Examples of Mandarin Chinese

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
我吃了饭。
Wǒ chī le fàn.
wo
1SG
chi-le
eat-PERF
fan
meal
‘I ate my meal. / I had my meal.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(2)
敌人饿了他三天。
Dírén èle tā sāntiān.
diren
enemy
e-le
hungry-PERF
ta
3SG
san-tian
three-day
‘The enemy starved him for three days.’
BE HUNGRY an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation
(3)
儿子拥抱妈妈。
Érzi yōngbào māma.
erzi
son
yongbao
hug
mama
Mom
‘The son hugs his Mom.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(4)
我们造好了车子。
Wǒmen zàohǎo le chēzi.
women
1PL
zao-hao-le
make-finished-PERF
chezi
car
‘We have made the car.’
MAKE the Verb form zào
(5)
老王上周死了。
Lǎo Wáng shàngzhōu sǐ le.
Lao
Lao
Wang
Wang
shang-zhou
last-week
si-le
die-PERF
‘Old Wang died last week.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1 > V
(6)
我们把车造出来了。
Wǒmen bǎ chē zào chūlái le.
women
1PL
ba
BA
che
car
zao-chulai-le
make-come.out-PERF
‘We have made the car.’
MAKE an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(7)
我在看那幅画。
Wǒ zài kàn nàfú huà.
wo
1SG
zai
PRES
kan
look.at
na-fu
that-CL
hua
picture
‘I am looking at that picture.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(8)
我打断了棍子。
Wǒ dǎduàn le gùnzi.
wo
1SG
daduan-le
break-PERF
gunzi
stick
‘I broke the stick.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation
(9)
我自己洗衣服。
Wǒ zìjǐ xǐ yīfú.
wo
1SG
ziji
self
xi
wash
yifu
clothes
‘I wash my clothes myself.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(10)
我把棍子打断了。
Wǒ bǎ gùnzi dǎduàn le.
wo
1SG
ba
BA
gunzi
stick
daduan-le
break-PERF
‘I broke the stick.’
BREAK an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(11)
他的船昨天沉了。
Tāde chuán zuótiān chén le.
ta-de
3SG-POSS
chuan
boat
zuotian
yesterday
chen-le
sink-PERF
‘His boat sank yesterday.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1 > V
(12)
我们建好了房子。
Wǒmen jiànhǎo le fángzi.
women
1PL
jian-hao-le
build-finished-PERF
fangzi
house
‘We have built a house.’
BUILD the Verb form jiàn(zào)
(13)
孩子撕了一本书。
Háizi sī le yīběn shū.
haizi
kid
si-le
tear-PERF
yi-ben
one-CL
shu
book
‘The kid tore a book.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(14)
我们把房子建好了。
Wǒmen bǎ fángzi jiànhǎo le.
women
1PL
ba
BA
fangzi
house
jian-hao-le
build-finished-PERF
‘We have built the house.’
BUILD an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(15)
妹妹怕老鼠。
Mèimei pà lǎoshǔ.
meimei
younger.sister
pa
fear
laoshu
rat
‘My younger sister fears rats.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(16)
我看见了一头牛。
Wǒ kànjiànle yītóu níu.
wo
1SG
kanjian-le
see-PERF
yi-tou
one-CL
niu
cow
‘I saw a cow.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(17)
妈妈告诉我一件事。
Māma gàosù wǒ yījiàn shì.
mama
Mom
gaosu
tell
wo
1SG
yi-jian
one-CL
shi
matter
‘Mom told me something.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2 > 3
(18)
爷爷教了我两门手艺。
Yéye jiāo le wǒ liǎngmén shǒuyì.
yeye
grandpa
jiao-le
teach-PERF
wo
1SG
liang-men
two-CL
shouyi
skill
‘Grandpa taught me two skills.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2 > 3
(19)
不一会儿,老虎出现了。
Bùyīhuìer,lǎohǔ chūxiàn le.
buyihuier
after.a.while
laohu
tiger
chuxian
appear
le
PERF
‘After a while, the tiger appeared.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1 > V
(20)
姐姐闻到了花香。
Jiějie wéndàole huāxiāng.
jiejie
elder.sister
wen-dao-le
smell-COM-PERF
hua-xiang
flower-fragrance
‘My elder sister smelled fragrance of flower.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(21)
我在想一个问题。
Wǒ zài xiǎng yīgè wèntí.
wo
1SG
zai
PRES
xiang
think
yi-ge
one-CL
wenti
problem
‘I am thinking about a problem.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(22)
晓明问他妈妈要一些钱。
Xiǎomíng wèn tā māma yào yīxiē qián.
Xiaoming
Xiaoming
wen
PREP
ta
3SG
mama
Mom
yao
ask.for
yixie
some
qian
money
‘Xiaoming asked his Mom for some money.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1 > (PREP+2 > ) V > 3
(23)
小王今天生病了。
Xiǎo Wáng jīntiān shēngbìng le.
Xiao
Xiao
Wang
Wang
jintian
today
shengbing-le
be.ill-PERF
‘Little Wang is ill today.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
1 > V
(24)
地干了。
Dì gān le.
di
ground
gan-le
dry-PERF
‘The ground (has) dried.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1 > V
(25)
老王很悲伤。
Lǎo wáng hěn bēishāng.
Lao
Lao
Wang
Wang
hen
very
beishang
sad
‘Old Wang is very sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1 > V
(26)
我饿了。
wǒ è le.
wo
1SG
e-le
hungry-PERF
‘I am hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1 > V
(27)
弟弟在拍打我的房门。
Dìdi zài pāidǎ wǒde fángmén.
didi
younger.brother
zai
PRES
paida
beat
wode
my
fang-men
room-door
‘My younger brother is beating the door of my room.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(28)
小李朝我眨眼睛。
Xiǎo Lì cháo wǒ zhǎyǎnjing.
Xiao
Xiao
Li
Li
chao
PREP
wo
1SG
zhayanjing
blink.eye
‘Little Li blinked at me.’
WINK a Coding frame:
1 > V
(29)
水开了。
Shuǐ kāi le.
shui
water
kai-le
boil-PRES
‘The water is boiling.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1 > V
(30)
他们能造汽车。
Tāmen néng zào qìchē.
tamen
3PL
neng
can
zao
make
qiche
car
‘They can make cars.’
MAKE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(31)
你们可以触摸屏幕。
Nǐmen kěyǐ chùmō píngmù.
nimen
2PL
keyi
can
chumo
touch
pingmu
screen
‘You can touch the screen.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(32)
爸爸打断了棍子。
Bàba dǎduàn le gùnzǐ.
baba
Dad
daduan-le
break-PERF
gunzi
stick
‘Dad broke the stick.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(33)
爷爷在咳嗽。
Yéye zài késòu.
yeye
grandpa
zai
PRES
kesou
cough
‘Grandpa is coughing.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1 > V
(34)
房子还在燃烧。
Fángzi hái zài ránshāo.
fangzi
house
hai
still
zai
PRES
ranshao
burn
‘The house is still burning.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1 > V
(35)
同学们正在爬山。
Tóngxuémen zhèng zài páshān.
tongxue-men
classmate-PL
zheng
right.now
zai
PRES
pa
climb
shan
mountain
‘The classmates are climbing the mountain.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(36)
爷爷给小明带来了一只小白兔。
Yéye gěi Xiǎomíng dàilái le yīzhī xiǎo báitù.
yeye
grandpa
gei
to
Xiaoming
Xiaoming
dailai
bring
le
PERF
yi-zhi
one-CL
xiao
little
bai-tu
white-rabbit
‘Grandpa brought a little white rabbit to Little Ming.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1 > (gěi+2 > ) V 3
(37)
妹妹在哭。
Mèimei zài kū.
meimei
younger.sister
zai
PRES
ku
cry
‘My younger sister is crying.’
CRY a Coding frame:
1 > V
(38)
我感到疼。
Wǒ gǎndào téng.
wo
1SG
gandao
feel
teng
pain
‘I feel painful.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1 > V
(39)
他常常吓我。
Tā chángcháng xià wǒ.
ta
3SG
changchang
often
xia
frighten
wo
1SG
‘He often frightens me.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(40)
我给了她一些钱。
Wǒ gěi le tā yīxiē qián.
wo
1SG
gei-le
give-PERF
ta
3SG
yixie
some
qian
money
‘I gave her some money.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2 > 3
(41)
他用棍子打我。
Tā yòng gùnzi dǎ wǒ.
ta
3SG
yong
use
gunzi
stick
da
hit
wo
1SG
‘He hit me with a stick.’
HIT a Coding frame:
1 > (yòng+2 > ) V > 3
(42)
武松杀了一只老虎。
Wǔ Sōng shā le yīzhī lǎohǔ.
Wu
Wu
Song
Song
sha-le
kill-PERF
yi-zhi
one-CL
laohu
tiger
‘Wu Song killed a tiger.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1 > (yòng+2 > ) V > 3
(43)
我知道你的名字。
Wǒ zhīdào nǐde míngzì.
wo
1SG
zhidao
know
nide
your
mingzi
name
‘I know your name.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(44)
孩子在笑。
Háizi zài xiào.
haizi
kid
zai
PRES
xiao
laugh
‘The kid is laughing.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1 > V
(45)
工人们在建造桥梁。
Gōngrénmen zài jiànzào qiáoliáng.
gongren-men
worker-PL
zai
PRES
jianzao
build
qiaoliang
bridge
‘The workers are building a bridge.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(46)
警察可以携带枪支。
Jǐngchá kěyǐ xiédài qiāngzhī.
jingcha
policeman
keyi
may
xiedai
carry
qiangzhi
gun
‘Policemen may carry guns.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(47)
你平时自己煮饭吗?
Nǐ píngshí zìjǐ zhǔ fàn ma?
ni
2SG
pingshi
in.normal.times
ziji
self
zhu
cook
fan
meal
ma
Q
‘Do you ordinarily cook meals yourself?’
