEF
sánto
on_top
a
3SG
káŋ-o
neck-DEF
kátí-ta
break-PF.POS
‘The man fell from the tree and broke his neck.’
(85)
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
dok-ôo
stick-DEF
káti
break
‘The boy broke the stick.’
BREAK teyi (1) R
(90)
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
palantéer-oo
window-DEF
teyi
break
ber-óo
stone-DEF
la
OBL
‘The boy broke the window with the stone.’
LEAVE bó (1)
(92)
kew-ô
man-DEF
bó-ta
leave-PF.POS
saatéw-o
village-DEF
to
LOC
‘The man left the village.’
LEAVE bula (3) N
(96)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
saatéw-o
village-DEF
bula
abandon
‘The man left the village (i.e. he does not live in the village anymore).’
(97)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
dol-óo
wine-DEF
bula
abandon
‘The man stopped drinking.’
LOAD láa (1)
(98)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
lóo
wood.DEF
laa
lay
saréet-oo
cart-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The man put/loaded the wood on the cart.’
(99)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
mbaj-óo
blanket-DEF
laa
lay
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The man put a blanket on the child.’
PUT ké (1) N
(104)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
ke
put
táabúl-oo
table-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The man put the book on the table.’
(105)
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
dendik-óo-lu
clothes-DEF-PL
ke
put
kúnéw-o
chest-DEF
kóno
in
‘The woman put the clothes in the chest.’
REMAIN
(88)
musu-kéebaa
woman-old
fula
two
tú-ta
remain-PF.POS
saatéw-o
village-DEF
to
LOC
‘Two old women remained in the village.’
KILL faa (1) R
(106)
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
saá
snake.DEF
faa
kill
faŋ-ó
cutlass-DEF
la
OBL
‘The boy killed the snake with a cutlass.’
DIE saa N
(109)
kew-ó
man-DEF
saá-ta
die-PF.POS
‘The man died.’
BEAT búsa (1) N
(110)
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
saâ
snake.DEF
búsa
hit/beat
fál-oo
stick-DEF
la
OBL
‘The boy hit / beat the snake with a stick.’
(111)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
tiy-ôo
peanuts-DEF
búsa
hit/beat
‘The man threshed the peanuts.’
TOUCH maa N
(113)
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
saá
snake.DEF
maa
touch
fál-oo
stick-DEF
la
OBL
‘The boy touched the snake with a stick.’
CUT kuntu N
(114)
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
sub-óo
meat-DEF
kuntu
cut
mur-óo
knife-DEF
la
OBL
‘The woman cut the meat with a knife.’
CUT teyi (2) N
(116)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
ñantáŋ-o
thatching_grass-DEF
teyi
cut
faŋ-ó
cutlass-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man cut thatching-grass with a cutlass.’
TAKE taa N
(117)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
taa
take
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
búlu
POSS
‘The man took the book from the boy.’
PEEL wóto N
(131)
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
PF.POS
laríñc-oo
orange-DEF
wóto
peel
‘The girl peeled the orange.’
PEEL bóndi N
(47)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
ŋáníŋ-o
thorn-DEF
bó-ndi
go_out-CAUS
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
siŋ-ô
foot-DEF
kóno
in
‘The man removed the thorn from the child's foot.’
HIDE maabo R
(118)
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kód-oo
money-DEF
maabo
hide
kew-ó
man-DEF
ma
OBL
‘The woman hid the money from the man.’
SHOW yitandi N
(124)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
natáal-oo
picture-DEF
yitandi
show
mus-óo
woman-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man showed the picture to the woman.’
GIVE díi N
(127)
karammóo
teacher.DEF
ye
PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
díi
give
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
la
OBL
‘The teacher gave the book to the boy.’
GIVE N
(129)
karammóo
teacher
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
so
give
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
la
OBL
‘The teacher gave the book to the boy.’
SEND kíi N
(130)
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
batáay-oo
letter-DEF
kíi
send
a
3SG
karammóo
teacher.DEF
ye
BEN
‘The boy sent a letter to his teacher.’
BRING samba N
(132)
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
samba
bring/carry
karambúŋ-o
school-DEF
to
LOC
‘The boy brought/carried the book to the school.’
(133)
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
samba
bring/carry
a
3SG
karammóo
teacher.DEF
ye
BEN
‘The boy brought/carried the book to his teacher.’
