(发)

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is used as a transitive verb in practically the same way as send. Usually using a PP is necessary to indicate the direction of sending. When the PP is placed post-verbally, it unambiguously indicates direction of sending, but when it is placed pre-verbally, it causes ambiguity. That is, it may have a beneficial meaning as well as a directional one. can be used ditransitively. Another possible Madanrin counterpart of send would be a compound fāsòng (lit. 'send-send').

Coding frame

Simplex Verb form

Examples

(77)
Wǒ zuótiān gěi tā fā le yīfēng diànzǐyóujiàn.
wo
1SG
zuotian
yesterday
gei
to
ta
3SG
fa-le
send-PERF
yi-feng
one-CL
dianziyoujian
email
‘I sent an email to him yesterday.’
(189)
Wǒ zuótiān fā le yīfēng xìn gěi tā.
wo
1SG
zuotian
yesterday
fa-le
send-PERF
yi-feng
one-CL
xin
letter
gei
to
ta
him
‘I sent a letter to him yesterday.’

Verb meaning , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# SEND Coding set Argument type
1 sender Ø A
2 sending recipient gěi+NP X
3 sent thing Ø P

Alternations

Alternation name Occurs Examples
C
N y
C
N y
C
R y
(187)
‘I sent her a letter yesterday.’
C
R y
(300)
‘To beginners, it is just troublesome to send an email. / It is just difficult for beginners to learn to send emails.’
C
R y
(186)
‘I have already sent the letter.’
C
N y
C
R y
(188)
‘The letter was sent to him by me yesterday.’