anda (안다)

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The English meaning HUG has multiple lexical counterparts in Korean. Instead of just using anda when describing someone hugging someone else (ex. 57), in Korean one commonly specifies the manner of which the action of hugging is carried out. Thus kki-eo an-da 'jam-CONV hug-DECL' is used when somebody hugs somebody else intensely (ex. 214, 25), whereas gamssa an-da 'embrace.CONV hug-DECL' (ex. 215) puts an emphasis on the action of embracing someone to make him or her feel safe and secure, and kkeul-eo an-da 'pull-CONV hug-DECL' means 'hug someone by pulling him or her towards himself' (ex. 216). Another possibility is budungki-eo an-da 'clutch-CONV hug-DECL' which is not easy to describe, it somewhat like a hugging movement, but there the movement is similar to catching or carrying something (with hands slightly upwards), and one holds someone else tightly in one's arms (cf. ex. 217; for those who are interested, a few more verbs can be found in folk linguistic sources such as here: http://blog.daum.net/70sunbee/484 [accessed 2014-02-21]).

There are two interesting questions arising from this variety of different predicates. Firstly, the question is whether there are differences between these verbs in the first place, and whether my quest of trying to semantically distinguish them rather neglects their actual usage where verbs may be used interchangeably.

A second question has to do with the nature of possibly complex predication going on in some of the verbs above: As shown in the examples, for some verbs such as
budungki-eo an-da a reciprocal version could be found where a NOM-ACC case pattern alternates with a NOM-COM case pattern. The question is whether the semantic nature of some verbs such as kkeul-eo an-da, which emphasises the (possibly unilateral) action of pulling someone, actually has its reflexes in syntax so that a reciprocal alternation cannot apply. If that was the case, then one could obviously not subsume all these predicates under this entry.

Furthermore, this verb often co-occurs with
juda, as most notably an-a ju-da, hug-CONV give-DECL', for example, but here no dative argument is added to the valency of the verb, and the difference in usage and meaning seems somewhat obscure, although it seems to be that it is implied that one does it especially for the benefit of someone else, or because someone requested it (ex. 123, 12).

Passive and Causative forms exist for
anda, although I do not know whether for this applies to the complex predicate forms discussed above as well. Note that similarly to what has been mentioned with SHOW, the causative form might be used much more often than in literary language with juda in spoken language.

All of these questions have not been thoroughly investigated yet, and as for most of the data here, a more detailed and controlled study with a greater number of consultants is yet to be anticipated.

Coding frame

Simplex Verb form

Examples

(57)
Eomeoniga aireul anassda.
eomeoni-ga
mother-NOM
ai-reul
child-ACC
an-ass-da
hug-PST-DECL
‘The mother took the child in her arms. / The mother hugged her child.’
(122)
Eommaga aireul kkyeoanatta.
eomma-ga
mother-NOM
ai-reul
child-ACC
kki-eo
jam-CONV
an-ass-da
hug-PST-DECL
‘The mother hugged [her] child.’
(123)
Nal anajwo!
na-l
1SG-ACC
an-a
hug-CONV
ju-eo
give-PLAIN
‘Hug me!’
(124)
Annawa tomasseuga seororeul kkyeoanatta.
anna-wa
Anna-COM
tomaseu-ga
Thomas-NOM
seoro-reul
RECP-ACC
kki-eo
jam-CONV
an-ass-da
hug-PST-DECL
‘Anna and Thomas hugged each other.’
(211)
Eommaga [aiga gyesok ana dalla haeseo] aireul ana jwotta.
eomma-ga
mother-NOM
ai-ga
child-NOM
gyesog
continuously
an-a
hug-CONV
dal-la
give.IMP.REFL-IMP
ha-seo
do-CONV
ai-reul
child-ACC
an-a
hug-CONV
ju-eoss-da
give-PST-DECL
‘The mother, with her child constantly begging for a hug, gave the child a hug.’
(214)
Tomaseuga Annareul kkyeoanatta.
tomaseu-ga
Thomas-NOM
anna-reul
Anna-ACC
kki-eo
jam-CONV
an-ass-da
hug-PST-DECL
‘Thomas hugged Anna.’
(215)
Tomaseuga annareul gamssa anatta.
tomaseu-ga
Thomas-NOM
anna-reul
Anna-ACC
gamssa
embrace.CONV
an-ass-da
hug-PST-DECL
‘Thomas embraced Anna.’
(216)
Tomaseuga Annareul kkeureo anatta.
tomaseu-ga
Thomas-NOM
anna-reul
Anna-ACC
kkeul-eo
pull-CONV
an-ass-da
hug-PST-DECL
‘Thomas hugged Anna by dragging her towards him.’
(217)
Eommaneun naege dallyeowa nareul budungkyeo anatta.
eomma-neun
mother-TOP
na-ege
1SG-DAT
dalli-eo
tun-CONV
o-a
come-CONV
na-reul
1SG-ACC
budungki-eo
clutch-CONV
an-ass-da
hug-PST-DECL
‘Mother ran towards me and hugged me with her whole body.’

Verb meaning , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# HUG Coding set Argument type
1 hugger NP-nom A
2 huggee NP-acc P

Alternations

Alternation name Occurs Examples
C
N y
C
R y
(220)
‘Through his own mistake he caused his business a whole lot of damage.’
C
R y
U
R n
(218)
‘I hurried outside and ran into my mom's arms and cried.’
C
R y
(219)
‘My father grabbed my brother under his arms to help him get in the car. / lit. My younger brother was grabbed by my father under his arms and got in the car.’
U
R n
U
N n
C
N y
C
N y
U
N n