COOK a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(48)
奶奶在挖土豆。
Nǎinai zài wā tǔdòu.
nainai
grandma
zai
PRES
wa
dig
tudou
potato
‘Grandma is digging for potatoes.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(49)
叶子落了。
Yèzǐ luò le.
yezi
leaf
luo-le
fall-PERF
‘The leaves fell.’
FALL a Coding frame:
1 > V
(50)
我感到冷。
Wǒ gǎndào lěng.
wo
1SG
gandao
feel
leng
cold
‘I feel cold.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1 > V
(51)
小男孩跟着他父亲。
Xiǎo nánhái gēnzhe tā fùqin.
xiao
little
nan-hai
male-child
genzhe
follow
ta
3SG
fuqin
father
‘The little boy followed his father.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(52)
舅舅用石碾磨黄豆。
Jiùjiu yòng shíniǎn mò huángdòu.
jiujiu
uncle
yong
use
shinian
stone.mill
mo
grind
huangdou
soybean
‘Uncle ground the soybeans with a stone mill.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1 > (yòng+2 > ) V > 3
(53)
你应该帮助他。
Nǐ yīnggāi bāngzhù tā.
ni
2SG
yinggai
should
bangzhu
help
ta
3SG
‘You should help him.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(54)
他在操场上跳。
Tā zài cāochǎngshàng tiào.
ta
3SG
zai
PREP
caochang-shang
playground-top
tiao
jump
‘He jumps on the playground. / He is jumping on the playground.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1 > V
(55)
你在藏什么?
Nǐ zài cáng shénme?
ni
2SG
zai
PRES
cang
hide
shenme
what
‘What are you hiding?’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(56)
我下个月离开北京(去深圳)。
Wǒ xiàgè yuè líkāi Běijīng (qù Shēnzhèn).
wo
1SG
xia-ge
next-CL
yue
month
likai
leave
Beijing
Beijing
(qu
(go.to
Shenzhen)
Shenzhen)
‘I will leave Beijing (for Shenzhen) next month.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(57)
我喜欢上海。
Wǒ xǐhuān Shànghǎi.
wo
1SG
xihuan
like
Shanghai
Shanghai
‘I like Shanghai.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(58)
爷爷居住在上海。
Yéye jūzhù zài Shànghǎi.
yeye
grandpa
juzhu
live
zai
PREP
Shanghai
Shanghai
‘Grandpa lives in Shanghai.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1 > V > zài+2
(59)
工人们往卡车上装干草。
Gōngrén men wǎng kǎchē shàng zhuāng gàncǎo.
gongren-men
worker-PL
wang
PREP
kache-shang
truck-LOC
zhuang
load
gancao
hay
‘The workers loaded hay onto the truck.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1 > (LOC2 > ) V > 3
(60)
昨天我在机场碰见了小丽。
Zuótiān wǒ zài jīchǎng pèngjiàn le Xiǎo Lì.
zuotian
yesterday
wo
1SG
zai
PREP
jichang
airport
pengjian
meet
le
PERF
Xiao
Xiao
Li
Li
‘I met Xiao Li yesterday at the airport.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1 > (LOC2 > ) V > 3
(61)
请给我削两个苹果。
Qǐng gěi wǒ xiāo liǎnggè píngguǒ.
qing
please
gei
for
wo
1SG
xiao
peel
liang-ge
two-CL
pingguo
apple
‘Please peel two apples for me.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(62)
弟弟在操场上玩(皮球)。
Dìdi zài cāochǎng shàng wán (pí qiú).
didi
younger.brother
zai
PREP
caochang-shang
playground-LOC
wan
play
(piqiu)
(ball)
‘My younger brother is playing (ball) on the playground.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(63)
我们把马拴在拴桩上。
Wǒmen bǎ mǎ shuān zài shuānzhuāng shàng.
women
1PL
ba
BA
ma
horse
shuan
tie
zai
PREP
shuanzhuang-shang
hitching.post-LOC
‘We tied the horses to the hitching posts.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1 > ba+2 > V > zài+3-loc
(64)
他把那本书放在书架上了。
Tā bǎ nà běn shū fàng zài shūjià shàng le.
ta
3SG
ba
BEI
na-ben
that-CL
shu
book
fang
put
zai
PREP
shujia-shang
bookshelf-LOC
le
PERF
‘He put that book on the bookshelf.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1 > ba+2 > V > zài+3-loc
(65)
奶奶坐在沙发上。
Nǎinai zuò zài shāfā shàng.
nainai
grandma
zuo
sit
zai
PREP
shafa-shang
sofa-LOC
‘Grandma sat on the sofa.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1 > V > zài+2
(66)
他(在我身边)坐下。
Tā (zài wǒ shēnbiān) zuòxià.
ta
3SG
(zai
(PREP
wo
1SG
shenbian)
side)
zuoxia
sit.down
‘He sat down (at my side).’
SIT DOWN a Coding frame:
1 > (zài+2 > ) V
(67)
球在地上滚。
Qiú zài dìshàng gǔn.
qiu
ball
zai
PREP
di-shang
ground-LOC
gun
roll
‘The ball is rolling on the ground.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1 > (zài+2 > ) V
(68)
他偷了老李的三头牛。
Tā tōu le Lǎo Lǐ de sāntóu niú.
ta
3SG
tou-le
steal-PERF
Lao
Lao
Li
Li
de
POSS
san-tou
three-CL
niu
cow
‘He stole three cows from Lao Li. / He stole Lao Li's three cows.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(69)
下雨了。
Xià yǔ le.
xiayu
rain
le
PRES
‘It is raining.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
V
(70)
老刘(从老板哪儿)得到了一袋米。
Lǎo Liú (cóng lǎobǎn nǎér) dédào le yīdài mǐ .
Lao
old
Liu
Liu
(cong
(from
laoban
boss
naer)
there)
dedao-le
get-PERF
yi-dai
one-CL
mi
rice
‘Old Liu got a bag of rice (from his boss).’
GET a Coding frame:
1 > (cóng+2 > ) V > 3
(71)
哥哥对妈妈说:“我也想去”。
Gēge duì māma shuō :“wǒ yě xiǎng qù”.
gege
elder.brother
dui
to
mama
Mom
shuo
say
wo
1SG
ye
also
xiang
want
qu
go
‘My elder brother said to Mom, "I want to go, too".’
SAY a Coding frame:
1 > (duì+2 > ) V > UTT3
(72)
刘老师跟李老师在谈话。
Liú lǎoshī gēn Lǐ lǎoshī zài tánhuà.
Liu
Liu
laoshi
Mr
gen
and
Li
Li
laoshi
Mr
zai
PRES
tanhua
talk
‘Mr Liu and Mr Li are talking.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1 > PREP+2 > V
(73)
小马在跑。
Xiǎo mǎ zài pǎo.
Xiao
Xiao
Ma
Ma
zai
PRES
pao
run
‘Xiao Ma is running.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1 > V
(74)
她擦去了桌子上的字。
Tā cāqù le zhuōzǐshàng de zì.
ta
3SG
caqu-le
wipe-PERF
zhuozi
table
shang
LOC
de
POSS
zi
words
‘She wiped the words off the table.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(75)
同学们大声歌唱。
Tóngxuémen dàshēng gēchàng.
tongxue-men
classmate-PL
dasheng
loudly
gechang
sing
‘The classmates sang loudly.’
SING a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(76)
画家(向我们)展示他的作品。
Huàjiā (xiàng wǒmen) zhǎnshì tā de zuòpǐn.
huajia
painter
(xiang
(to
women)
1PL)
zhanshi
show
ta-de
3SG-POSS
zuopin
painting
‘The painter is showing his paintings (to us).’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1 > (PREP+2 > ) V > 3
(77)
我昨天给他发了一封电子邮件。
Wǒ zuótiān gěi tā fā le yīfēng diànzǐyóujiàn.
wo
1SG
zuotian
yesterday
gei
to
ta
3SG
fa-le
send-PERF
yi-feng
one-CL
dianziyoujian
email
‘I sent an email to him yesterday.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1 > (gěi+2 > ) V 3
(78)
小姑娘又在尖叫。
Xiǎo gūniang yòu zài jiānjiào.
xiao-guniang
little-girl
you
again
zai
PRES
jianjiao
scream
‘The little girl is screaming again.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1 > V
(79)
军舰被命名为武汉号。
Jūnjiàn bèi mìngmíng wéi Wǔhànhào.
junjian
warship
bei
BEI
mingming
name
wei
be
Wuhanhao
Wuhanhao
‘The warship is named Wuhanhao.’
NAME an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(80)
爸爸在刮胡子。
Bàba zài guā húzi.
baba
Dad
zai
PRES
gua
shave
huzi
beard
‘Dad is shaving his beard.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(81)
我用水装满了水桶。
Wǒ yòng shuǐ zhuāngmǎn le shuǐtǒng.
wo
1SG
yong
use
shui
water
zhuangman-le
fill-PERF
shuitong
pail
‘I filled the pail with water.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1 > (yòng+2 > ) V > 3
(82)
房子被他们烧了。
*Fángzi bèi tāmen shāo le.
*fangzi
house
bei
BEI
tamen
they
shao-le
burn-PERF
‘The house was burnt by them.’
BURN an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(83)
我把饭煮好了。
Wǒ bǎ fàn zhǔ hǎo le.
wo
1SG
ba
BA
fan
rice
zhu-hao-le
cook-ready-CRS
‘I have cooked the rice.’
COOK an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(84)
我切了肉。
Wǒ qiē le ròu.
wo
1SG
qie-le
cut-PERF
rou
meat
‘I cut the meat.’
CUT the Verb form qiē
(85)
我把肉切了。
Wǒ bǎ ròu qiē le.
wo
1SG
ba
BA
rou
meat
qie-le
cut-PERF
‘I have cut the meat.’
CUT an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(86)
他们把那座老坟挖了。
Tāmen bǎ nàzuò lǎofén wā le.
tamen
3PL
ba
BA
na-zuo
that-CL
laofen
old.tomb
wa-le
dig-PERF
‘They have dug up that old tomb.’
