Neutral Ditransitive Alternation C

Description

The Mandarin ditransitive construction is coded as SVoO only, in which the prototypical indirect object o denotes a person as a receiver or loser of the direct object O which in its prototypical case denotes something discrete and tangible. This construction has an ambiguous constructional meaning in that the possessional transfer of O can be both rightward and leftward from S to o and vice versa. So the interpretation of a specific sentence hinges on the specific verb that enters into the construction. For that reason, this alternation is also termed as Neutral Ditransitive Alternation. Semantic extension can happen to all the three NPs, i.e. S, o and O, bringing about change in animacy and from material to non-material or information-like entities. The verb can also be extended along a continum, from factual giving or taking to unreal or conditional giving or not giving. All those extensions lead to constructional semantic extension.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
EAT chī R
(1)
wo
1SG
chi-le
eat-PERF
fan
meal
‘I ate my meal. / I had my meal.’
THROW rēng M
SEE kànjiàn N
(16)
wo
1SG
kanjian-le
see-PERF
yi-tou
one-CL
niu
cow
‘I saw a cow.’
(87)
wo
1SG
kanjian-le
see-PERF
neige
that
laohu
tiger
‘I saw that tiger.’
BREAK dǎduàn N
(32)
baba
Dad
daduan-le
break-PERF
gunzi
stick
‘Dad broke the stick.’
FEEL PAIN gǎndào téng N
(38)
wo
1SG
gandao
feel
teng
pain
‘I feel painful.’
CUT qiē M
(92)
wo
1SG
yong
use
dao
knife
qie
cut
rou
meat
‘I cut meat with a knife.’
DIG M
(48)
nainai
grandma
zai
PRES
wa
dig
tudou
potato
‘Grandma is digging for potatoes.’
FILL zhuāngmǎn N
(81)
wo
1SG
yong
use
shui
water
zhuangman-le
fill-PERF
shuitong
pail
‘I filled the pail with water.’
BE SAD bēishāng N
(25)
Lao
Lao
Wang
Wang
hen
very
beishang
sad
‘Old Wang is very sad.’
TOUCH (chù)mō N
(31)
nimen
2PL
keyi
can
chumo
touch
pingmu
screen
‘You can touch the screen.’
SMELL wén N
(20)
jiejie
elder.sister
wen-dao-le
smell-COM-PERF
hua-xiang
flower-fragrance
‘My elder sister smelled fragrance of flower.’
THINK xiǎng N
(21)
wo
1SG
zai
PRES
xiang
think
yi-ge
one-CL
wenti
problem
‘I am thinking about a problem.’
ASK FOR yào R
(22)
Xiaoming
Xiaoming
wen
PREP
ta
3SG
mama
Mom
yao
ask.for
yixie
some
qian
money
‘Xiaoming asked his Mom for some money.’
APPEAR chūxiàn N
(19)
buyihuier
after.a.while
laohu
tiger
chuxian
appear
le
PERF
‘After a while, the tiger appeared.’
BE ILL shēngbìng N
(23)
Xiao
Xiao
Wang
Wang
jintian
today
shengbing-le
be.ill-PERF
‘Little Wang is ill today.’
BE DRY gān N
(24)
di
ground
gan-le
dry-PERF
‘The ground (has) dried.’
BE HUNGRY è N
(26)
wo
1SG
e-le
hungry-PERF
‘I am hungry.’
SHOUT AT jiàohǎn N
(193)
ta
3SG
chao
to
wo
1SG
da
loud
sheng
voice
jiaohan
shout
‘He shouted at me in loud voice.’
SING gēchàng N
(75)
tongxue-men
classmate-PL
dasheng
loudly
gechang
sing
‘The classmates sang loudly.’
SIT zuò N
(65)
nainai
grandma
zuo
sit
zai
PREP
shafa-shang
sofa-LOC
‘Grandma sat on the sofa.’
BEAT pāidǎ N
(27)
didi
younger.brother
zai
PRES
paida
beat
wode
my
fang-men
room-door
‘My younger brother is beating the door of my room.’
BOIL kāi N
(29)
shui
water
kai-le
boil-PRES
‘The water is boiling.’
MAKE zào N
(30)
tamen
3PL
neng
can
zao
make
qiche
car
‘They can make cars.’
WINK zhǎ[yǎn(jing)] N
(28)
Xiao
Xiao
Li
Li
chao
PREP
wo
1SG
zhayanjing
blink.eye
‘Little Li blinked at me.’
BRING dàilái N
(36)
yeye
grandpa
gei
to
Xiaoming
Xiaoming
dailai
bring
le
PERF
yi-zhi
one-CL
xiao
little
bai-tu
white-rabbit
‘Grandpa brought a little white rabbit to Little Ming.’
BUILD jiàn(zào) N
(45)
gongren-men
worker-PL
zai
PRES
jianzao
build
qiaoliang
bridge
‘The workers are building a bridge.’
BURN (rán)shāo M
(34)
fangzi
house
hai
still
zai
PRES
ranshao
burn
‘The house is still burning.’
