shā (杀)

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shā is used as a transitive verb and implicates the result of killing, i.e. 'death', which is very similar to kill, but sometimes people use shā-sǐ (lit. 'kill-dead') to stress the result of 'death'. In that case, shā means the same as shā-sǐ. For that reason, shā can enter both the BA and BEI constructions where the use of the complement is optional. When used alone, shā often takes an aspectual marker le.

Coding frame

Simplex Verb form

Examples

(42)
Wǔ Sōng shā le yīzhī lǎohǔ.
Wu
Wu
Song
Song
sha-le
kill-PERF
yi-zhi
one-CL
laohu
tiger
‘Wu Song killed a tiger.’
(253)
Dírén shāsǐ le.
diren
enemy
shasi-le
kill-PERF
‘The enemy is killed.’
(258)
Wǒmen shāsǐ le dírén.
women
1PL
shasi-le
kill-PERF
diren
enemy
‘We killed the enemy.’

Verb meaning , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# KILL Coding set Argument type
1 killer Ø A
2 killing instrument yòng+NP I
3 killee Ø P

Alternations

Alternation name Occurs Examples
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y
C
R y
(153)
‘Wu Song killed the tiger.’
C
N y
C
R y
(154)
‘The tiger was killed by Wu Song.’