DIG an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(87)
我看见了那个老虎。
Wǒ kànjiàn-le nèige lǎohǔ.
wo
1SG
kanjian-le
see-PERF
neige
that
laohu
tiger
‘I saw that tiger.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(88)
他是(一)个猎人。
Tā shì (yī)gè lièrén.
ta
3SG
shi
be
(yi-)ge
(one-)CL
lieren
hunter
‘He is a hunter.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
1 > V
(89)
婴儿的脚被我拍打了几下。
Yīngér de jiǎo bèi wǒ pāidǎ le jǐxià.
yinger-de
baby-POSS
jiao
foot
bei
BEI
wo
1SG
paida-le
beat-PERF
jixia
several.times
‘The baby's foot was beaten several times by me.’
BEAT an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(90)
屏幕被人触摸过。
Píngmù bèi rén chùmō guò.
pingmu
screen
bei
BEI
ren
somebody
chumo-guo
touch-PERF
‘The screen has been touched (by somebody).’
TOUCH an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(91)
桥已经被建好了。
Qiáo yǐjīng bèi jiànhǎo le.
qiao
bridge
yijing
already
bei
BEI
jian-hao-le
build-ready-PERF
‘The bridge has been built already.’
BUILD an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(92)
我用刀切肉。
Wǒ yòng dāo qiē ròu.
wo
1SG
yong
use
dao
knife
qie
cut
rou
meat
‘I cut meat with a knife.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1 > (yòng+2 > ) V > 3
(93)
肉已经被老李切了。
Ròu yǐjīng bèi Lǎo Lǐ qiē le.
rou
meat
yijing
already
bei
BEI
Lao
Old
Li
Li
qie-le
cut-PERF
‘The meat has been cut by Old Li.’
CUT an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(94)
我去了北京。
Wǒ qù le Běijīng.
wo
1SG
qu-le
go-PERF
Beijing
Beijing
‘I went (to Beijing).’
GO a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(95)
那几个字已经被他擦掉了。
Nà jǐgè zì yǐjīng bèi tā cādiào le.
na
that
ji-ge
several-CL
zi
character
yijing
already
bei
BEI
ta
3SG
cadiao-le
wipe.off-PERF
‘Those characters have already been wiped off by him.’
WIPE an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(96)
他总是被一大群人跟着。
Tā zǒngshì bèi yīdàqún rén gēnzhe.
ta
3SG
zongshi
always
bei
PASS
yi-da-qun
one-large-crowd
ren
people
gen-zhe
follow-APPL
‘He is always followed by a large crowd of people.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(97)
我听见了枪声。
Wǒ tīngjiàn le qiāngshēng.
wo
1SG
tingjian-le
hear-PERF
qiangsheng
gunshot
‘I heard the gunshot.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(98)
原子弹被他们造出来了。
Yuánzǐdàn bèi tāmen zào chūlái le.
yuanzidan
atomic.bomb
bei
BEI
tamen
3PL
zao-chulai-le
make-out-PERF
‘An A-bomb has been made by them.’
MAKE an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(99)
他在盖桌子。
Tā zài gài zhuōzi
ta
3SG
zai
PRES
gai
cover
zhuozi
table
‘He is covering the table.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1 > (yòng+2 > ) V > 3
(100)
你去把桌子盖起来。
Nǐ qù bǎ zhuōzi gàiqǐlái.
ni
2SG
qu
go
ba
BA
zhuozi
table
gai-qilai
cover-APPL
‘Please cover the table.’
COVER an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(101)
桌子已经被他盖起来了。
Zhuōzi yǐjīng bèi tā gài qǐlái le.
zhuozi
table
yijing
already
bei
BEI
ta
3SG
gai-qilai
cover-APPL
le
PERF
‘The table has been covered by him.’
COVER an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(102)
老师在推一个箱子。
Lǎo shī zài tuī yīgè xiāngzǐ.
laoshi
teacher
zai
PRES
tui
push
yi-ge
one-CL
xiangzi
box
‘The teacher is pushing a box.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(103)
苹果已经被他削了(皮)。
Píngguǒ yǐjīng bèi tā xiāo le (pí).
pingguo
apple
yijing
already
bei
BEI
ta
3SG
xiao-le
peel-PERF
(pi)
(skin)
‘The apple has been peeled by him.’
PEEL an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(104)
妈妈往水桶里倒水。
Māma wǎng shuǐtǒng lǐ dǎoshuǐ.
mama
Mom
wang
into
shuitong-li
pail-inside
dao
pour
shui
water
‘Mom poured water into the pail.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1 > (PREP+2 > ) V > 3
(105)
黄豆早已经被舅舅磨好了。
Huángdòu zǎo yǐjīng bèi jiùjiu mòhǎo le.
huangdou
soybean
zao
early
yijing
already
bei
BEI
jiujiu
uncle
mo-hao-le
grind-ready-PERF
‘The soybean has already been ground by my uncle.’
GRIND an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(106)
嫌疑犯已经被搜寻了多次。
Xiányífàn yǐjīng bèi sōuxún le duōcì.
xianyifan
suspect
yijing
already
bei
BEI
souxun-le
search.for-PERF
duo-ci
many-time
‘The suspect has been searched for for many times.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(107)
他把票撕了。
Tā bǎ piào sī le.
ta
3SG
ba
BA
piao
ticket
si-le
tear-PERF
‘He tore the ticket.’
TEAR an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(108)
他正在穿衣服。
Tā zhèngzài chuān yīfu.
3SG
zhèngzài
now.PRES
chuān
put.on
yīfu
clothes
‘He is putting on his clothes. / He is dressing himself.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
N/A
(109)
幸好你没有被别人看见。
Xìnghǎo nǐ méiyǒu bèi biéren kànjiàn.
xinghao
luckily
ni
2SG
meiyou
not
bei
BEI
bie-ren
other-people
kanjian
see
‘Luckily, you were not seen by other people.’
SEE an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(110)
小狗跑进来把整个房间闻了一遍。
Xiǎogǒu pǎojìnlái bǎ zhěnggè fángjiān wénle yībiàn.
xiaogou
little.dog
pao-jinlai
run-in
ba
BA
zhengge
whole
fangjian
room
wen-le
smell-PERF
yi-bian
one-CL
‘The little dog ran in and smelled the whole room once.’
SMELL an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(111)
我刚进房间就被小狗上上下下闻了一遍。
Wǒ gāng jìn fángjiān jìu bèi xiǎogǒu shàngshàngxiàxià wénle yībiàn.
wo
1SG
gang
just
jin
enter
fangjian
room
jiu
right
bei
BEI
xiaogou
little.dog
shangshangxiaxia
thoroughly
wen-le
smell-PERF
yi-bian
one-CL
‘Right after I entered the room the little dog thoroughly smelled me once.’
SMELL an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(112)
这种香水闻起来让我头晕。
Zhèzhǒng xiāngshuǐ wénqǐlái ràng wǒ tóuyūn.
zhe-zhong
this-type
xiangshui
perfume
wen-qilai
smell-APPL
rang
make
wo
1SG
touyun
dizzy
‘This type of perfume smells in such a way that it makes me feel dizzy.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(113)
你把这个问题想复杂了。
Nǐ bǎ zhège wèntí xiǎng fùzá le.
ni
2SG
ba
BA
zhe-ge
this-CL
wenti
problem
xiang-fuza-le
think-complicated-PERF
‘You have taken the problem in a complicated way. / You thought about the problem in such a way that it is made too complicated.’
THINK an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(114)
这个问题被你想复杂了。
Zhège wèntí bèi nǐ xiǎng fùzá le.
zhe-ge
this-CL
wenti
problem
bei
BEI
ni
2SG
xiang-fuza-le
think-complicated-PERF
‘The problem has been thought about in a complcated way. / You have thought about the problem in such a way that it is made two complicated.’
THINK an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(115)
这种数学问题想着让人头疼。
Zhèzhǒng shùxué wèntí xiǎngzhe ràng rén tóu téng.
zhe-zhong
this-CL
shuxue
maths
wenti
problem
xiang-zhe
think-APPL
rang
make
ren
one
tou
head
teng
ache
‘It is a headache for one to think about this kind of maths problem. / This kind of maths problem is so hard to think about that it causes headache to people.’
THINK an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(116)
我去把它要回来。
Wǒ qù bǎ tā yào huílái.
wo
1SG
qu
go
ba
BA
ta
3SG
yao
ask.for
huilai
come.back
‘I will ask for it and get it back.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(117)
房子已经被她妈妈要回来了。
Fángzi yǐjīng bèi tā māma yào huíláile.
fangzi
house
yijing
already
bei
PASS
ta
3SG
mama
Mom
yao
ask.for
huilai
come.back
le
PERF
‘The house has been asked for and taken back by his Mom.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(118)
爷爷要了公司两间房。
Yéye yàole gōngsī liǎngjiān fáng.
yeye
grandpa
yao-le
ask.for-PERF
gongsi
company
liang-jian
two-CL
fang
room
‘Grandpa has asked for two rooms from the company.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Neutral Ditransitive Alternation
(119)
像这种东西要起来可不容易。
Xiàng zhèzhǒng dōngxī yàoqǐlái kě bùróngyì.
xiang
like
zhe-zhong
this-kind
dongxi
thing
yao-qilai
ask.for-APPL
ke
very
burongyi
uneasy
‘It is very hard to ask for this kind of things.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(120)
一只老虎出现在村子里。
Yīzhī lǎohǔ chūxiàn zài cūnzi lǐ.
yi-zhi
one-CL
laohu
tiger
chuxian
appear
zai
in
cunzi-li
village-inside
‘A tiger appeared in the village.’
APPEAR an Alternation:
Locative Inversion Alternation
(121)
他饿了三天。
Tā èle sāntiān.
ta
3SG
e-le
hungry-PERF
san-tian
three-day
‘He remained hungry for three days. / He didn't eat anything for three days.’