CARRY (xié)dài N
(46)
jingcha
policeman
keyi
may
xiedai
carry
qiangzhi
gun
‘Policemen may carry guns.’
CLIMB pá (2) N
(35)
tongxue-men
classmate-PL
zheng
right.now
zai
PRES
pa
climb
shan
mountain
‘The classmates are climbing the mountain.’
COOK zhǔ M
(47)
ni
2SG
pingshi
in.normal.times
ziji
self
zhu
cook
fan
meal
ma
Q
‘Do you ordinarily cook meals yourself?’
COUGH ké(sòu) N
(33)
yeye
grandpa
zai
PRES
kesou
cough
‘Grandpa is coughing.’
COVER gài(shàng) N
(99)
ta
3SG
zai
PRES
gai
cover
zhuozi
table
‘He is covering the table.’
(278)
jingcha
policeman
yong
use
baibu
white.cloth
gai
cover
shiti
dead.body
‘The policeman covered the dead body with white cloth.’
CRY N
(37)
meimei
younger.sister
zai
PRES
ku
cry
‘My younger sister is crying.’
FALL luò(xiàlái) N
(49)
yezi
leaf
luo-le
fall-PERF
‘The leaves fell.’
FEEL COLD gǎndào lěng N
(50)
wo
1SG
gandao
feel
leng
cold
‘I feel cold.’
FOLLOW gēn N
(51)
xiao
little
nan-hai
male-child
genzhe
follow
ta
3SG
fuqin
father
‘The little boy followed his father.’
FRIGHTEN xià(hu) N
(39)
ta
3SG
changchang
often
xia
frighten
wo
1SG
‘He often frightens me.’
GIVE gěi R
(40)
wo
1SG
gei-le
give-PERF
ta
3SG
yixie
some
qian
money
‘I gave her some money.’
GO N
(94)
wo
1SG
qu-le
go-PERF
Beijing
Beijing
‘I went (to Beijing).’
GRIND M
(52)
jiujiu
uncle
yong
use
shinian
stone.mill
mo
grind
huangdou
soybean
‘Uncle ground the soybeans with a stone mill.’
HEAR tīngjiàn N
(97)
wo
1SG
tingjian-le
hear-PERF
qiangsheng
gunshot
‘I heard the gunshot.’
HELP bāngzhù M
(53)
ni
2SG
yinggai
should
bangzhu
help
ta
3SG
‘You should help him.’
HIDE cáng N
(55)
ni
2SG
zai
PRES
cang
hide
shenme
what
‘What are you hiding?’
HIT N
(41)
ta
3SG
yong
use
gunzi
stick
da
hit
wo
1SG
‘He hit me with a stick.’
JUMP tiào(qǐlái) N
(54)
ta
3SG
zai
PREP
caochang-shang
playground-top
tiao
jump
‘He jumps on the playground. / He is jumping on the playground.’
KILL shā N
(42)
Wu
Wu
Song
Song
sha-le
kill-PERF
yi-zhi
one-CL
laohu
tiger
‘Wu Song killed a tiger.’
KNOW zhīdào N
(43)
wo
1SG
zhidao
know
nide
your
mingzi
name
‘I know your name.’
LAUGH xiào N
(44)
haizi
kid
zai
PRES
xiao
laugh
‘The kid is laughing.’
LEAVE líkāi N
(56)
wo
1SG
xia-ge
next-CL
yue
month
likai
leave
Beijing
Beijing
(qu
(go.to
Shenzhen)
Shenzhen)
‘I will leave Beijing (for Shenzhen) next month.’
LIKE xǐhuān N
(57)
wo
1SG
xihuan
like
Shanghai
Shanghai
‘I like Shanghai.’
LIVE (jū)zhù N
(58)
yeye
grandpa
juzhu
live
zai
PREP
Shanghai
Shanghai
‘Grandpa lives in Shanghai.’
LOAD zhuāng(zài) N
(59)
gongren-men
worker-PL
wang
PREP
kache-shang
truck-LOC
zhuang
load
gancao
hay
‘The workers loaded hay onto the truck.’
MEET pèngjiàn N
(60)
zuotian
yesterday
wo
1SG
zai
PREP
jichang
airport
pengjian
meet
le
PERF
Xiao
Xiao
Li
Li
‘I met Xiao Li yesterday at the airport.’
PEEL xiāo (2) N
(61)
qing
please
gei
for
wo
1SG
xiao
peel
liang-ge
two-CL
pingguo
apple
‘Please peel two apples for me.’
PLAY wán N
(62)
didi
younger.brother
zai
PREP
caochang-shang
playground-LOC
wan
play
(piqiu)
(ball)
‘My younger brother is playing (ball) on the playground.’
POUR dào M
(104)
mama
Mom
wang
into
shuitong-li
pail-inside
dao
pour
shui
water
‘Mom poured water into the pail.’
PUSH tuī N
(102)
laoshi
teacher
zai
PRES
tui
push
yi-ge
one-CL
xiangzi
box
‘The teacher is pushing a box.’