(134)
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
sambá
bring/carry
naŋ
CTRP
a
3SG
karammóo
teacher.DEF
ye
BEN
‘The boy brought the book to his teacher.’
GO táa (1) N
(135)
kew-ô
man-DEF
táa-ta
go-PF.POS
‘The man went away.’
(136)
kew-ô
man-DEF
táa-ta
go-PF.POS
kúŋk-oo
field-DEF
to
LOC
‘The man went to the field.’
BRING naa (1) N
(139)
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
naá-ta
come-PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
ti
with
a
3SG
karammóo
teacher.DEF
ye
BEN
‘The boy brought the book to his teacher.’
(140)
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
naá-ta
come-PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
ti
with
karambúŋ-o
school-DEF
to
LOC
‘The boy brought the book to school.’
THROW fáyi N
(143)
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
ber-ôo
stone-DEF
fáyi
throw
palantéer-oo
window-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The boy threw the stone into the window.’
THROW búŋ N
(144)
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
palantéer-oo
window-DEF
búŋ
aim
ber-óo
stone-DEF
la
OBL
‘The boy threw the stone into the window.’
TIE siti N
(146)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
suw-ó
horse-DEF
siti
tie
yír-oo
tree-DEF
bála
in_contact
jul-óo
rope-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man tied the horse to the tree with a rope.’
POUR boŋ N
(149)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
jíy-o
water-DEF
boŋ
pour
baŋk-óo
ground-DEF
to
LOC
‘The man poured the water on the ground.’
POUR soo N
(151)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
jíy-o
water-DEF
soo
pour
wéer-oo
glass-DEF
kóno
in
‘The man poured the water into the glass.’
COVER múura N
(153)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
múura
cover
mbaj-óo
blanket-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man covered the child with the blanket.’
FILL fándi N
(154)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
boot-ôo
bag-DEF
fá-ndi
be_full-CAUS
maan-óo
rice-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man filled the bag with rice.’
COUGH tootoo N
(160)
kew-ó
man-DEF
tootóo-ta
cough-PF.POS
‘The man coughed.’
CLIMB sele N
(162)
kew-ó
man-DEF
selé-ta
climb-PF.POS
koŋk-ôo
hill-DEF
sánto
on_top
‘The man climbed up the hill.’
ROLL bori
(165)
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
borí-ta
run-PF.POS
‘The child ran (away).’
(166)
kát-oo
ball-DEF
borí-ta
run-PF.POS
baŋk-óo
ground-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The ball rolled on the ground.’
LIVE sii N
(170)
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
sií-ta
sit-PF.POS
siiráŋ-o
chair-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The child sat on the chair.’
(172)
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
bárímmaa
uncle
LOC.COP
sií-riŋ
sit-RES
Siicóori
Ziguinchor
‘The child's uncle lives in Ziguinchor.’
JUMP sawuŋ N
(173)
díndíŋ-o
child-DEF
sawún-ta
jump-PF.POS
‘The child jumped.’
(174)
kew-ó
man-DEF
sawún-ta
move-PF.POS
a
3SG
GEN
koridaa-kút-oo
house-new-DEF
to
LOC
‘The man moved to his new house.’
(175)
ñaŋkúm-oo
cat-DEF
sawún-ta
jump-PF.POS
siiráŋ-o
chair-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The cat jumped on the chair.’
TELL no verbal counterpart N
LAUGH jéle N
(179)
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
jélé-ta
laugh-PF.POS
‘The boy laughed.’
FEEL PAIN dímiŋ N
(183)
ŋ́
1SG
búl-oo
arm-DEF
ka
HAB.POS
ŋ́
1SG
dímiŋ
hurt
‘My arm is hurting.’
PLAY túluŋ N
(187)
kew-ó
man-DEF
túlún-ta
play-PF.POS
a
3SG
káŋ-o
word-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man did not keep his word (lit. played with his word).’
BE SAD sunu
(190)
kew-ó
man-DEF
sunú-ta
be_sad-PF.POS
‘The man got sad.’
BE HUNGRY kóŋko N
(193)
díndíŋ-o-lu
child-DEF-PL
kóŋkó-ta
be_hungry-PF.POS
‘The children got hungry.’
SINK túuneŋ N
(195)
kúlúŋ-o
boat-DEF
túunén-ta
sink-PF.POS
bâa
river.DEF
kóno
in
‘The boat sank into the river.’