BE HUNGRY an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation
(122)
*敌人把他饿了。
*Díren bǎ tā èle.
diren
enemy
ba
BA
ta
3SG
e-le
hungry-PERF
‘Lit. The enemy made him hungry. / The enemy starved him.’
BE HUNGRY an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(123)
*他被敌人饿了。
*Tā bèi díren èle.
ta
3SG
bei
PASS
diren
enemy
e-le
hungry-PERF
‘He was starved by the enemy.’
BE HUNGRY an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(124)
病人把自己的背部拍打坏了。
Bìngren bǎ zìjǐ de bèibù pāidǎ huài le.
bingren
patient
ba
BA
ziji
self
de
DE
beibu
back
paida
beat
huai-le
broken-PERF
‘The patient beat his back in such a way that something has gone wrong with his back. / The patient hurt his own back by beating it in the wrong way.’
BEAT an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(125)
病人的背部被他自己拍打坏了。
Bìngren de bèibù bèi tā zìjǐ pāidǎ huài le.
bingren
patient
de
DE
beibu
back
bei
BEI
ta
him
ziji
self
paida
beat
huai-le
wrong-PERF
‘The patient's back was hurt because of his own wrong beating of it.’
BEAT an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(126)
身体的这个部分拍打起来最麻烦。
Shēntǐ de zhègè bùfen pāidǎ qǐlái zuì máfan.
shenti
body
de
DE
zhe-ge
this-CL
bufen
part
paida-qilai
beat-APPL
zui
most
mafan
troublesome
‘It is least easy to beat this part of your body. / It is most uneasy to beat this part of human body.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(127)
这种泥土挖起来很费力气。
Zhèzhǒng nítǔ wāqǐlái hěn fèilìqì.
zhe-zhong
this-CL
nitu
soil
wa-qilai
dig-APPL
hen
very
fei-liqi
consume-energy
‘It is very energy-consuming to dig through this kind of soil.’
DIG an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(128)
他家的祖坟被人挖了。
Tājiā dê zǔfén bèi rén wā le.
ta-jia
his-family
de
DE
zu-fen
ancestor-tomb
bei
BEI
ren
others
wa-le
dig-PERF
‘His ancestral grave has been dug by someone.’
DIG an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(129)
肉已经被我切好了。
Ròu yǐjīng bèi wǒ qiē hǎo le.
rou
meat
yijing
already
bei
PASS
wo
1SG
qie
cut
hao
ready
le
PERF
‘I have cut the meat (and made it ready for cooking).’
CUT an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(130)
这把刀切起来很省力。
Zhèbǎ dāo qiēqǐlái hěn shěnglì.
zhe-ba
this-CL
dao
knife
qie-qilai
cut-APPL
hen
very
shengli
energy.saving
‘It is energy-saving to cut with this knife.’
CUT an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(131)
我们把水桶装满了水。
Wǒmen bǎ shuǐtǒng zhuāngmǎn le shuǐ.
women
1PL
ba
BA
shuitong
pail
zhuangman-le
fill-PERF
shui
water
‘We filled the pail with water.’
FILL an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(132)
水桶被我们装满了水。
Shuǐtǒng bèi wǒmen zhuāngmǎn le shuǐ.
shuitong
pail
bei
BEI
women
1PL
zhuangman-le
load/stuff-PERF
shui
water
‘The pail was filled with water by us.’
FILL an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(133)
水桶装满了水。
Shuǐtǒng zhuāngmǎnle shuǐ.
shuitong
pail
zhuangman-le
fill-PERF
shui
water
‘The pail is filled with water. / The pail is full with water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Locative Inversion Alternation
(134)
水装满了水桶。
Shuǐ zhuāngmǎnle shuǐtǒng.
shui
water
zhuangman-le
fill-PERF
shuitong
pail
‘The water fills up the pail. / The pail is full of water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Locative Inversion Alternation
(135)
你把那个小孩吓坏了。
Nǐ bǎ nàgè xiǎohái xiàhuài le.
ni
2SG
ba
BA
na-ge
that-CL
xiaohai
kid
xiahuai-le
frighten.broken-PERF
‘You have frightened that kid so much. / That kid was frightened so much by you.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(136)
那个小孩被你吓坏了。
Nàgè xiǎohái bèi nǐ xiàhuài le.
na-ge
that-CL
xiaohai
kid
bei
BEI
ni
2SG
xiahuai-le
frighten.broken-PERF
‘That kid was frightened so much by you.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(137)
小女孩儿吓唬起来容易得很。
Xiǎo nǚháir xiàhu qǐlái róngyì de hěn.
xiao
little
nüháir
girl
xiahu-qilai
frighten-APPL
rongyi
easy
de
APPL
hen
very
‘It is very easy to frighten a little girl.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(138)
我把铅笔给了妈妈。
Wǒ bǎ qiānbǐ gěile māma.
wo
1SG
ba
BA
qianbi
pencil
gei-le
give-PERF
mama
Mom
‘I gave the pencil to Mom.’
GIVE an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(139)
铅笔被我给了妈妈。
Qiānbǐ bèi wǒ gěile māma.
qianbi
pencil
bei
BEI
wo
1SG
gei-le
give-PERF
mama
Mom
‘The pencil was given to Mom by me.’
GIVE an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(140)
舅舅把黄豆磨(好)了。
Jìujiu bǎ huángdòu mò(hǎo)le.
jiujiu
uncle
ba
BA
huangdou
soybean
mo-hao-le
grind-ready-PERF
‘My uncle has ground the soybean.’
GRIND an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(141)
黄豆被舅舅磨(好)了。
Huángdòu bèi Jìujiu mò(hǎo)le.
huangdou
soybean
bei
PASS
jiujiu
uncle
mo-hao-le
grind-ready-PERF
‘The soybean has been ground (ready) by my uncle.’
GRIND an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(142)
这种麦子磨起来容易。
Zhèzhǒng màizi mòqǐlái róngyì.
zhe-zhong
this-CL
maizi
wheat
mo-qilai
grind-APPL
rongyi
easy
‘This kind of wheat is easy to grind.’
GRIND an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(143)
你的话被老师听见了。
Nǐde huà bèi lǎoshī tīngjiànle.
nide
your
hua
words
bei
BEI
laoshi
teacher
tingjian-le
hear-PERF
‘Your words were beard by the teacher. / What you said was heard by the teacher.’
HEAR an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(144)
我认为帮助别人和被别人帮助都是一种幸福。
Wǒ rènwéi bāngzhù biéren hé bèi biéren bāngzhù dōu shì yīzhǒng xìngfú.
wo
1SG
renwei
think
bangzhu
help
bieren
others
he
and
bei
BEI
bieren
others
bangzhu
help
dou
all
shi
BE
yi-zhong
one-CL
xingfu
happiness
‘I think both helping others and being helped by others are a kind of happiness.’
HELP an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(145)
镇上还帮助了我们很多大米。
Zhènshàng hái bāngzhùle wǒmen hěnduō dàmǐ.
zhenshang
town.government
hai
additionally
bangzhu-le
help-PERF
women
1PL
henduo
much
dami
rice
‘The local township government also helped us by giving us much rice.’
HELP an Alternation:
Neutral Ditransitive Alternation
(146)
你把钱藏好。
Nǐ bǎ qián cáng hǎo.
ni
2SG
ba
BA
qian
money
cang-hao
hide-well
‘Hide the money in a safe place.’
HIDE an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(147)
球被妈妈藏起来了。
Qíu bèi māma cángqǐlái le.
qiu
ball
bei
BEI
mama
Mom
cang-qilai-le
hide-APPL-PERF
‘The ball has been hidden up by Mom.’
HIDE an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(148)
球藏柜子里。
Qíu cáng guìzi lǐ.
qiu
ball
cang
hide
guizi-li
cupboard-inside
‘The ball is hidden in the cupboard.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Locative Inversion Alternation
(149)
柜子里球藏。
Guìzilǐ cáng qíu.
guizi-li
cupboard-inside
cang
hide
qiu
ball
‘The ball is hidden in the cupboard. / The cupboard is for hiding balls.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Locative Inversion Alternation
(150)
哥哥把弟弟打了。
Gēge bǎ dìdi dǎ le.
gege
elder.brother
ba
BA
didi
younger.brother
da-le
hit-PERF
‘The elder brother hit the younger brother.’
HIT an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(151)
哥哥被弟弟打了。
Gēge bèi dìdi dǎ le.
gege
elder.brother
bei
BEI
didi
younger.brother
da-le
hit-PERF
‘The elder brother was hit by the younger brother.’
HIT an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(152)
这样的棍子打起来不顺手。
Zhèyàng de gùnzi dǎqǐlái bú shùnshǒu.
zheyang
this.kind
de
DE
gunzi
stick
da-qilai
hit-APPL
bu
not
shunshou
comfortable
‘It is not comfortable when hitting with this kind of stick. / It is not comfortable when one hits with this kind of stick.’
HIT an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(153)
武松把老虎杀了。
Wǔ Sōng bǎ lǎohǔ shā le.
Wu
Wu
Song
Song
ba
BA
laohu
tiger
sha-le
kill-PERF
‘Wu Song killed the tiger.’
KILL an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(154)
老虎被武松杀了。
Lǎohǔ bèi Wǔ Sōng shāle.
Laohu
tiger
bei
BEI
Wu
Wu
Song
Song
sha-le
kill-PERF
‘The tiger was killed by Wu Song.’
KILL an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(155)
那件事情最后被老师知道了。
Nàjiàn shìqing zuìhòu bèi lǎoshī zhīdào le.
na-jian
that-CL
shiqing
matter
zuihou
finally
bei
BEI
laoshi
teacher
zhidao-le
know-PERF
‘The teacher finally knew it.’