PUT fàng N
(64)
ta
3SG
ba
BEI
na-ben
that-CL
shu
book
fang
put
zai
PREP
shujia-shang
bookshelf-LOC
le
PERF
‘He put that book on the bookshelf.’
RAIN xiàyǔ N
(69)
xiayu
rain
le
PRES
‘It is raining.’
GET dédào N
(70)
Lao
old
Liu
Liu
(cong
(from
laoban
boss
naer)
there)
dedao-le
get-PERF
yi-dai
one-CL
mi
rice
‘Old Liu got a bag of rice (from his boss).’
ROLL gǔn(dòng) N
(67)
qiu
ball
zai
PREP
di-shang
ground-LOC
gun
roll
‘The ball is rolling on the ground.’
RUN pǎo N
(73)
Xiao
Xiao
Ma
Ma
zai
PRES
pao
run
‘Xiao Ma is running.’
SAY shuō N
(71)
gege
elder.brother
dui
to
mama
Mom
shuo
say
wo
1SG
ye
also
xiang
want
qu
go
‘My elder brother said to Mom, "I want to go, too".’
SCREAM jiānjiào N
(78)
xiao-guniang
little-girl
you
again
zai
PRES
jianjiao
scream
‘The little girl is screaming again.’
SEARCH FOR sōuxún N
(268)
jingcha
police
zai
PRES
souxun
search.for
xianyifan
suspect
‘The police are searching for the suspect.’
SEND R
(77)
wo
1SG
zuotian
yesterday
gei
to
ta
3SG
fa-le
send-PERF
yi-feng
one-CL
dianziyoujian
email
‘I sent an email to him yesterday.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) guā N
(80)
baba
Dad
zai
PRES
gua
shave
huzi
beard
‘Dad is shaving his beard.’
NAME mìngmíng N
SHOW zhǎnshì N
(76)
huajia
painter
(xiang
(to
women)
1PL)
zhanshi
show
ta-de
3SG-POSS
zuopin
painting
‘The painter is showing his paintings (to us).’
SIT DOWN zuòxià N
(66)
ta
3SG
(zai
(PREP
wo
1SG
shenbian)
side)
zuoxia
sit.down
‘He sat down (at my side).’
STEAL tōu R
(68)
ta
3SG
tou-le
steal-PERF
Lao
Lao
Li
Li
de
POSS
san-tou
three-CL
niu
cow
‘He stole three cows from Lao Li. / He stole Lao Li's three cows.’
TAKE názǒu R
(274)
ta
3SG
cong
from
wo-zheli
1SG-here
nazou-le
take-PERF
qian
money
‘She took away the money from me.’
TALK tán(huà) N
(72)
Liu
Liu
laoshi
Mr
gen
and
Li
Li
laoshi
Mr
zai
PRES
tanhua
talk
‘Mr Liu and Mr Li are talking.’
TIE shuān N
(63)
women
1PL
ba
BA
ma
horse
shuan
tie
zai
PREP
shuanzhuang-shang
hitching.post-LOC
‘We tied the horses to the hitching posts.’
WIPE N
(74)
ta
3SG
caqu-le
wipe-PERF
zhuozi
table
shang
LOC
de
POSS
zi
words
‘She wiped the words off the table.’
HUG yōngbào N
(3)
erzi
son
yongbao
hug
mama
Mom
‘The son hugs his Mom.’
DIE N
(5)
Lao
Lao
Wang
Wang
shang-zhou
last-week
si-le
die-PERF
‘Old Wang died last week.’
LOOK AT kàn N
(7)
wo
1SG
zai
PRES
kan
look.at
na-fu
that-CL
hua
picture
‘I am looking at that picture.’
WASH M
(9)
wo
1SG
ziji
self
xi
wash
yifu
clothes
‘I wash my clothes myself.’
SINK chén M
(11)
ta-de
3SG-POSS
chuan
boat
zuotian
yesterday
chen-le
sink-PERF
‘His boat sank yesterday.’
TEAR N
(13)
haizi
kid
si-le
tear-PERF
yi-ben
one-CL
shu
book
‘The kid tore a book.’
FEAR N
(15)
meimei
younger.sister
pa
fear
laoshu
rat
‘My younger sister fears rats.’
TELL gàosù R
(17)
mama
Mom
gaosu
tell
wo
1SG
yi-jian
one-CL
shi
matter
‘Mom told me something.’
TEACH jiāo R
(18)
yeye
grandpa
jiao-le
teach-PERF
wo
1SG
liang-men
two-CL
shouyi
skill
‘Grandpa taught me two skills.’
BE A HUNTER shì gè lièrén N
(88)
ta
3SG
shi
be
(yi-)ge
(one-)CL
lieren
hunter
‘He is a hunter.’
DRESS no counterpart N
(108)
3SG
zhèngzài
now.PRES
chuān
put.on
yīfu
clothes
‘He is putting on his clothes. / He is dressing himself.’