BURN jani
(196)
saatéw-o
village-DEF
janí-ta
burn-PF.POS
‘The village burned / was burnt.’
BE DRY jaa N
(198)
dendik-óo
shirt-DEF
jaá-ta
be_dry-PF.POS
til-óo
sun-DEF
la
OBL
‘The shirt dried up in the sun.’
GRIND síi N
(200)
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
tiy-óo
peanut-DEF
sii
grind
ber-óo
stone-DEF
la
OBL
‘The woman ground the peanuts with a stone.’
WIPE kóŋkoŋ N
(201)
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kíníjólóndáŋ-o
crumbs-DEF
kóŋkoŋ
wipe
táabúl-oo
table-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The girl wiped the crumbs from the table.’
WIPE fíta N
(202)
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
ye
PF.POS
táabúl-oo
table-DEF
fíta
wipe
‘The girl wiped the table.’
DIG siŋ N
(203)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
diŋk-óo
hole-DEF
siŋ
dig
‘The man dug a hole.’
(204)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
ñamb-óo
cassava-DEF
siŋ
dig
‘The man dug for cassava.’
PUSH ñori
(205)
kew-ó-lu
man-DEF-PL
PF.POS
wot-óo
car-DEF
ñori
push
‘The men pushed the car.’
STEAL suuñaa N
(208)
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
suuñaa
steal
a
3SG
karammôo
teacher.DEF
búlu
POSS
‘The boy stole the book from his teacher.’
TEACH karandi N
(212)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
kara-ndi
learn-CAUS
Mandinka-káŋ-o
Mandinka-language-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man taught Mandinka to the boy.’
TEACH nikindi N
(210)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambáan-oo
boy-DEF
niki-ndi
learn-CAUS
wot-óo
car-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man taught driving to the boy.’
HEAR moyi N
(216)
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
maakáŋ-o
noise-DEF
moyi
hear
‘The boy heard a noise.’
COOK tábi N
(221)
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
sub-ôo
meat-DEF
tábi
cook
‘The woman cooked the meat.’
BOIL fáji N
(225)
jíy-o
water-DEF
fájí-ta
boil-PF.POS
‘The water boiled.’
APPEAR fúnti N
(228)
kár-oo
moon-DEF
fúntí-ta
go_out-PF.POS
‘The moon appeared.’
BE ILL jaŋkári N
(230)
kew-ó
man-DEF
jaŋkárí-ta
be_ill-PF.POS
‘The man fell ill.’
CRY kumboo N
(232)
mus-óo
woman-DEF
kumbóo-ta
cry-PF.POS
‘The woman cried.’
FALL boyi
(235)
zír-oo
tree-DEF
boyí-ta
fall-PF.POS
baŋk-óo
ground-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The tree fell on the ground.’
(238)
bándíy-o-lu
bandit-DEF-PL
boyí-ta
fall-PF.POS
jul-óo-lu
merchant-DEF-PL
kaŋ
on
‘The bandits attacked (lit. fell on) the merchants.’
FALL joloŋ
(240)
máŋk-oo
mango-DEF
jolón-ta
fall-PF.POS
baŋk-óo
ground-DEF
to
LOC
‘The mango fell on the ground.’
FALL búsa (2) N
(243)
samâa
rain.DEF
búsá-ta
fall_violently-PF.POS
baŋk-óo
ground-DEF
kaŋ
on
‘The rain fell on the ground violently.’
MAKE dádaa N
(245)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
laaráŋ-o
bed-DEF
dádaa
make/repair
‘The man made a bed / repaired the bed.’
MAKE ké (2) R
(247)
batuutáa
magician.DEF
ye
PF.POS
new-ó
iron-DEF
ke
transform
sán-oo
gold-DEF
ti
ESS
‘The magician made gold out of iron (lit. changed the iron into gold).’
GET soto R
(251)
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
soto
get/have
a
3SG
karammôo
teacher.DEF
búlu
POSS
‘The boy got the book from his teacher.’
(252)
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
soto
get/have
‘The boy got the book / has a book.’
REFUSE bálaŋ N
(255)
mus-ôo
woman-DEF
bálán-ta
refuse-PF.POS
kew-ó
man-DEF
ma
OBL
dóntór-oo
loan-DEF
la
OBL
‘The woman refused the man a loan.’