KNOW an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(156)
被人喜欢是一件幸福的事情。
Bèi rén xǐhuān shì yījiàn xìngfú de shìqing.
bei
BEI
ren
others
xihuan
like
shi
be
yi-jian
one-CL
xingfu
happy
de
DE
shiqing
matter
‘For one to be liked by others is something happy. / It is something happy for one to be liked by others.’
LIKE an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(157)
森林里住一个老奶奶。
Sēnlínlǐ zhù yīgè lǎo nǎinai.
senlin-li
forest-inside
zhu
live
yi-ge
one-CL
lao
old
nainai
granny
‘In the forest lives an old granny.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Locative Inversion Alternation
(158)
一个老奶奶住森林里。
Yīgè lǎo nǎinai zhù sēnlínlǐ.
yi-ge
one-CL
lao
old
nainai
granny
zhu
live
senlin-li
forest-inside
‘An old granny lives in the forest.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Locative Inversion Alternation
(159)
把干草装上车。
Bǎ gāncǎo zhuāng shàng chē.
ba
BA
gancao
hay
zhuang
load
shang
onto
che
truck
‘Load the hay onto the truck.’
LOAD an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(160)
车子被装满了干草。
Chēzi bèi zhuāngshàng le gāncǎo.
chezi
truck
bei
BEI
zhuang-shang-le
load-onto-PERF
gancao
hay
‘The truck was loaded with hay.’
LOAD an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(161)
干草被装上了车子。
Gāncǎo bèi zhuāngshàng le chēzi.
gancao
hay
bei
BEI
zhuang-shang-le
load-onto-PERF
chezi
truck
‘The hay was loaded onto the truck.’
LOAD an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(162)
车上装干草。
Chēshàng zhuāng gāncǎo.
che-shang
truck-top
zhuang
load
gancao
hay
‘The truck is loaded with hay. / The truck is for loading hay.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Locative Inversion Alternation
(163)
干草装车上。
Gāncǎo zhuāng chēshàng.
gancao
hay
zhuang
load
che-shang
truck-top
‘The hay is to be loaded onto the truck. / The hay is loaded on the truck.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Locative Inversion Alternation
(164)
这种货物装起来很麻烦。
Zhèzhǒng huòwu zhuāngqǐlái hěn máfan.
zhe-zhong
this-kind
huowu
goods
zhuang-qilai
load-APPL
hen
very
mafan
troublesome
‘It is very uneasy to load this kind of goods.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(165)
昨天我俩逛公园的时候被她舅妈碰见了。
Zuótiān wǒliǎ guàng gōngyuán de shíhou bèi tā jìumā pèngjiàn le.
zuotian
yesterday
wolia
we.two
guang-gongyuan
walking-park
de
DE
shihou
time
bei
BEI
ta
3SG
jiuma
aunt
pengjian-le
meet-PERF
‘Her aunt met us when we two were having a walk in the park yesterday.’
MEET an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(166)
黄瓜皮已经被她削了。
Huángguā pí yǐjīng bèi tā xiāo le.
huanggua-pi
cucumber-skin
yijing
already
bei
BEI
ta
3SG
xiao-le
peel-PERF
‘The cucumber has been peeled by him.’
PEEL an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(167)
这把刨子削起来很顺手。
Zhèbǎ páozi xiāo qǐlái hěn shùnshǒu.
zhe-ba
this-CL
paozi
peeler
xiao-qilai
peel-APPL
hen
very
shunshou
smooth
‘This peelers peels easily.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(168)
这种黄瓜削起来很不容易。
Zhèzhǒng huángguā xiāo qǐlái hěn bùróngyì.
zhe-zhong
this-kind
huanggua
cucumber
xiao-qilai
peel-APPL
hen
very
bu
not
rongyi
easy
‘It is very hard to peel this kind of cucumber.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(169)
泰迪熊被弟弟玩坏了。
Tàidíxióng bèi dìdi wán huài le.
taidixiong
teddy.bear
bei
BEI
didi
younger.brother
wan
play
huai-le
broken-PERF
‘The teddy bear was made broken by my younger brother who played with it.’
PLAY an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(170)
这种的玩具玩起来很费劲。
Zhèzhǒng wánjù wán qǐlái hěn fèijìn.
zhe-zhong
this-kind
wanju
toy
wan-qilai
play-APPL
hen
very
feijin
effort.demanding
‘It is a big trouble playing with this kind of toy.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(171)
我把水倒进碗里。
Wǒ bǎ shuǐ dào jìn wǎn lǐ.
wo
1SG
ba
BA
shui
water
dao-jin
pour-into
wan-li
bowl-inside
‘I poured water into the bowl.’
POUR an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(172)
水被我倒进碗里了。
Shuǐ bèi wǒ dào jìn wǎn lǐ le.
shui
water
bei
BEI
wo
1SG
dao-jin
pour-into
wan-li-le
bowl-inside-PERF
‘The water has been poured into the bowl by me.’
POUR an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(173)
用这种罐子倒水,倒起来很麻烦。
Yòng zhèzhǒng guànzi dào shuǐ, dào qǐlái hěn máfan.
yong
use
zhe-zhong
this-kind
guanzi
jar
dao
pour
shui
water
dao-qilai
pour-APPL
hen
very
mafan
troublesome
‘It is a big trouble pouring water from this kind of jar. / It is a big trouble pouring water into this kind of jar.’
POUR an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(174)
桌子被爸爸推到了一边。
Zhuōzi bèi bàba tuīdàole yībiān.
zhuozi
table
bei
BEI
baba
Dad
tui-dao-le
push-to-PERF
yibian
other.side
‘The table was pushed aside by Dad.’
PUSH an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(175)
大箱子推着很沉。
Dà xiāngzi tuīzhe hěn chén.
da
big
xiangzi
case
tui-zhe
push-APPL
hen
very
chen
heavy
‘The big case is heavy to push.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(176)
书被放在桌上。
Shū bèi fàng zài zhuō shàng.
shu
book
bei
BEI
fang-zai
put-on
zhuo-shang
desk-top
‘The book was put on the desk.’
PUT an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(177)
桌上放(着)书。
Zhuōshàng fàng(zhe) shū.
zhuo-shang
desk-top
fang(-zhe)
put(-DUR)
shu
book
‘The book is put on the desk.’
PUT an Alternation:
Locative Inversion Alternation
(178)
这种花瓶好看,但是放起来很麻烦。
Zhèzhǒng huāpíng hǎokàn, dànshì fàngqǐlái hěn máfan.
zhe-zhong
this-kind
huaping
vase
haokan
nice.looking
danshi
but
fang-qilai
put-APPL
hen
very
mafan
troublesome
‘This kind of vase is nicelooking, but it is very difficul to put it (in a safe and steady place).’
PUT an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(179)
项链最后还是被房东得到了。
Xiàngliàn zuìhòu háishì bèi fángdōng dédào le.
xianglian
necklace
zuihou
finally
haishi
still
bei
BEI
fangdong
landlord
dedao-le
get-PERF
‘The necklace finally was landed by the landlord. / The landlord got the necklace finally.’
GET an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(180)
弟弟在滚球。
Dìdi zài gǔn qíu.
didi
younger.brother
zai
PRES
gun
roll
qiu
ball
‘My younger brother is rolling the ball.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation
(181)
球在滚。
Qíu zài gǔn.
qiu
ball
zai
PRES
gun
roll
‘The ball is rolling.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation
(182)
这个大油桶滚起来很费力。
Zhègè dà yóutǒng gǔn qǐlái hěn fèilì.
zhe-ge
this-CL
da
big
youtong
oil.tank
gun-qilai
roll-APPL
hen
very
feili
effort.demanding
‘This big oil tank is very hard to roll.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(183)
汉语的绕口令说起来最麻烦。
Hànyǔ de ràokǒulìng shuō qǐlái zuì máfan.
hanyu
chinese
de
DE
raokouling
tongue.twister
shuo-qilai
say-APPL
zui
most
mafan
troublesome
‘Chinese tongue twisters are most difficult to say.’
SAY an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(184)
一个孩子,在茫茫人海当中搜寻起来是很困难的。
Yīgè háizi, zài mángmángrénhǎi dāngzhōng sōuxún qǐlái shì hěn kùnnán de.
yi-ge
one-CL
haizi,
kid,
zai
in
mangmangrenhai
huge.crowd
dangzhong
within
souxun-qilai
search-APPL
shi
be
hen
very
kunnan
difficult
de
DE
‘It is very difficult to search for such a kid from within such a huge crowd.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(185)
警察在大路上搜寻嫌疑犯。
Jǐngchá zài dàlù shàng sōuxún xiányífàn.
jingcha
police
zai
PRES
da
big
lu
road
shang
top
souxun
search.for
xianyifan
suspect
‘The police are searching for the suspect on the big road.’
SEARCH FOR the Verb form sōuxún
(186)
我已经把信发了。
Wǒ yǐjīng bǎ xìn fā le.
wo
1SG
yijing
already
ba
BA
xin
letter
fa-le
send-PERF
‘I have already sent the letter.’
SEND an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(187)
我昨天发了她一封信。
Wǒ zuótiān fā le tā yīfēng xìn.
wo
1SG
zuotian
yesterday
fa-le
send-PERF
ta
3SG
yi-feng
one-CL
xin
letter
‘I sent her a letter yesterday.’
SEND an Alternation:
Neutral Ditransitive Alternation
(188)
信昨天被我发给他了。
Xìn zuótiān bèi wǒ fā gěi tā le.
xin
letter
zuotian
yesterday
bei
BEI
wo
1SG
fa-gei
send-to
ta
him
le
PERF
‘The letter was sent to him by me yesterday.’
SEND an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(189)
我昨天发了一封信给他。
Wǒ zuótiān fā le yīfēng xìn gěi tā.
wo
1SG
zuotian
yesterday
fa-le
send-PERF
yi-feng
one-CL
xin
letter
gei
to
ta
him
‘I sent a letter to him yesterday.’
