xià(hu) (吓(唬))

show comment

xià(hu) is used as a monotransitive verb and functions in practically the same way as frighten. But the bisyllabic verb seems more formal than the monosyllabic one, which can take a complement to indicate the result or extent of 'frightening', for example, xiàzhao or xiàhuài (lit. 'frighten-broken') And it is only under that condition that the verb-complement structure can enter BA and BEI constructions, and Ambitransitive construction as well.

Coding frame

Simplex Verb form

Example

(39)
Tā chángcháng xià wǒ.
ta
3SG
changchang
often
xia
frighten
wo
1SG
‘He often frightens me.’

Verb meaning , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# FRIGHTEN Coding set Argument type
1 frightener Ø A
2 frightenee Ø P

Alternations

Alternation name Occurs Examples
C
R y
(251)
‘That kid is frightened.’
(256)
‘You frightened that kid.’
C
N y
C
N y
C
M y
(137)
‘It is very easy to frighten a little girl.’
C
R y
(135)
‘You have frightened that kid so much. / That kid was frightened so much by you.’
C
N y
C
R y
(136)
‘That kid was frightened so much by you.’