TALK kúma N
(257)
kew-ô
man-DEF
kúmá-ta
speak-PF.POS
‘The man spoke.’
(258)
kew-ô
man-DEF
kúmá-ta
speak-PF.POS
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
BEN
‘The man talked to the woman.’
(259)
tántáŋ-o
drum-DEF
kúmá-ta
sound-PF.POS
‘The drum sounded.’
BE COLD súmáyaa N
(261)
jíy-o
water-DEF
súmáyáa-ta
be_cold-PF.POS
le
FOC
‘The water is cold.’
TWINKLE ñílísa N
(263)
loolóo
star.DEF
ka
HAB.POS
ñílísa
twinkle
‘Stars twinkle.’
LIKE díyaa N
(264)
ñiŋ
DEM
báy-oo
cloth-DEF
díyáa-ta
be_pleasant-PF.POS
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
BEN
‘The woman likes this cloth.’
CHASE báyi N
(265)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
wul-ôo
dog-DEF
báyi
chase
súw-o
house-DEF
kóno
in
‘The man chased the dog from the house.’
HUNT (FOR) deema N
(266)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
mináŋ-o
deer-DEF
deema
hunt
‘The man hunted deer.’
MARRY fútuu N
(268)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
fútuu
marry
‘The man married the girl.’
READ karaŋ N
(270)
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
batáay-oo
letter-DEF
karaŋ
read
‘The boy read the letter.’
CALL kúmándi (1) N
(272)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
kúmándi
call
‘The man called the boy.’
OFFER nii N
(274)
faá
father.DEF
ye
PF.POS
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
nii
offer
kew-ó
man-DEF
la
BEN
‘The father married (lit. offered) the girl to the man.’
ASK (about) ñiniŋkaa N
(275)
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kew-ó
man-DEF
ñiniŋkaa
ask
a
3SG
kontóŋ-o
surname-DEF
la
OBL
‘The woman asked the man his surname.’
CRAM sóoli N
(276)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
tiy-ôo
peanuts-DEF
sóoli
cram
boot-ôo
bag-DEF
kóno
in
‘The man crammed the peanuts into the bag.’
DO ké (3) R
(279)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
dookúw-o
work-DEF
ke
do
‘The man worked (lit. did work).’
CROSS teyi (3) N
(281)
mus-óo-lu
woman-DEF-PL
teyí-ta
cross-PF.POS
báa
river
la
OBL
‘The women crossed the river.’
GIVE BIRTH wúluu N
(284)
mus-ôo
woman-DEF
wúlúu-ta
give_birth-PF.POS
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
la
OBL
‘The woman gave birth to a boy.’
ENTER duŋ (2)
(287)
wul-óo
dog-DEF
duń-ta
enter-PF.POS
búŋ-o
house-DEF
kóno
in
‘The dog came into the room.’
REST í fóño N
(291)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
í
REFL
fóño
rest
‘The man had a rest.’
LIVE báluu N
(292)
baramatóo
wounded_person.DEF
te
COP.NEG
bálúu-la
live-INF
‘The injured person will not survive.’
DRINK miŋ N
(295)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
jíy-o
water-DEF
miŋ
drink
‘The man drank water.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
BLINK ñâa káti
(86)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
a
3SG
ñâa
eye.DEF
káti
break
‘The man blinked.’
DIE faa (2)
(107)
saajíy-o
sheep-DEF
faá-ta
kill/die-PF.POS
‘The sheep died / was killed.’
APPEAR bó (2)
(93)
kullíimaar-ôo
rainbow-DEF
bó-ta
go_out-PF.POS
‘A rainbow appeared.’
CARRY táa (2)
(137)
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
táa-ta
go-PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
ti
with
karambúŋ-o
school-DEF
to
LOC
‘The boy carried the book to school.’
COME (2) naa (2)
(138)
kew-ó
man-DEF
naá-ta
come-PF.POS
saatéw-o
village-DEF
to
LOC
‘The man came to the village.’
FOLLOW bula (2)
(53)
kew-ó
man-DEF
bulá-ta
settle-PF.POS
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
nóoma
on_the_track
‘The man followed the girl.’
NAME kúmándi (2) N
(273)
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kambaan-ôo
boy-DEF
kúmándi
call
moo
person
hákílíntáŋ-o
stupid-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man called the boy a fool.’