SEND the Verb form
(190)
胡子已经被我刮了。
Húzi yǐjīng bèi wǒ guā le.
huzi
beard
yijing
already
bei
BEI
wo
1SG
gua-le
shave-PERF
‘The beard has been shaved by me.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(191)
这把剃须刀刮起来顺手。
Zhèbǎ tìxūdāo guā qǐlái shùnshǒu.
zhe-ba
this-CL
tixudao
shaver
gua-qilai
shave-APPL
shunshou
smooth
‘This shaver shaves smoothly.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(192)
他的胡子刮起来很麻烦。
Tāde húzi guā qǐlái hěn máfan.
tade
his
huzi
beard
gua-qilai
shave-APPL
hen
very
mafan
troublesome
‘It is very difficult to shave his beard. / His beard is very difficult to shave.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(193)
他朝我大声叫喊。
Tā cháo wǒ dà shēng jiàohǎn.
ta
3SG
chao
to
wo
1SG
da
loud
sheng
voice
jiaohan
shout
‘He shouted at me in loud voice.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(194)
他们把军舰命名为武汉号。
Tāmen bǎ jūnjiàn mìngmíng wéi Wǔhànhào.
tamen
3PL
ba
BA
junjian
warship
mingming
name
wei
be
Wuhanhao
Wuhanhao
‘They named the warship Wuhanhao.’
NAME an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(195)
他们还把绘画作品展示了一番。
Tāmen hái bǎ huìhuà zuòpǐn zhǎnshì le yīfān.
tamen
3PL
hai
additionally
ba
BA
huihua
painting
zuopin
works
zhanshi-le
show-PERF
yi-fan
one-CL
‘Additionally, they put up a show of the paintings.’
SHOW an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(196)
绘画作品还被他们展示了一番。
Huìhuà zuòpǐn hái bèi tāmen zhǎnshì le yīfān.
huihua
paintings
zuopin
works
hai
additionally
bei
BEI
tamen
3PL
zhanshi-le
show-PERF
yi-fan
one-CL
‘The paintings were shown by them.’
SHOW an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(197)
椅子已经被你坐了。
Yǐzi yǐjīng bèi nǐ zuò le.
yizi
chair
yijing
already
bei
BEI
ni
2SG
zuo-le
sit-PERF
‘You have already sat in the chair.’
SIT an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(198)
这椅子坐着舒服。
Zhè yǐzi zuò zhe shūfú.
zhe
this
yizi
chair
zuo-zhe
sit-APPL
shufu
comfortable
‘Sitting in this chair is comfortable.’
SIT an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(199)
一条凳子坐十个人。
Yītiáo dèngzi zuò shígè rén.
yi-tiao
one-CL
dengzi
stool
zuo
sit
shi-ge
ten-CL
ren
person
‘One stool is enough for ten persons to sit on.’
SIT an Alternation:
Quantity Ratio Alternation
(200)
十个人坐一条凳子。
Shígè rén zuò yītiáo dèngzi.
shi-ge
ten-CL
ren
person
zuo
sit
yi-tiao
one-CL
dengzi
stool
‘Ten persons are to sit on the same stool.’
SIT an Alternation:
Quantity Ratio Alternation
(201)
小偷把文件偷(走)了。
Xiǎotōu bǎ wénjiàn tōu (zǒu) le.
xiaotou
thief
ba
BA
wenjian
document
tou-zou-le
steal-away-PERF
‘A thief has stolen the document.’
STEAL an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(202)
文件被小偷偷(走)了。
Wénjiàn bèi xiǎotōu tōu(zǒu) le.
wenjian
document
bei
BEI
xiaotou
thief
tou(zou)-le
steal.(away)-PERF
‘The document was stolen by a thief.’
STEAL an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(203)
小偷偷了他家两头牛,一匹马。
Xiǎotōu tōule tājiā liǎngtóu níu, yīpǐ mǎ.
xiaotou
thief
tou-le
steal-PERF
ta-jia
3SG-family
liang-tou
two-CL
niu
cow
yi-pi
one-CL
ma
horse
‘A thief stole two cows and one horse from his family.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Neutral Ditransitive Alternation
(204)
小户人家偷起来容易些。
Xiǎohù rénjiā tōu qǐlái róngyìxiē.
xiaohu
average
renjia
household
tou-qilai
steal-APPL
rongyixie
easier
‘It is easier to steal from average households.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(205)
妈妈把钱拿走了。
Māma bǎ qián názǒu le.
mama
Mom
ba
BA
qian
money
nazou-le
take.away-PERF
‘Mom took away the money.’
TAKE an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(206)
钱被妈妈拿走了。
Qián bèi māma názǒu le.
qian
money
bei
BEI
mama
Mom
nazou-le
take.away-PERF
‘The money was taken away by Mom.’
TAKE an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(207)
我拿走了妈妈一万块钱。
Wǒ názǒu le māma yīwànkuài qián.
wo
1SG
nazou-le
take.away-PERF
mama
Mom
yiwan-kuai
ten.thousand-yuan
qian
money
‘I took away ten thousand yuan from Mom.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Neutral Ditransitive Alternation
(208)
妈妈把垃圾扔了。
Māma bǎ lājī rēng le.
mama
Mom
ba
BA
laji
trash
reng-le
throw-PERF
‘Mom threw away the trash.’
THROW an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(209)
垃圾被妈妈扔了。
Lājī bèi māma rēng le.
Laji
trash
bei
BEI
mama
Mom
reng-le
throw-PERF
‘The trash was thrown away by Mom.’
THROW an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(210)
这种铅球太重,扔起来很麻烦。
Zhèzhǒng qiānqíu tài zhòng, rēng qǐlái hěn máfán.
zhe-zhong
this-CL
qian
lead
qiu
ball
hen
very
zhong
heavy
reng-qilai
throw-APPL
hen
very
mafan
troublesome
‘This kind of lead ball is too heavy, so it is very troublesome to throw it. / This kind of lead ball is so heavy that it is very difficult to throw it.’
THROW an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(211)
我把狗拴起来了。
Wǒ bǎ gǒu shuān qǐlái le.
wo
1SG
ba
BA
gou
dog
shuan-qilai
tie-APPL
le
CRS
‘I have tied (up) the dog.’
TIE an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(212)
狗被我拴起来了。
Gǒu bèi wǒ shuān qǐlái le.
gou
dog
bei
BEI
wo
1SG
shuang-qilai-le
tie-APPL-PERF
‘The dog bas been tied up by me.’
TIE an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(213)
树上拴狗。
Shùshàng shuān gǒu.
shushang
tree.LOC
shuan
tie
gou
dog
‘The tree is for one to tie up a dog.’
TIE an Alternation:
Locative Inversion Alternation
(214)
狗拴树上。
Gǒu shuān shùshàng.
gou
dog
shuan
tie
shushang
tree.LOC
‘The dog is to be tied up to the tree.’
TIE an Alternation:
Locative Inversion Alternation
(215)
狗很凶,拴起来很困难。
Gǒu hěn xiōng,shuān qǐlái hěn kùnnán.
gou
dog
hen
very
xiong
fierce
shuan-qilai
tie-APPL
hen
very
kunnan
difficult
‘It is very difficult to tie up the dog because it is very fierce.’
TIE an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(216)
这种抹布擦起来干净。
Zhèzhǒng mābù cā qǐlái gānjìng.
zhe-zhong
this-kind
mabu
cloth.brush
ca-qilai
wipe-APPL
ganjing
clean
‘This kind of cloth-brush wipes clean.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(217)
桌子被我擦了。
Zhuōzi bèi wǒ cā le.
zhuozi
table
bei
BEI
wo
1SG
ca-le
wipe-PERF
‘The table was wiped up by me.’
WIPE an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(218)
这种水果吃起来很容易。
Zhèzhòng shuǐguǒ chī qǐlái hěn róngyì.
zhe-zhong
this-kind
shuiguo
fruit
chi-qilai
eat-APPL
hen
very
rongyi
easy
‘This kind of fruit is easy to eat. / This kind of fruit eats very fast.’
EAT an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(219)
十个人吃一锅饭。
Shígè rén chī yīguō fàn.
shi-ge
ten-CL
ren
person
chi
eat
yi-guo
one-CL
fan
rice
‘Ten persons are to eat the rice from one pot.’
EAT an Alternation:
Quantity Ratio Alternation
(220)
他被俄国熊热烈拥抱。
Tā bèi éguó xióng rèliè yōngbào.
ta
3SG
bei
BEI
eguo
Russian
xiong
bear
relie
warmly
yongbao
hug
‘He was given a warm hug by the Russian bear. / He was hugged warmly by the Russian bear.’
HUG an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(221)
*骑摩托车死起来快得很。
*Qí mótuōchē sǐ qǐlái kuài dé hěn.
*qi
ride
motuoche
motor.cycle
si-qilai
die-APPL
kuai
quick
de
APPL
hen
very
‘Riding motor cycle will kill the cyclist quickly.’
DIE an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(222)
被她看了一眼,我觉得很舒服。
Bèi tā kàn le yīyǎn, wǒ juéde hěn shūfú.
bei
BEI
ta
she
kan-le
look.at-PERF
yi-yan
one-look
wo
1SG
juede
feel
hen
very
shufu
comfortable
‘I feel very comfortable because she gave me a look.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(223)
我把衣服洗了。
Wǒ bǎ yīfu xǐ le.
wo
1SG
ba
BA
yifu
clothes
xi-le
wash-PERF
‘I wahsed the clothes.’
WASH an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(224)
衣服被我洗了。
Yīfu bèi wǒ xǐ le.
yifu
clothes
bei
BEI
wo
1SG
xi-le
wash-PERF
‘The clothes was washed by me.’
WASH an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(225)
这种衣服料子洗起来容易。
Zhèzhǒng yīfu liàozi xǐ qǐlái róngyì.
zhe-zhong
this-CL
yifu
clothes
liaozi
material
xi-qilai
wash-APPL
rongyi
easy
‘This kind of cloth material washes easily. / It is easy to wash this kind of cloth material.’
