Alternations of Mandinka

Alternations
Alternation name Description Examples Verbs
U
n In this uncoded alternation, the same verb is used in a (basic) transitive construction and in a (nonbasic) intransitive construction; the subject of the intransitive construction is assigned the same role as the object of the transitive construction; the participant encoded as the subject of the transitive construction is semantically present in the intransitive construction but cannot be expressed.
(2)
Léeríjámboo fárásíta kitáaboo bála.
léeríjámb-oo
page-DEF
fárásí-ta
tear-PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
bála
in_contact
‘The page was torn from the book.’
55
C
y The verb takes the causative suffix -ndi; a causer is introduced in subject function; the subject of the non-derived verb form (the causee) fulfills the object role in the causative construction; if the initial construction includes an object, it is converted into an oblique marked by the postposition la.
(5)
Alikáaloo yé saateemóolu bendi.
alikáal-oo
chief-DEF
PF.POS
saatee-móo-lu
village-person.DEF-PL
be-ndi
meet-CAUS
‘The chief gathered the villagers.’
38
U
n The same semantic role is assigned to the subject of the verb used intransitively and to the subject of the same verb used in the middle construction (i.e., with the reflexive pronoun in object function).
(80)
Kewó ye í loo.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
í
REFL
loo
stand
‘The man stood up / stopped.’
2
U
n The same participant can be encoded as an oblique in a basic intransitive construction or as the object of a (nonbasic) transitive construction.
(68)
Kewô sáríta súŋkútoo tóo ti.
kew-ô
man-DEF
sárí-ta
shout-PF.POS
súŋkút-oo
girl-DEF
tóo
name.DEF
ti
ESS
‘The man shouted the girl's name.’
8
U
n The verb has an intransitive construction in which the subject is assigned the same semantic role as the subject of the same verb used transitively, and in which the participant encoded as the object of the transitive construction cannot be expressed.
(21)
Ñiŋ́ kewô lónta báake.
ñiŋ́
DEM
kew-ô
man-DEF
lón-ta
know-PF.POS
báake
very
‘This man is a very learned person.’
1
U
n The same verb is used transitively and in a middle construction in which the subject is assigned the same semantic role as in the transitive construction, whereas the participant encoded as the object of the transitive construction can be encoded as an oblique marked by the postposition la in the middle construction.
(26)
Finkintéw-o-lu búka í je.
finkintéw-o-lu
blind-DEF-PL
búka
HAB.NEG
í
REFL
je
see
‘The blind do not see.’
3
U
n This alternation concerns trivalent verbs that have two constructions with the same argument selected in subject function, but two possible choices for the argument encoded as the object.
(64)
Kambaanóo ye kódoo dáani kewô búlu.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
ye
PF.POS
kód-oo
money-DEF
dáani
ask
kew-ô
man-DEF
búlu
POSS
‘The boy asked the man for money.’
4
C
y This derivation applies only to transitive constructions; the verb takes the causative suffix -(di)rindi; a causer is introduced in subject function; the subject of the non-derived verb form (the causee) fulfills the object role in the causative construction; the object of the initial construction is converted into an oblique marked by the postposition la.
(44)
Kewó ye musóo kuurindi dendikóo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
mus-óo
woman-DEF
kuu-rindi
wash-CAUS
dendik-óo
shirt-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man made the woman wash the shirt.’
49
C
y The verb has a (basic) intransitive construction with an oblique argument and a (nonbasic) transitive construction in which the same participant is encoded as the object; the postposition marking the oblique argument in the intransitive construction is suffixed to the verb in the transitive construction.
(139)
Kambaanóo naáta kitáaboo ti a karammóo ye.
kambaan-óo
boy-DEF
naá-ta
come-PF.POS
kitáab-oo
book-DEF
ti
with
a
3SG
karammóo
teacher.DEF
ye
BEN
‘The boy brought the book to his teacher.’
2
U
n The verb has a canonical intransitive construction and a non-canonical intransitive construction in which the argument encoded as the subject of the first construction is encoded as an oblique, whereas the subject position is occupied by an expletive 3rd person pronoun functioning as a mere place holder.
(89)
A túta jee musukéebaa fula (la).
a
3SG
tú-ta
remain-PF.POS
jee
there
musu-kéebaa
woman-old
fula
two
la
OBL
‘There remained two old women.’
1
U
n The verb has an intransitive and a transitive (causative) use; the referent of the subject of the intransitive construction is assigned a semantic role similar to that assigned to the object of the transitive construction, but the intransitive construction does not imply the involvement of a participant with the role assigned to the subject of the transitive construction.
(19)
Kewó ye julôo míniŋ fáloo la.
kew-ó
man-DEF
ye
PF.POS
jul-ôo
rope-DEF
míniŋ
wind
fál-oo
stick-DEF
la
OBL
‘The man wound the rope around the stick.’
7
U
n The verb has a transitive and an intransitive (noncausative) use; the referent of the subject of the intransitive construction is assigned a semantic role similar to that assigned to the object of the transitive construction, but the intransitive construction does not imply the involvement of a participant with the role assigned to the subject of the transitive construction.
(9)
Musóo ka tara márséwo to.
mus-óo
woman-DEF
ka
HAB.POS
tara
be_found
márséw-o
market-DEF
to
LOC
‘The woman can usually be found at the market.’
8