WASH an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(226)
一盆水洗十个人。
Yīpén shuǐ xǐ shígè rén.
yi-pen
one-CL
shui
water
xi
wash
shi-ge
ten-CL
ren
person
‘A basin of water is for ten persons to wash themselves.’
WASH an Alternation:
Quantity Ratio Alternation
(227)
十个人洗一盆水。
Shígè rén xǐ yīpén shuǐ.
shi-ge
ten-CL
ren
person
xi
wash
yi-pen
one-CL
shui
water
‘Ten persons share one basin of water for washing themselves.’
WASH an Alternation:
Quantity Ratio Alternation
(228)
船沉了。
Chuán chén le.
chuan
boat
chen-le
sink-PERF
‘The boat sank.’
SINK an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation
(229)
海盗把船沉了。
Hǎidào bǎ chuán chén le.
haidao
pirate
ba
BA
chuan
boat
chen-le
sink-PERF
‘The pirates sank the boat.’
SINK an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(230)
船被海盗沉了。
Chuán bèi hǎidào chén le.
chuan
boat
bei
BEI
haidao
pirate
chen-le
sink-PERF
‘The boat was sunk by the pirates.’
SINK an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(231)
海盗沉了我们十条船。
Hǎidào chén le wǒmen shítiáo chuán.
haidao
pirate
chen-le
sink-PERF
women
1PL
shi-tiao
ten-CL
chuan
boat
‘The pirates sank ten of our boats.’
SINK an Alternation:
Neutral Ditransitive Alternation
(232)
这船太大,沉起来不容易。
Zhè chuán tài dà, chén qǐlái bù róngyì.
zhe
this
chuan
boat
tai
too
da
big
chen-qilai
sink-APPL
bu
not
rongyi
easy
‘It is difficult to sink the boat because it is too big. / This boat is too big and is difficult to sink.’
SINK an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(233)
这种纸撕起来容易。
Zhèzhǒng zhǐ sī qǐlái róngyì.
zhe-zhong
this-kind
zhi
paper
si-qilai
tear-APPL
rongyi
easy
‘This kind of paper is easy to tear.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(234)
票被他撕了。
Piào bèi tā sī le.
piao
ticket
bei
BEI
ta
he
si-le
tear-PERF
‘The ticket was torn by him.’
TEAR an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(235)
我把这件事告诉了他。
Wǒ bǎ zhèjiàn shì gàosù le tā.
wo
1SG
ba
BA
zhe-jian
this-CL
shi
matter
gaosu-le
tell-PERF
ta
3SG
‘I told him about this matter.’
TELL an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(236)
这件事被老师告诉了爸爸。
Zhèjiàn shì bèi lǎoshī gàosù le bàba.
zhe-jian
this-CL
shi
matter
bei
BEI
laoshi
teacher
gaosu-le
tell-PERF
baba
Dad
‘This matter was told to Dad by my teacher. / My teacher told Dad about this matter.’
TELL an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(237)
这孩子教起来轻松。
Zhè háizi jiāo qǐlái qīngsōng.
zhe
this
haizi
kid
jiao-qilai
teach-APPL
qingsong
easy
‘The kid is easy to teach.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(238)
孩子被你教坏了。
Háizi bèi nǐ jiāohuài le.
haizi
kid
bei
BEI
ni
2SG
jiao-huai-le
teach-bad-PERF
‘You have taught the kid in such a way that he has turned bad. / You have led the kid astray by improper teaching.’
TEACH an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(239)
他眨了眼睛。
Tā zhǎle yǎnjing.
ta
3SG
zha-le
blink-PERF
yanjing
eye
‘He blinked his eyes.’
WINK an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation
(240)
他的眼睛眨了一下。
Tā de yǎnjing zhǎle yīxià.
tade
his
yanjing
eye
zha-le
blink-PERF
yixia
once
‘His eyes blinked once.’
WINK an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation
(241)
我把屏幕摸了一下。
Wǒ bǎ píngmù mō le yīxià.
wo
1SG
ba
BA
pingmu
screen
mo-le
touch-PERF
yixia
once
‘I touched the screen once.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(242)
屏幕被我摸了一下。
Píngmù bèi wǒ mō le yīxià.
pingmu
screen
bei
BEI
wo
1SG
mo-le
touch-PERF
yixia
once
‘The screen was touched once by me.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(243)
这种材料摸起来很舒服。
Zhèzhǒng cáiliào mō qǐlái hěn shūfú.
zhe-zhong
this-CL
cailiao
material
mo-qilai
touch-APPL
hen
very
shufu
comfortable
‘It is very comfortable to touch this kind of material. / This kind of material feels very good.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(244)
棍子打断了。
Gùnzi dǎduàn le.
gunzi
stick
daduan-le
break-PERF
‘The stick broke.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation
(245)
棍子被我打断了。
Gùnzi bèi wǒ dǎduàn le.
gunzi
stick
bei
BEI
wo
1SG
daduan-le
break-PERF
‘The stick was boken by me.’
BREAK an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(246)
我把照相机带来了。
Wǒ bǎ zhàoxiàngjī dàilái le.
wo
1SG
ba
BA
zhaoxiangji
camera
dailai-le
bring-PERF
‘I have brought the camera.’
BRING an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(247)
照相机被我带来了。
Zhàoxiàngjī bèi wǒ dàilái le.
zhaoxiangji
camera
bei
BEI
wo
1SG
dailai-le
bring-PERF
‘The camera has been brought by me.’
BRING an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(248)
房子建好了。
Fángzi jiànhǎo le.
fangzi
house
jian-hao-le
build-finished-PERF
‘The house has been built.’
BUILD the Verb form jiàn(zào)
(249)
房子被我建好了。
Fángzi bèi wǒmen jiànhǎo le.
fangzi
house
bei
BEI
women
1PL
jian-hao-le
build-finished-PERF
‘The house has been built by us.’
BUILD an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(250)
这样的房子建起来不容易。
Zhèyàng de fángzi jiàn qǐlái bù róngyì.
zhe-yang
this-type
de
DE
fangzi
house
jian-qilai
build-APPL
bu
not
rongyi
easy
‘It's not easy to build this kind of house.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(251)
那孩子吓着了。
Nèi háizi xiàzhao le.
nei
that
haizi
kid
xiazhao-le
frighten-CRS
‘That kid is frightened.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation
(252)
大个子孩子藏起来不容易。
Dàgèzi háizi cáng qǐlái bùróngyì.
da-gezi
big-size
haizi
kid
cang-qilai
hide-APPL
bu
not
rongyi
easy
‘It's not easy to hide big-sized kids.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(253)
敌人杀死了。
Dírén shāsǐ le.
diren
enemy
shasi-le
kill-PERF
‘The enemy is killed.’
KILL the Verb form shā
(254)
我装满了水缸。
Wǒ zhuāngmǎn le shuǐgāng.
wo
1SG
zhuangman-le
fill-PERF
shuigang
water.jar
‘I filled the water jar.’
FILL an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation
(255)
苹果皮削了。
Píngguǒ pí xiāo le.
pingguo
apple
pi
skin
xiao-le
peel-PERF
‘The apple has been peeled.’
PEEL the Verb form xiāo (2)
(256)
你吓着那孩子了。
Nǐ xiàzhao nèi háizi le.
ni
2SG
xiazhao
frighten
nei
that
haizi
kid
le
CRS
‘You frightened that kid.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation
(257)
车子造好了。
Chēzi zàohǎo le.
chezi
car
zao-hao-le
make-finished-CRS
‘The car is made.’
MAKE the Verb form zào
(258)
我们杀死了敌人。
Wǒmen shāsǐ le dírén.
women
1PL
shasi-le
kill-PERF
diren
enemy
‘We killed the enemy.’
KILL the Verb form shā
(259)
车被我们造出来了。
Chē bèi wǒmen zào chūlái le.
che
car
bei
BEI
women
1PL
zao-chulai-le
make-come.out-PERF
‘The car has been made by us.’
MAKE an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(260)
这种车子装起来很麻烦。
Zhèzhǒng chēzǐ zhuāngqǐlái hěn máfan.
zhe-zhong
this-kind
chezi
truck
zhuang-qilai
load-APPL
hen
very
mafan
troublesome
‘It is not easy to load this kind of truck.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(261)
汽车造起来容易。
Qìchē zào qǐlái róngyì.
qiche
car
zao-qilai
make-APPL
rongyi
easy
‘It's easy to make cars.’
MAKE an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(262)
我削了苹果皮。
Wǒ xiāo le píngguǒ pí.
wo
1SG
xiao-le
peel-PERF
pingguo
apple
pi
skin
‘I peeled the apple.’
PEEL the Verb form xiāo (2)
(263)
他已经把南瓜皮削了。
Tā yǐjīng bǎ nánguā pí xiāo le.
ta
3SG
yijing
already
ba
BA
nangua
pumpkin
pi
skin
xiao-le
peel-PERF
‘He has peeled the pumpkin.’
PEEL an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(264)
弟弟把泰迪熊玩坏了。
Dìdi bǎ tàidíxióng wán huài le.
didi
younger.brother
ba
BA
taidixiong
teddy.bear
wan
play
huai-le
broken-PERF
‘My younger brother played with the teddy bear and made it broken.’
PLAY an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(265)
爸爸把桌子推开。
Bàba bǎ zhuōzi tuīkāi.
baba
Dad
ba
BA
zhuozi
table
tui-kai
push-away
‘Dad pushed the table away.’
PUSH an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(266)
把书放在桌上。
Bǎ shū fàng zài zhuō shàng.
ba
BA
shu
book
fang-zai
put-on
zhuo-shang
desk-top
‘Put the book on the desk.’
PUT an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(267)
他把小狗带来了。
Tā bǎ xiǎogǒu dàilái le.
ta
3SG
ba
BA
xiao-gou
little-dog
dai-lai-le
carry-come-PERF
‘He has carried the little dog here.’
CARRY an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(268)
警察在搜寻嫌疑犯。
Jǐngchá zài sōuxún xiányífàn.
jingcha
police
zai
PRES
souxun
search.for
xianyifan
suspect
‘The police are searching for the suspect.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(269)
小狗被她带走了。
Xiǎogǒu bèi tā dàizǒu le.
xiaogou
puppy
bei
BEI
ta
she
dai-zou-le
carry-away-PERF
‘The puppy was carried away by her.’
CARRY an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(270)
我已经把胡子刮了。
Wǒ yǐjīng bǎ húzi guā le.
wo
1SG
yijing
already
ba
BA
huzi
beard
gua-le
shave-PERF
‘I have shaved my beard already.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(271)
这种手枪携带起来方便。
Zhèzhǒng shǒuqiāng xiédài qǐlái fāngbiàn.
zhe-zhong
this-kind
shouqiang
handgun
xiedai-qilai
carry-APPL
fangbian
convenient
‘This kind of handgun is convenient for carrying. / It is convenient to carry this kind of handgun.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(272)
这山爬起来容易。
Zhè shān pá qǐlái róngyì.
zhe
this
shan
mountain
pa-qilai
climb-APPL
rongyi
easy
‘This mountain is easy to climb. / It's easy to climb up the mountain.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(273)
饭被我煮糊了。
Fàn bèi wǒ zhǔ hú le.
fan
rice
bei
BEI
wo
1SG
zhu-hu-le
cook-burnt-CRS
‘The rice was burnt by me. / I cooked but burnt the rice.’
COOK an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(274)
她从我这里拿走了钱。
Tā cóng wǒzhèlǐ názǒu le qián.
ta
3SG
cong
from
wo-zheli
1SG-here
nazou-le
take-PERF
qian
money
‘She took away the money from me.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1 > (cóng+2 > ) V > 3
(275)
我把桌子擦了。
Wǒ bǎ zhuōzi cā le.
wo
1SG
ba
BA
zhuozi
table
ca-le
wipe-PERF
‘I wiped the table.’
WIPE an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(276)
进口牛肉煮起来更容易。
Jìnkǒu níuròu zhǔ qǐlái gèng róngyì.
jinkou
imported
niurou
beef
zhu-qilai
cook-APPL
geng
more
rongyi
easy
‘It is easier to cook imported beef. / Imported beef is easier to cook.’
COOK an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(277)
我把那个苹果吃了。
Wǒ bǎ nàgè píngguǒ chī le.
wo
1SG
ba
BA
na-ge
that-CL
pingguo
apple
chi-le
eat-PERF
‘I ate that apple.’
EAT an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(278)
警察用白布盖尸体。
Jǐngchá yòng báibù gài shītǐ.
jingcha
policeman
yong
use
baibu
white.cloth
gai
cover
shiti
dead.body
‘The policeman covered the dead body with white cloth.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1 > (yòng+2 > ) V > 3
(279)
一锅饭吃十个人。
Yīguō fàn chī shígè rén.
yi-guo
one-CL
fan
rice
chi
eat
shi-ge
ten-CL
ren
person
‘A pot of rice is to serve ten prsons. / A pot of rice is for ten people to eat.’
EAT an Alternation:
Quantity Ratio Alternation
(280)
尸体被警察用白布盖起来了。
Shītǐ bèi jǐngchá yòng báibù gài qǐlái le.
shiti
dead.body
bei
BEI
jingcha
policeman
yong
use
baibu
white.cloth
gai-qilai-le
cover-APPL-CRS
‘The dead body was covered with white cloth by the policeman.’
COVER an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(281)
那个苹果被我吃了。
Nàgè píngguǒ bèi wǒ chī le.
na-ge
that-CL
pingguo
apple
bei
BEI
wo
1SG
chi-le
eat-PERF
‘That apple was eaten by me. / I ate that apple.’
EAT an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(282)
大车盖起来麻烦些。
Dàchē gài qǐlái máfánxiē.
da-che
big-car
gai-qilai
cover-APPL
mafanxie
more.troublesome
‘It's more difficult to cover up big cars.’
COVER an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(283)
我吃了她三个苹果。
Wǒ chī le tā sāngè píngguǒ.
wo
1SG
chi-le
eat-PERF
ta
she
san-ge
three-CL
pingguo
apple
‘I ate three of her apples.’
EAT an Alternation:
Neutral Ditransitive Alternation
(284)
肉切了。
Ròu qiē le.
rou
meat
qie-le
cut-CRS
‘The meat is cut.’
CUT the Verb form qiē
(285)
我把她看了一下。
Wǒ bǎ tā kàn le yīxià.
wo
1SG
ba
BA
ta
her
kan-le
look.at-PERF
yi-xia
one-CL
‘I gave her a look.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(286)
水缸装满了。
Shuǐgāng zhuāngmǎn le.
shuigang
water.jar
zhuangman-le
fill-CRS
‘The water jar is filled. / The water jar is full.’
FILL an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation
(287)
海盗沉了船。
Hǎidào chén le chuán.
haidao
pirate
chen-le
sink-PERF
chuan
boat
‘The pirates sank the boat.’
SINK an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation
(288)
我把一头牛看见了。
*Wǒ bǎ yītóu níu kànjiàn le.
*wo
1SG
ba
BA
yi-tou
one-CL
niu
cow
kanjian-le
see-PERF
‘I saw a cow.’
SEE an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(289)
你把孩子教坏了。
Nǐ bǎ háizi jiāo huài le.
ni
2SG
ba
BA
haizi
kid
jiao
teach
huai
bad
le
PERF
‘You have taught the kid in such a way that he has turned bad. / Your teaching has made the kid bad.’
TEACH an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(290)
村子里出现了一只老虎。
Cūnzi lǐ chūxiàn le yīzhī lǎohǔ.
cunzi-li
village-inside
chuxian-le
appear-PERF
yi-zhi
one-CL
laohu
tiger
‘In the village appeared a tiger. / There appeared a tiger in the village.’
APPEAR an Alternation:
Locative Inversion Alternation
(291)
书放在桌上。
Shū fàng(zài) zhuōshàng.
shu
book
fang
put
(zai)
(PREP)
zhuo-shang
desk-top
‘The book is placed on the desk.’
PUT an Alternation:
Locative Inversion Alternation
(292)
村子里死了一个老人。
Cūnzǐli sǐle yīgè lǎorén.
cunzi-li
village-inside
si-le
die-PERF
yi-ge
one-CL
lao-ren
old-person
‘An old man died in the village.’
DIE an Alternation:
Locative Inversion Alternation
(293)
一个老人死在了村子里。
Yīgè lǎorén sǐzàile cūnzǐli.
yi-ge
one-CL
laoren
old.person
si-zai-le
die-PREP-PERF
cunzi-li
village-inside
‘An old man died in the village.’
DIE an Alternation:
Locative Inversion Alternation
(294)
那个屠夫切了他两块猪肉。
Nàgè túfū qiē le tā liǎngkuài zhūròu.
na-ge
that-CL
tufu
butcher
qie-le
cut-PERF
ta
3SG
liang-kuai
two-CL
zhurou
pork
‘That butcher cut two pieces of pork for him. / That butcher cut two pieces of pork and gave them to him.’
CUT an Alternation:
Neutral Ditransitive Alternation
(295)
他挖了我几卡车土豆。
Tā wā(zǒu)le wǒ jǐ kǎchē tǔdòu.
ta
3SG
wa(zou)-le
dig(away)-PERF
wo
1SG
ji
several
kache
truck
tudou
potato
‘He dug several trucks of potatoes of mine and took them away.’
DIG an Alternation:
Neutral Ditransitive Alternation
(296)
妈妈扔了我一个球。
Māma rēngle wǒ yīgè qíu.
mama
Mom
reng-le
throw-PERF
wo
1SG
yi-ge
one-CL
qiu
ball
‘Mom threw a ball to me. / Mom threw me a ball.’
THROW an Alternation:
Neutral Ditransitive Alternation
(297)
钱给了他。
*Qián gěi le tā.
*qian
money
gei-le
give-PERF
ta
him
‘The money was given to him.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation
(298)
他已经把南瓜削了皮。
Tā yǐjīng bǎ nánguā xiāo le pí.
ta
3SG
yijing
already
ba
BA
nangua
pumpkin
xiao-le
peel-PERF
pi
skin
‘He has peeled the pumpkin. / He has peeled the skin off the pumpkin.’
PEEL an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(299)
*警察把嫌疑犯搜寻了。
*Jǐngchá bǎ xiányífàn sōuxún le.
*jingcha
police
ba
BA
xianyifan
suspect
souxun-le
search.for-PERF
‘*The police have searched for the suspect.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
BA Alternation
(300)
对初学者来说,电子邮件发起来就是麻烦。
Duì chūxuézhě láishuō,diànzǐyóujiàn fā qǐlái jiùshì máfan.
dui
to
chuxuezhe
beginners
laishuo,
speaking.of,
dianziyoujian
email
fa-qilai
send-APPL
jiushi
just
mafan
troublesome
‘To beginners, it is just troublesome to send an email. / It is just difficult for beginners to learn to send emails.’
SEND an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(301)
这把剃须刀被我刮坏了。
Zhè bǎ tìxūdāo bèi wǒ guā huài le.
zhe-ba
this-CL
tixudao
shaver
bei
BEI
wo
1SG
gua-huai-le
shave-broken-PERF
‘I have broken this shaver.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
BEI Alternation
(302)
这口锅油太厚,擦起来不容易。
Zhèkǒu guō yóu tài hòu, cā qǐlái bú róngyì.
zhe-kou
this-CL
guo
pot
you
oil
tai
too
hou,
thick,
ca-qilai
wipe-APPL
bu
not
rongyi
easy
‘The pot is too oily that it is not easy to wipe it clean.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Middle Alternation
(303)
两门手艺教了。
*Liǎngmén shǒuyì jiāo le.
*liang-men
two-CL
shouyi
skills
jiao-le
teach-PERF
‘Two skills have been taught.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation